Argument speech

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As you move through this unit, you will need to have in mind a topic about which you want to research and argue for the final essay. Please see the attached list for your options. If you wish to investigate a different topic, you must obtain instructor approval. Essays on unapproved topics will receive a zero.

Here are a few steps that might help you select and focus your topic:

  1. Choose your topic from the ones provided for this unit (or seek instructor approval to use a different topic).
  2. Once you've found a topic, determine if it needs to be narrowed or if a particular focus might help the argument.For instance, if you were writing about obesity, you might need to find a slant that creates a more interesting argument than “obesity is a problem” (of course it’s a problem!). Narrowing helps a bit, but not enough: “to avoid obesity, Americans should exercise more” (of course Americans should exercise more!). But what if we narrow the topic further: “Schools in Texas need to ban unhealthy foods from the lunch menu and eliminate vending machines with unhealthy snacks and sodas.” This sentence establishes a more focused and nuanced argument than the earlier topic of obesity. To create a more interesting topic, you might then move to question who is responsible for obesity. Is it individuals, corporations, cultural norms, the government, or some other entity? What can we do to change the culture in the United States so that obesity is not so prevalent? The more focused and nuanced the topic, the better the paper usually is. Starting with the topics from the list provided in the lesson, try to find a focused topic for your essay.
  3. After narrowing your topic, you should make a list of everything you know about the topic and everything you want to know. This list will guide your research.

