Please write short paragraphs to answer each of the following question

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timer Asked: Dec 25th, 2018
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Question description

For each questions, you need to write a short paragraphs (150-200 words) to answer each of the questions. I've posted three slides that might help you to understand better on questions. Since questions are mostly asking for subjective answers, you do't have to read all the slides. Thank you.

1. Rather than our culture where we fall in love and then get married, imagine a culture where you get married and then fall in love. What kinds of advantages or disadvantages would you see? Would you prefer that kind of culture? Would the marriages be more or less successful than many in our culture?

2. Explain how the dependent and independent variables work in a social science experiment or explanation.

3.How much of your own self-concept is based on the perceptions of other people? How conscious are you of other peoples's thoughts and feelings? How much do you worry about what other people think? Why is it so hard for some of us to disregard -not be affected by- what other people think?

4. People tend to judge other cultures by the merits of their own culture..practicing ethnocentrism, not cultural relativism. Are there any limits to their merits? Are all cultural values and practices equally valid? Are there practices in other countries that cross the line? What should be the response if the line is crossed?

2 Examining Our Social World Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Compare knowledge based on tradition, authority, and research 2 Explain why sociological research is important in our everyday lives 3 Describe the scientific method 4 Describe the basic steps of the research process 5 Compare and illustrate the five most common sociological data collection methods, including their strengths and limitations 6 Explain why ethics are important in scientific research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 2 LO - 1 Sources of Knowledge • Tradition - Passed down from generation to generation • Authority - Socially accepted source of information • Research methods: Organized and systematic procedures to gain knowledge about a particular topic Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 3 LO - 1 Sources of Knowledge: Application • Is it tradition, authority, or science? • Sam believes it is true because the Bible says so • A good spanking always worked for my children • Nine out of 10 people who answered the survey said that they were in favor of the change Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 4 LO - 2 Sociological Research Challenges overgeneralizations Exposes myths Helps explain behavior Influences social policies Sharpens critical thinking skills that affect daily living Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 5 LO - 3 Scientific Method • Body of objective and systematic techniques for: • Investigating phenomena • Acquiring knowledge • Testing hypotheses and theories Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 6 LO - 3 Elements of the Scientific Method • Concept: Abstract idea, mental image, or general notion that represents some aspect of the world • Variable: Changes in value or magnitude under different conditions • Independent variable • Dependent variable • Control variable • Research begins with a hypothesis Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 7 LO - 3 Deductive and Inductive reasoning • Deductive reasoning: Begins with a theory, prediction, or general principle that is tested through data collection • Inductive reasoning: Begins with specific observation followed by: • Data collection • Conclusion about patterns or irregularities • Formulation of hypotheses leading to theory construction Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 8 LO - 3 Reliability and Validity Reliability • Consistency with which the same measure produces similar results repeatedly Validity • Degree to which a measure is accurate and measures what it claims to measure Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 9 LO - 3 Sampling • Population: Well-defined group of people about whom researchers want to study • Sample: Representative of the population researchers intend to study Tyler Golden/NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images • Probability sample: Each person has an equal chance of being selected due to random selection • Nonprobability sample: Little attempt to get a representative cross section of the population Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 10 LO - 3 Time Dimension Studies • Longitudinal - Collected at two or more points in time from the same or different samples • Used to examine trends in behavior or attitudes • Cross-sectional - Collected at one point in time • Provide valuable information Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 11 LO - 3 Research Approaches Qualitative Quantitative • Examines and interprets nonnumerical material • Focuses on numerical analysis of people’s responses or specific characteristics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 12 LO - 3 Causation and Correlation • Causation: Relationship in which one variable is the direct consequence of another • Difficult to prove • Correlation: Relationship between two or more variables Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 13 LO - 3 Figure 2.3 An Example of Correlation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 14 LO - 4 Steps in the Scientific Method Choose a topic to study Summarize the related research Formulate a hypothesis or ask a research question Describe the data collection methods Collect the data Present the findings Analyze and explain the results Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 15 LO - 5 Data Collection Methods • • • • • • Surveys Field research Content analysis Experiments Secondary analysis of existing data Evaluation research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 16 LO - 5 Surveys • Data collection through questionnaires, interviews, or a combination • Sample selection - Random sample • Questionnaires: Series of written questions asking for information • Interview: Directly asking a series of questions Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 17 LO - 5 Table 2.2 Can I Trust These Numbers? