Registeration Number :160243479
Assignment name: What I have learnt in my degree
Module:Edu306 What is Learning
WHAT I HAVE LEARNT IN MY DEGREE
A BA in Early childhood education is a fundamental course with a set of guidelines for practice
in the field of education for appropriate development within early childhood learning. On matters
of education, Jerome Bruner explains that there is nothing as practical as a good theory.
Interrelating good theories into practice differentiates a successful classroom from one filled with
chaos. Child development depends on the teacher knowing the correct equipment, materials, or
curriculum for children (Ilgaz et al. 2018). A teacher that understands the typical social, physical,
language, emotional and cognitive development in children successfully forms a framework of
an age-appropriate classroom and age-appropriate activities. As the general public, it is essential
for people to understand the different processes involved with young children as they develop
cognitively in a classroom. Through the course of pursuing a degree in early childhood
education, I learned the dependency and interrelation of language and literacy in developing a
child’s learning development during early childhood education.
Language and Literacy Activity
I had a placement job as teaching assistant during my summer break in China. Below is a
Lesson Plan for first-grade pupils in a particular school that I formulated which helps in
developing language and literacy in children.
Lesson Plan : Writing Practice about the topic “ My family ”
Learning Objectives: By the end of the activity, the student should be able to describe what they
know about families by analyzing about their own families. And the students created a booklet
about their families.
Materials needed: Markers, Board Crayons and Colored Pencils, Teacher’s Premade
family book, Pencils, The students’ family pictures (they should ring them from
home)Books for students to write on.
Before the day of this lesson, we instruct students to carry pictures from home so they can
make a picture book in class. And then explain the fundamentals of what the students will
discuss their families. Also, discussing he meaning of family with the students. Potential
discussion questions may include: What is a family? What do families around the world look
like? Who makes up a family system? How are families the same and how are they different?
The students twill be draw a picture of their families. They should label the individual in the
drawings. The students should also draw their families celebrating something like a holiday
or a birthday. As an example , I had show the students a premade book of my family. I
introduced the individuals in my pictures and explain their role in my family.
I had given suggestion about how they should write about the different roles and
responsibilities of the family members. And show potential examples and offer details of
family interactions to the students. Next step was enriching the language and literacy of the
students by having them discuss and write a story about an experience they had with four of
their family members. The final step was asking the students to describe the different families
after sharing with their classmates.
The most appropriate way of engaging with children during a language activity is through
conversation. It is vital to introduce new topics periodically. Even children with limited
experiences still have access to familiar topics and aids in the inclusion of the conversation.
Many topics are appropriate for developing conversations with children. They range from what
they did during the weekend to talk about their pets and hobbies. Understanding narratively is
crucial in understanding human cognition and constructivism (Van Manen 2016; Sengers 2018;
Popova 2015) and the general evolution of human social cognition in particular. (Cooley 2017;
Eisenberg, Spinrad & Knafo‐Noam 2015). Humans are a story-telling and literary species
(Turner 1996). Generally speaking, human brains are a machine that distills patterns from the
world. Because chaotic randomness does not appeal to us, the primary means of extracting
purpose and meaning from events in our lives is through forming narratives. Therefore, owing to
the strictures of language, they are linearly structured and conceived. Stories are formed by
events that, in turn, can only be understood about the story as a whole (Roskos 2017). This
general narrating ability, similar to our propensity to humanize, is unpredictable and unbridled:
we are obliged to tell stories about all that we see, and we structure stories around both
ourselves. In turn, language and literacy development occurs at an early age through story-telling
and narrative activities.
Like the lesson plan elaborated above, most programs contain show and tell that are
theoretically designed to offer opportunities for children to speak and listen. Although it may be
good for students to bring something from home (like the family pictures describe above), the
teacher should realize that the children may feel pressured if they have nothing to bring.
Therefore, the teacher can also modify the described lesson plan by selecting something from the
classroom to discuss. The item can be described through the shape descriptors or color words.
The the goal of this activity is having the children talk and express themselves intellectually.
Using Frith’s social brain hypothesis, the human brain contains regions dedicated to
social cognition. Therefore, the “mirror” system in humans enables us to some extent, to share
experiences with others (Galotti, Fairhurst, & Frith 2017). When we consider the psychological
conditions of individuals with comparable mentalities to ourselves, maybe we naturally think in
regards to our shared perspective of the world. In turn, such experiences mold the development
of younger children as they show and tell in the classroom activities (Galotti, Fairhurst, & Frith
2017). As the teacher directs the students through such a learning activity described in the lesson
plan, they empirically develop literacy and language skills through the process.