English 1301 Research Topics 1. Should screen time for young children (Define “young.” Under 10? Under 12?) be limited? 2. Is a college degree worth the price tag? 3. Sports & Concussions 4. Animal Rights/Animal Testing 5. Technology – A Blessing or a Curse? 6. Should plastic shopping bags be banned in all fifty states? 7. Are prisons an effective way of preventing crime? 8. Are entertainers, including actors, musicians, and professional athletes, overpaid for what they contribute? 9. Is global warming a serious threat? 10.What should be the role of the U.S. military in today’s world?
Essay Format Introduction Paragraph with Thesis Statement (Remember, the thesis statement will be the last line in this paragraph.) _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ (Thesis)___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Body Paragraph # 1 Topic Sentence : Option 1: One area that has benefited from technology is _____________________. Option 2: One negative impact (disadvantage) of technology is ___________________________________________________________________________ Major Supporting Detail # 1: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Evidence/Quote/Paraphrase—“Quotation Sandwich” _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Major Detail # 2: _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Evidence/Quote/Paraphrase—“Quotation Sandwich” _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Body Paragraph # 2 Topic Sentence : Option #1: Technology has also improved ________________________________________. Option #2: In addition to ______________, technology also ____________________________________________________________________________ Major Supporting Detail # 1: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Evidence/Quote/Paraphrase—“Quotation Sandwich” _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Major Supporting Detail #2: _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Evidence/Quote/Paraphrase--“Quotation Sandwich” _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Body Paragraph # 3 Topic Sentence : Option #1: A final area that technology has improved is ___________________________. Option #2: Finally, technology has ____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Major Supporting Detail # 1: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Evidence/Quote/Paraphrase--“Quotation Sandwich” _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Major Supporting Detail # 2: _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Evidence/Quote/Paraphrase--“Quotation Sandwich” _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Rebuttal Paragraph Topic Sentence: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Counterargument #1: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Refutation of Counterargument #1 ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Counterargument #2: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Refutation of Counterargument #2: ___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion Paragraph (Might include a call to action and/or a statement of the implications.) Restatement of Thesis: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Call to Action: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Statement of Implications: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
Smith 1 Jane Smith Professor Davis ENGL 1301.85102 15 May 2018 The Connection between Human Activity and Global Warming Global warming is one of the most important issues that humans are facing today. Temperatures are rising, and there is much concern surrounding the possible effects of global warming. Rising sea levels and extreme weather patterns are only two of the many devastating effects we see today. There has also been controversy surrounding the cause of global warming, as some believe that it is a natural phenomenon. However, we cannot deny that humans contribute to the warming of our planet because many human activities emit greenhouse gases, which contribute to climate change. The most commonly known anthropogenic cause of global warming is the burning of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels provide energy for various needs, but they do so at a cost. When burned, fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide into “the atmosphere and [trap] heat in a phenomenon known as the Greenhouse Effect” (Gonzalez). Daily necessities, such as transportation and electricity, are mostly powered by fossil fuels, which means that there is a large amount of carbon dioxide emitted every day. The overabundance of carbon dioxide emissions is due to the entire world’s population releasing “twice the amount of carbon dioxide than the world's forests and oceans can naturally absorb” (Gonzalez). Over time, this excessive amount “of greenhouse gases has raised global temperatures to their warmest levels in 500 to 1,300 years” (Gonzalez). This timeframe coincides with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, which was when people began to turn to manufacturing on a larger scale in factories that required fossil fuels for energy. If the trend of Smith 2 emitting greenhouse gases continues, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that temperatures may increase 1.8 to 4° C or 35.24 to 39.2° F (Gonzalez). Another way humans contribute to global warming is through hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as fracking, is the process of cultivating natural gas. Natural gas is a fossil fuel, and it is an important energy source because one of its primary uses is to provide electricity in our homes. However, fracking is risky because methane, a very potent greenhouse gas, can escape from the wells. According to Emily Jeffers, “Methane's global warming potential is approximately 33 times that of carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame and 105 times that of carbon dioxide over a 20-year time frame.” Combine this with the fact that there are multiple natural gas wells in the world, and it is no surprise that fracking can have a significant impact in accelerating global warming. Louis W. Allstadt, a retired executive vice president of Mobil Oil, explains that the natural gas industry attempts to reassure people that methane is unable to escape from the wells, “but there are already cases where the methane gas has made it up into the aquifers and atmosphere.” This is a sign that there is a high chance of methane leaks going undetected or unreported by the industry, demonstrating how oblivious energy companies are to the damage they are causing. Natural gas wells are also able to cause damage long after the fracking process is finished. Over time, any measures used to prevent natural gas from escaping will eventually stop working, as “there is at least one study showing that 100 percent of plugs installed in abandoned wells fail within 100 years and many of them much sooner” (Allstadt). Deforestation is another human activity that further hastens the effects of global warming. In fact, “It is estimated that 25% of the world’s total greenhouse gas production comes from deforestation alone” (Bennett). Deforestation is the practice of clearing all the trees in an Smith 3 area so that the land can be used for other purposes, such as agriculture. Although deforestation is known to be devastating for the environment, “Every year 46-58 thousand square miles of forest are lost to deforestation” (Bennett). One of the popular methods used to clear land for agriculture is called slash and burn agriculture, which is where trees are cut down and burned to fertilize the soil. However, slash and burn agriculture greatly contributes to global warming because “Vegetation acts as a sink—a natural storage area—for carbon dioxide by storing it over time through the process of photosynthesis. As burning occurs, it can release hundreds of years’ worth of stored carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in a matter of hours” (Bennett). Removing trees further reduces the possibility of offsetting the large amount of carbon dioxide emitted every day by humans. Despite there being a preponderance of evidence proving that global warming is anthropogenic, there are some who challenge this belief. One of the arguments of