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 18 LO - 5 Field Research • Involves observing people in their natural surroundings • Types of observation • Provides detailed and valid information • Expensive and time-consuming Ianni Dimitrov/Alamy • Participant and nonparticipant • Involves short-term observation or ethnographies Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 19 LO - 5 Content Analysis • Systematically examines a form of communication • Applicable to any form of written and oral communication • Develops categories to code material • Sorts and analyzes data • Draws conclusions about the results Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 20 LO - 5 Experiments • Controlled artificial situation • Experimental group: Participants are exposed to the independent variable • Control group: Participants are not exposed to the independent variable • Suggest cause-and-effect relationships • Rely on paid respondents or volunteers AP Images/The Oklahoman/Chris Landsberger Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 21 LO - 5 Figure 2.6 Basic Experimental Design Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 22 LO - 5 Secondary Analysis • Examines data collected by someone else • Data includes: • • • • Historical materials Personal documents Public records Official statistics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 23 LO - 5 Table 2.3 Some Data Collection Methods in Sociological Research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 24 LO - 5 Evaluation Research • Determines whether a social intervention has produced the intended result • Focuses more on research purposes than use of a specific method • Applied to have a real world effect • Results help in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of a policy or group Kristopher Skinner/ZUMA Press/Newscom Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 25 Basic Principles of Ethical Sociological Research LO - 6 • Obtain the participants informed consent to be in a study • Avoid exploiting research assistants for personal gain • Do no harm by causing participants physical, psychological, or emotional pain • Protect the participants privacy, anonymity, and confidentiality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 26 Basic Principles of Ethical Sociological Research (continued) LO - 6 • Use the highest methodological standards and be accurate • Describe the limitations and shortcomings of the research in the published reports • Identify the sponsors of the research • Acknowledge the contributions of research assistants for their participation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 27 LO - 6 Violations Under Scientific Misconduct • Changing research results to please the corporation that sponsored the research • Endorsing specific drugs which fail to reduce health problems for monetary gains • Allowing drug makers to ghost write their articles published in medical journal • Falsifying data Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 28 LO - 6 Reasons for Rejecting Scientific Findings rzucamokiem/Shutterstock.com • Generalizing all research based on few unethical research practices • Challenging personal attitudes and beliefs valued by people • Minorities’ lack of belief on the scientific community Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 29 Chapter Review • • • • • • Why is social research important? What is the scientific method? How do sociologists do research? What is the research process? Describe different data collection methods What are the ethical considerations of doing research? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 30 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • Research methods Scientific method Concept Variable Independent variable Dependent variable Control variable Hypothesis Deductive reasoning • • • • • • • • • • Inductive reasoning Reliability Validity Population Sample Probability sample Nonprobability sample Qualitative research Quantitative research Causation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 31 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • Correlation Survey Questionnaire Interview Field research Content analysis Experiment Experimental group Control group Secondary analysis Evaluation research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 32 SUMMARY • Research challenges overgeneralizations, exposes myths, explains cause of people’s behavior, and influences social policies • Scientific method involves: • • • • • Careful data collection Exact measurement Accurate recording and analysis of the findings Thoughtful interpretation of results Generalization of the findings to a larger group Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 33 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 34
2 Examining Our Social World Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Compare knowledge based on tradition, authority, and research 2 Explain why sociological research is important in our everyday lives 3 Describe the scientific method 4 Describe the basic steps of the research process 5 Compare and illustrate the five most common sociological data collection methods, including their strengths and limitations 6 Explain why ethics are important in scientific research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 2 LO - 1 Sources of Knowledge • Tradition - Passed down from generation to generation • Authority - Socially accepted source of information • Research methods: Organized and systematic procedures to gain knowledge about a particular topic Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 3 LO - 1 Sources of Knowledge: Application • Is it tradition, authority, or science? • Sam believes it is true because the Bible says so • A good spanking always worked for my children • Nine out of 10 people who answered the survey said that they were in favor of the change Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 4 LO - 2 Sociological Research Challenges overgeneralizations Exposes myths Helps explain behavior Influences social policies Sharpens critical thinking skills that affect daily living Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 5 LO - 3 Scientific Method • Body of objective and systematic techniques for: • Investigating phenomena • Acquiring knowledge • Testing hypotheses and theories Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 6 LO - 3 Elements of the Scientific Method • Concept: Abstract idea, mental image, or general notion that represents some aspect of the world • Variable: Changes in value or magnitude under different conditions • Independent variable • Dependent variable • Control variable • Research begins with a hypothesis Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 7 LO - 3 Deductive and Inductive reasoning • Deductive reasoning: Begins with a theory, prediction, or general principle that is tested through data collection • Inductive reasoning: Begins with specific observation followed by: • Data collection • Conclusion about patterns or irregularities • Formulation of hypotheses leading to theory construction Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 8 LO - 3 Reliability and Validity Reliability • Consistency with which the same measure produces similar results repeatedly Validity • Degree to which a measure is accurate and measures what it claims to measure Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 9 LO - 3 Sampling • Population: Well-defined group of people about whom researchers want to study • Sample: Representative of the population researchers intend to study Tyler Golden/NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images • Probability sample: Each person has an equal chance of being selected due to random selection • Nonprobability sample: Little attempt to get a representative cross section of the population Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 10 LO - 3 Time Dimension Studies • Longitudinal - Collected at two or more points in time from the same or different samples • Used to examine trends in behavior or attitudes • Cross-sectional - Collected at one point in time • Provide valuable information Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 11 LO - 3 Research Approaches Qualitative Quantitative • Examines and interprets nonnumerical material • Focuses on numerical analysis of people’s responses or specific characteristics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 12 LO - 3 Causation and Correlation • Causation: Relationship in which one variable is the direct consequence of another • Difficult to prove • Correlation: Relationship between two or more variables Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 13 LO - 3 Figure 2.3 An Example of Correlation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 14 LO - 4 Steps in the Scientific Method Choose a topic to study Summarize the related research Formulate a hypothesis or ask a research question Describe the data collection methods Collect the data Present the findings Analyze and explain the results Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 15 LO - 5 Data Collection Methods • • • • • • Surveys Field research Content analysis Experiments Secondary analysis of existing data Evaluation research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 16 LO - 5 Surveys • Data collection through questionnaires, interviews, or a combination • Sample selection - Random sample • Questionnaires: Series of written questions asking for information • Interview: Directly asking a series of questions Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 17 LO - 5 Table 2.2 Can I Trust These Numbers? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 18 LO - 5 Field Research • Involves observing people in their natural surroundings • Types of observation • Provides detailed and valid information • Expensive and time-consuming Ianni Dimitrov/Alamy • Participant and nonparticipant • Involves short-term observation or ethnographies Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 19 LO - 5 Content Analysis • Systematically examines a form of communication • Applicable to any form of written and oral communication • Develops categories to code material • Sorts and analyzes data • Draws conclusions about the results Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 20 LO - 5 Experiments • Controlled artificial situation • Experimental group: Participants are exposed to the independent variable • Control group: Participants are not exposed to the independent variable • Suggest cause-and-effect relationships • Rely on paid respondents or volunteers AP Images/The Oklahoman/Chris Landsberger Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 21 LO - 5 Figure 2.6 Basic Experimental Design Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 22 LO - 5 Secondary Analysis • Examines data collected by someone else • Data includes: • • • • Historical materials Personal documents Public records Official statistics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 23 LO - 5 Table 2.3 Some Data Collection Methods in Sociological Research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 24 LO - 5 Evaluation Research • Determines whether a social intervention has produced the intended result • Focuses more on research purposes than use of a specific method • Applied to have a real world effect • Results help in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of a policy or group Kristopher Skinner/ZUMA