those who do not believe global warming is human-caused is that since 1998, the world has been cooling rather than warming. This is not exactly the case as “a study by scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)… showed that any perceived leveling off or pause in global warming between 1998 and 2014 was a statistical illusion driven by faulty data” (“Climate Change Controversies”). Another argument is that global warming is natural, but the reality is that a study by the International Panel on Climate Change showed how “the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have all increased since 1750 due to human activity” (“Climate Change Controversies”). If global warming were a natural occurrence, then the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would most likely not be so overwhelmingly large. Smith 4 Overall, the scientific community attributes global warming to human activity. Everyday humans are releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in some form. To delay the disastrous consequences of global warming, everyone must play a part in taking care of the Earth. Even the smallest actions, such as carpooling and turning off the lights when not in use, can create a huge difference if enough people are committed. Even so, the most important change humans could make to have a positive impact is to switch to using renewable energy sources over fossil fuels. While these changes in lifestyle may be difficult, it is much better to endure them now than to watch the world crumble later. Smith 5 Works Cited Allstadt, Louis W. "Fracking Contributes to Global Warming." Natural Gas, edited by Dedria Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, dcccd.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010930210/OVIC? u=txshracd2500&xid=312282f3. Accessed 4 Apr. 2018. Bennett, Lauren. "Deforestation and Climate Change." Climate Institute, 18 Apr. 2017, climate.org/deforestation-and-climate-change/. Accessed 4 Apr. 2018. "Climate Change Controversies." Environmental Encyclopedia, edited by Deirdre S. Blanchfield, Gale, 2011. Opposing Viewpoints In Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CV2644151550/OVIC?u=txshracd2500&sid=OVIC&xid=e 51f939e. Accessed 5 Apr. 2018. Gonzalez, Patrick. "Climate Change Could Be Devastating and People Must Adapt to Survive." Adaptation and Climate Change, edited by Roman Espejo, Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, dcccd.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010847202/OVIC? u=txshracd2500&xid=4936057c. Accessed 4 Apr. 2018. Jeffers, Emily. "Offshore Gas Drilling Harms the Environment." Natural Gas, edited by Dedria Bryfonski, Greenhaven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints In Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010930228/OVIC?u=txshracd2500&sid=OVIC&xid=3 66227ae. Accessed 4 Apr. 2018.
The Research Essay Purpose and Learning Objectives The purpose of this assignment is to practice persuasive writing and synthesis of sources. You will increase your critical thinking skills by analyzing your and others’ assumptions, evaluating multiple perspectives, and developing a clear position. Writing, research, and eloquent written expression are vital for a successful future. You will implement all of these skills in this assignment. Assignment Description For this essay, you should choose a topic from the list of opposing viewpoints provided in this unit and write a 3 – 5 page essay that argues a clearly defined position about that topic. The essay must follow MLA8 guidelines. The works cited page will be an additional page. The Topic Select your topic from the list provided in the eCampus lesson. If you wish to write on a different topic, you must have your topic approved by me before you begin the project. Papers on unapproved topics will receive a zero. These complex topics are off limits: religion, war, abortion, immigration, the death penalty, and gun control. I reserve the right to reject any other topics that I deem unsuitable for this course and assignment. Guidelines The essay must adhere to the following guidelines: 1. Be formatted in correct MLA format— including header, Times New Roman 12, and double-spaced; otherwise, 10 points will be deducted from your essay’s final grade. 2. Have an interesting and informative title. 3. Begin with an introduction that demonstrates the relevance of your topic, shows that it is a debatable topic, AND ends with a clear thesis statement (your position on the issue). 4. Contain a clearly stated argument that uses reliable and well-reasoned evidence to support claims. 5. Have several body paragraphs that each make a focused claim. 6. Incorporate a minimum of three or four academic sources (peer-reviewed journals, books, and reliable web sources) to support your point. 7. Be sure you have at least ONE source that you disagree with in order to include a counterargument in your essay. 8. Include refutation of at least one opposing argument in a separate paragraph. (This means you will incorporate your one source that you disagree with in this paragraph!) 9. End with a concluding paragraph that summarizes the argument’s main points and addresses the opposing point of view 10. Include a works cited page that adheres to MLA 8 guidelines and includes in the same documents as in the essay (i.e. the in-text citations and sources listed on the works cited page must correspond!). 11. The rough draft must be reviewed by your instructor and the Writing Center; otherwise, 10 points will be deducted from your final grade. This rough draft is due January 2, at the latest. 12. The final draft will be submitted in eCampus. Failure to upload your final draft will result in a zero. 13. NO LATE ESSAYS WILL BE ACCEPTED. NO EXCEPTIONS! If you do not submit your essay on the day it is due, then you will receive a zero. 14. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is using someone else’s words or ideas without giving credit and is a serious academic offense. It can range from -• Turning in a paper any part of which you did not write, • Cutting and pasting a paper together from various sources without attributing the sources correctly, • Changing a few words but basically keeping most of the words and sentence structure of the original, • Using the ideas of another without giving credit to the person who originally had the idea. • Using the exact words of the source without using quotation marks even if you give the name of the source. All essays will be reviewed for plagiarism via SafeAssign. Any plagiarized essay will receive a zero.

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Kishnewt2017
School: University of Maryland

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Is Global Warming a Serious Threat?
The global warming subject has become, in the most part, a common lexicon as well as public
treatise. Several discussions around this topic often evoke fervent reactions and fierce arguments
between the proponents and opponents. Yet, there are numerous nuances regarding global
warming, and the threats it presents, which are often not well understood by the general public.
Mann (193) defines global warming as a phenomenon of raising the average surface
temperatures over the past centuries. Botkin (120) also describes global warming as a
multiplicity of intricate climatic changes accompanying a rapid upsurge of concentration in
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The extensive discussions across different platforms in the
world today point to the universal dangers modeled by the planet’s warming. As such, global
warming poses serious threats to the global environment in an unprecedented manner, with rivers
disappearing as planet Earth warms, increase in sea levels, and increased forests as well as
wildfires.
The planet’s largest rivers start in glaciated regions but global warming is causing the
disappearance of these glaciers, resulting in dried or no rivers. There are almost 200, 000
glaciers across the world, which play an integral function in water cycle, especially in the low
and middle latitudes (Machguth & Huss 1741-1755). According to Bajracharya et al, hu...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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