Press/Newscom Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 25 Basic Principles of Ethical Sociological Research LO - 6 • Obtain the participants informed consent to be in a study • Avoid exploiting research assistants for personal gain • Do no harm by causing participants physical, psychological, or emotional pain • Protect the participants privacy, anonymity, and confidentiality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 26 Basic Principles of Ethical Sociological Research (continued) LO - 6 • Use the highest methodological standards and be accurate • Describe the limitations and shortcomings of the research in the published reports • Identify the sponsors of the research • Acknowledge the contributions of research assistants for their participation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 27 LO - 6 Violations Under Scientific Misconduct • Changing research results to please the corporation that sponsored the research • Endorsing specific drugs which fail to reduce health problems for monetary gains • Allowing drug makers to ghost write their articles published in medical journal • Falsifying data Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 28 LO - 6 Reasons for Rejecting Scientific Findings rzucamokiem/Shutterstock.com • Generalizing all research based on few unethical research practices • Challenging personal attitudes and beliefs valued by people • Minorities’ lack of belief on the scientific community Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 29 Chapter Review • • • • • • Why is social research important? What is the scientific method? How do sociologists do research? What is the research process? Describe different data collection methods What are the ethical considerations of doing research? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 30 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • Research methods Scientific method Concept Variable Independent variable Dependent variable Control variable Hypothesis Deductive reasoning • • • • • • • • • • Inductive reasoning Reliability Validity Population Sample Probability sample Nonprobability sample Qualitative research Quantitative research Causation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 31 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • Correlation Survey Questionnaire Interview Field research Content analysis Experiment Experimental group Control group Secondary analysis Evaluation research Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 32 SUMMARY • Research challenges overgeneralizations, exposes myths, explains cause of people’s behavior, and influences social policies • Scientific method involves: • • • • • Careful data collection Exact measurement Accurate recording and analysis of the findings Thoughtful interpretation of results Generalization of the findings to a larger group Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 33 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5| CH2 34
3 Culture Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Describe and illustrate a culture’s characteristics 2 Explain the significance of symbols, language, values, and norms 3 Discuss and illustrate cultural similarities 4 Discuss and illustrate cultural variations 5 Differentiate between high culture and popular culture 6 Explain how and why technology affects cultural change 7 Compare and evaluate the theoretical explanations of culture Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 2 LO - 1 Culture and Society • Culture: Includes the aspects that characterize a particular group or society • Society: Group of people who share a culture and defined territory • Material culture: Physical objects that are made, used, and shared • Nonmaterial culture: Ideas created to interpret and understand the world Stewart Cohen/Blend Images/Alamy Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 3 LO - 1 Culture and Society: Application • What are the material and nonmaterial cultures of: • Football • School • Eating in a restaurant Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 4 LO - 2 Building Blocks of Culture Symbols Language Norms Values Rituals Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 5 LO - 2 Symbols • Hold specific meaning for people who share a culture • Take many forms • Distinguish one culture from another • Unify or divide a society • Change over time Photodisc/Getty Images Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 6 LO - 2 Language • System of shared symbols that enables people to communicate with one another • Conveys thoughts and influences actions • Influences perception of genders, races, and ethnicities • Influenced by changes in society Jiri Hera/Shutterstock.com; Ispace/Shutterstock.com Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 7 LO - 2 Building Blocks: Application • What are some uses of the word black, to mean something negative? • What are some uses of the word white, to mean something positive? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 8 LO - 2 Values • Shared standards that provide general guidelines for everyday behavior • Vary across cultures • Change over time Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 9 LO - 2 Values Central to American life Achievement and success Activity and work Humanitarianism Efficiency and practicality Progress Material comfort Freedom and equality Conformity Democracy Individualism Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 10 LO - 2 • Specific rules of right and wrong behavior • Folkways: Norms involving everyday customs, practices, and interaction • Mores: Maintain morals and ethics • Laws: Formally defined norms about what is permissible or illegal • Sanctions: Reward appropriate behavior and penalize inappropriate behavior Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 YONHAP/AFP/Getty Images/Newscom Norms 11 LO - 2 Norms: Application • Identify whether it is a folkway or more • • • • Drive at or below the speed limit Protect children from physical harm Do not cheat on your spouse Chew with your mouth closed Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 12 LO - 2 Rituals • Formal and repeated behaviors that unite people • Transmit and reinforce norms • Unites people and strengthens relationships • Outward symbol of value NOAH SEELAM/Getty Images Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 13 LO - 3 Similarities in Culture • Cultural universals: Customs and practices that are common to all societies • Ideal culture: Beliefs, values, and norms that people say they hold • Real culture: People’s everyday behavior • Ethnocentrism: Belief that one’s culture, society or group is superior to others • Cultural relativism: Belief that no culture is better than another Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 14 LO - 3 Table 3.2 Some Cultural Universals Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 15 LO - 4 Cultural Variations • Subculture: Group within a society that has distinctive norms, values, beliefs, lifestyle or language • Counterculture: Groups that oppose and/or reject the dominant culture’s norms, values, or laws AP Images/Achmad Ibrahim Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 16 LO - 4 Cultural Variations (Continued) • Multiculturalism: Coexistence of several cultures without dominating each other in a same geographical area • Culture shock: Confusion, disorientation, or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 17 LO - 5 High Culture and Popular Culture High culture • Cultural expression of a society’s highest social classes Popular culture • Beliefs, practices, activities, and products that are widespread among a population Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 18 LO - 5 Mass Media and Globalization of Popular Culture • Mass media: Forms of communication to reach maximum number of people • Capable of shaping public attitudes and behavior • Cultural imperialism: Influence and dominance of cultural values and products of one society over another iStockphoto.com/Holger Mette • Displaces authentic local culture and results in cultural loss Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 19 LO - 6 Cultural Integration Consistency of various aspects of society that promote order and stability Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 20 LO - 6 Reasons for Cultural Change • Diffusion - Spreads components of culture from one society to another • Invention - Creating new things • Innovation - Turning inventions into massmarket products • Discovery - Involves exploration and investigation • External pressures Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 21 LO - 6 Cultural Lag • Gap that occurs when material culture changes faster than nonmaterial culture • Creates confusion, ambiguity about what is right and wrong, conflict, and a feeling of helplessness • Exposes contradictory values and behavior Edwin Verin/Dreamstime.com Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 22 LO - 7 Table 3.3 Sociological Perspectives of Culture Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 23 LO - 7 Critical Evaluations of Sociological Perspectives Functionalism • Overlooks diversity and social change Conflict theory • Overemphasizes societal discord and downplays a culture’s benefits • Blames mass media corporations for people’s irrational behavior Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 24 LO - 7 Critical Evaluations of Sociological Perspectives (continued) Feminist theories Symbolic interaction • Emphasize discord • Downplay social class inequality • Focus on experiences of low-income and minority women and not men • Fails to explain how people create and shape culture or develop shared meanings of reality • Does not address linkage between culture and subcultures Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 25 LO - 7 Perspectives: Application • Identify the sociological perspective • • • • • Similar beliefs create solidarity Culture benefits the wealthy Core values unify a society Women and men experience culture differently Language shapes our views and behaviors Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 26 Chapter Review • What is culture? • Describe the building blocks of culture. • In what ways are cultures similar and different? • What are the differences between high culture and popular culture? • How do cultures persist and change? • Discuss the different perspectives on culture. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 27 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • Culture Society Material culture Nonmaterial culture Symbol Language Values Norms Folkways • • • • • • • • • • Mores Taboos Laws Sanctions Rituals Cultural universals Ideal culture Real culture Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 28 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • Subculture Counterculture Multiculturalism Culture shock High culture Popular culture Cultural capital Mass media • Cultural imperialism • Cultural integration • Cultural lag Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 29 SUMMARY • Culture shapes our attitudes and behaviors • The building blocks of culture are symbols, language, values, and norms • There are diversities and similarities across and within cultures • Social class affects our participation in high culture and popular culture • Technology has influenced cultural changes Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 30 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH3 31
4 Socialization Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part . LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Define and illustrate socialization and explain its importance 2 Describe the nature versus nurture debate 3 Compare social learning and symbolic interaction theories of socialization 4 Describe and illustrate five socialization agents 5 Explain how socialization changes throughout life 6 Explain when and how resocialization occurs Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 2 LO - 1 Socialization • Lifelong process that enables people to: • Learn culture • Become functioning members of society • Essential for individual development • Helps develop behaviors • Talking, eating with utensils, and controlling bowel movements Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 3 LO - 1 Socialization (Continued) • Purpose • Establishes social identity and teaches role taking • Controls behavior through internalization - Internalization: Learning cultural behaviors and expectations and accepting them undeniably • Transmits culture to the next generation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 4 LO - 2 Table 4.1 Nature-Nurture Debate Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 5 LO - 2 Importance of Nature • Males • Mature slowly and fall ill frequently • Lack self-control and fine-motor skills needed for a start in school • Are at an increased risk of having learning and developmental disorders • Females • Possess acute senses of smell and taste • Likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, and eating disorders Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 6 LO - 2 Importance of Nature (Continued) • Possess efficient and long lasting hearing capabilities • Are at higher risk of developing diabetes • Unsuccessful Sex Reassignment • Example that favors nature based on the conclusion of David/Brenda’s case Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 7 LO - 2 Importance of Nurture • Cross-cultural variations in male violence • Reflect cultural laws and practices and other environmental factors • Environment influences children’s genetic makeup • Environmental factors can permanently affect a child during the gestation period • Childhood mistreatment damages biological development Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 8 LO - 2 Conclusions from Nature and Nurture Debate • Variation across families is due to genetic differences • Social environment enhances or dampens the human genetic characteristics • Research that combines genetics and the environment helps understand human behavior Denys Kurbatov/Shutterstock.com; Graphixmania/Shutterstock.com; Lichtmeister/Shutterstock.com Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 9 LO - 3 Social Learning Theories • People learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction • Direct and indirect learning • Reinforcement - Direct or indirect rewards or punishment for certain behaviors • Observation and imitation of role models • Children and adults learn behavior but do not necessarily perform it Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 10 LO - 3 Social Learning Theories (Continued) • Critical evaluation • Social learning theories overemphasize on early social experiences - Fail to explain why reinforcement and modeling affect some children differently than others - Ignore factors which bring different advantages and disadvantages Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 11 LO - 3 Symbolic Interaction Theories • Cooley’s emergence of self and the lookingglass self Photodisc/Getty Images • Self: Awareness of one’s social identity - Acquired by children through interactions • Looking-glass self: Self-image based on how people think others see them - Phases - Perception, interpretation of the perception, and response Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 12 LO - 3 Symbolic Interaction Theories (Continued 1) • Mead’s development of the self and role taking • Social interaction that occurs in the family becomes one’s foundation of socialization • The self develops when people learn to differentiate the “me” from the “I” • Role taking: Learning to take the perspective of others - Helps in the formation of “me” Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 13 LO - 3 Figure 4.1 Mead’s Three Stages in Developing a Sense of Self Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 14 LO - 3 Symbolic Interaction Theories (Continued 2) • Goffman’s staging self everyday • Impression management: Providing information and cues to others to present oneself in a favorable light • Involves managing expressive resources - Setting - Appearance - Manner Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 15 LO - 3 Limitations of Symbolic Interaction Theories • Does not explain why some children have a positive looking-glass self and success later in life when the cues are always negative • Concepts of self, me, and I are vague • Stage theories are not rigid and can overlap or vary Gelpi JM/Shutterstock.com Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 16 Limitations of Symbolic Interaction Theories LO - 3 (Continued) • The concept of generalized other is questioned as children may have several reference groups as they grow older • Interactionists credit people with increased free will • Ignores macro-level factors that affect human development Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 17 LO - 3 Explanations: Application • How might you manage the setting, appearance, and manner for these situations? • Job interview • Difference of opinion with a professor • First date Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 18 LO - 4 Socialization Agents Family Play, peer groups, and friends Teachers and schools Popular culture and media Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 19 LO - 4 Family • Ways in which parent socialize children • Teach social rules and roles • Manage aspects of the environment that influence a child’s social development • Siblings may have a negative or positive influence on a child • Act as confidantes and offer financial and emotional assistance during adulthood • Grandparents offer emotional and instrumental support • Transmit values and cultural traditions Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 20 LO - 4 Table 4.3 Parenting Styles Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 21 LO - 4 Socialization Agents: Application • Is it authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, or uninvolved parenting style? • Allowing the child to do whatever he/she wants • Getting angry when child does not do as instructed • An alcoholic parent ignoring children • Withdrawing a privilege after a child fails to follow guidelines Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 22 LO - 4 Play, Peer Groups, and Friends • Peer groups: People who are similar in age, social status, and interests • Functions of play - Promotes cognitive development and enhances social development - Strengthens peer relationships • Friends - Reinforce behavior or skills that enhance self-image - May be positive or negative role models GODONG/BSIP SA/Alamy Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 23 LO - 4 Schools and Teachers • Schools • Enhance cognitive development • Affect a child’s daily life through homework and participation in extracurricular activities • Teachers • Act as an instructor, role model, evaluator, moral guide, and disciplinarian • Vital for academic success Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 24 LO - 4 Popular Culture and the Media • Electronic media • Usage should be limited to encourage interactive activities • Unlimited access to the Internet is linked with various health and behavioral problems • Violence in media is a growing concern • Targets children at younger ages • Advergaming - Provides marketers with an inexpensive way to draw attention to a brand Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. Gillian Charters-Barnes/Shutterstock.com • Advertising SOC5 | CH4 25 LO - 5 Socialization Throughout Life • Infancy and toddlerhood • Periods of helplessness and physical and cognitive growth • Development is influenced by quality of relationships with adults and other caregivers • Engaging infants in talk increases vocabulary - Helps control their behavior in later years Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 26 LO - 5 Socialization Throughout Life (Continued 1) • Childhood through adolescence • Marked by physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth • Involves emphasis on self-control, academic success, fulfilling tasks, and socialization • Well-deserved praise: - Strengthens parent-child relationships - Teaches children to overcome setbacks - Improves their problem-solving skills Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 27 LO - 5 Socialization Throughout Life (Continued 2) • Teenage years • Period of significant change - Establish identity, test autonomy, and secede from parental supervision • Helicopter parenting diminishes teens’ and young adults’ ability to develop decision-making and problem solving skills Tim Pannell/Corbis Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 28 LO - 5 Socialization Throughout Life (Continued 3) • Adulthood • Important roles - Work and parenthood • Many young adults are moving back to their parents’ home • Later life • Involves playing new roles and undergoing unwanted rites of passage • May be influenced by health or income problems Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 29 LO - 6 Resocialization • Unlearning the old ways of doing things and adopting new attitudes, values, norms and behavior • Voluntary resocialization • Involves doing something based on personal choice iStockphoto.com/Davincidig; iStockphoto.com/Bridget McGill Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 30 LO - 6 Resocialization (Continued) • Involuntary resocialization • Total institutions: Isolate people from the society and remove their former identities - Use degradation ceremonies - Attempt to build a new identity that conforms to the institution’s expectations Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 31 Chapter Review • What is socialization? • What is the nature-nurture debate? • Discuss the different sociological explanations of socialization. • What are agents of socialization? • How does socialization continue as well as change throughout life? • What is resocialization? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 32 KEY TERMS • Socialization • Internalization • Social learning theories • Role models • Self • Looking-glass self • Role taking • Significant other • Anticipatory socialization • Generalized other • Impression management • Reference groups • Socialization agents • Multigenerational households • Peer group • Resocialization • Total institutions Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 33 SUMMARY • Socialization is a lifelong process • Purpose - To establish identity, teach role taking, control behavior, and transmit culture to the next generation • Explained through social learning and symbolic interaction theories • Individuals, groups, or institutions act as socialization agents • Resocialization can be voluntary or involuntary Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 34 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH4 35

Tutor Answer

benwamonicah
School: UT Austin

Attached.

Running Head: SOCIOLOGY

1

Sociology
Institution affiliation
Date:

SOCIOLOGY

2

1
Some practices in the culture are passed from generation to generations. Issues of
marriage are a custom that has been in existent from different cultures. The process has been the
same when one fall in lover then gets married. However, a situation where people marry then fall
in lover might look awkward. This kind of setting may be advantageous as people not spend time
selecting who to marry. A man and women would not involve in premarital conflicts. Everyone
will get married not depending on their looks or on whether they love each other or not.
However, it might be disadvantageous as anyone can get married to anybody. Such a marriage
may not last given that after falling in love one might realize that this was not the best person to...

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Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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