Language and Literacy
Language is essential to all learning and is a vital part of early childhood environments. It is
received through the eyes and ears, and the development begins at infancy continuing through
life. Language is being modeled, listened to, and imitated at all times. As the module in the
degree program emphasizes, children learn language through listening to models, imitating those
models, receiving feedback, refining their language, and using this language while sharing ideas.
Every teacher must understand that language is inherent in all activities, and all the activity areas
should integrate it into the early childhood classroom. For purposes of the appropriate language
in children, teachers must provide language-rich environments dense with interesting ideas as
well as regular events.
Additionally, there is a semantic difference between language and speech. While speech
is the power of speaking by expressing one’s thoughts and emotions through speech sounds,
language is the communication that uses a system of arbitrary vocal sounds, written signs,
symbols, or gestures through conventional ways that contain conventional meanings (Owens
2015). Therefore, language is a complex system incorporating different components; (1)
vocabulary involves learning and understanding words, (2) syntax is the grammatical structure in
sentences, and (3) semantics means knowing the meaning of words. Nevertheless, (4)
morphology is the rules governing words and (5) phonology is the sound system in words.
Similarly, (6) pragmatics refers to appropriately using words contingent on the social context in
which any child must operate (Owens 2015). Therefore, children must learn to whom they may
speak, under what circumstances they may speak, how they should respond, in what tone of
voice, and what appropriate movements.
It is helpful to a teacher to know the child language development while teaching in
different age group. For example ,3-4 years: Vocabulary of eight hundred to one thousand words;
reasonably intelligible speech; uses three to four-word sentences; uses plurals; relates
experiences; signifies age by holding up fingers; remembers simple nursery rhymes and songs.
4-5 years: Vocabulary of one thousand five hundred words; states the age and sex; talks a lot;
continuously asks questions; tells tales; frequently uses “why” and “how”; speech is less
egocentric and more social; uses pictures to “read” aloud; completes three-step commands; uses
six to eight word sentences that are complex and compound. 5-6 years: The vocabulary of two
thousand to two thousand and five hundred words; socialized conversation; intelligible speech;
reasonably accurate sentence structures and accurate grammar in longer sentences; symbolic
language emerges; speaks to self; primitive language emerges.
Literacy integrates all forms of language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This
phenomenon is based on the foundation of language. The classroom environment plays an
essential role in stimulating and maintaining literacy skills in children. Literacy starts with print
awareness even before children start attending school. Their interest in writing and reading starts
when introducing books, or other forms of print, drawing, and literature. When the people,
activities, and materials in a child’s environment provide interest in literacy skills, it motivates
Promoting literacy among children involves developmentally appropriate environments
that include playful experiences with materials (Bingham et al. 2018; Ilgaz et al. 2018; Banerjee
et al. 2016). All forms of reading good literature to children and plays form the basis of
encouraging literacy. For example, any incident of pretending writing and reading indicates
emergent literacy and is valuable to show the child’s potential. Instead of conceptualizing
reading and writing as just subjects that children should learn, effective teachers understand there
are value and benefits in print-rich environments.
The Relationship between Language and Literacy
The process that connects children to a printed page and ultimately, reading depends on
language acquisition. Reading is a fundamental school skill, and both parents and teachers want
to establish this skill at the earliest point in a child’s life. Before beginning the formal reading
process, there need various prerequisite experiences children need. Language-rich environments
and experiences for purposes of promoting literacy are the ideal settings for linking literacy and
language which leads children to formal reading and writing. Children learn to write by reading
and learn to read by writing (Bryant & Goswami 2016). They learn by writing and reading
through listening and speaking, respectively. Acquisition of the whole language in young
children involves using all aspects of language-writing, reading, speaking, and listening through
the literacy process.
As I learned through the course of my degree, literacy and language development plays
an integral role in the early childhood classroom. These early years are a time for considerable
growth in both language and literacy. Social interaction, literacy, and language development as
children share their own experiences in classroom activities like storytelling or dramatic plays.
Cognitive growth and the further development of imagination flourishes when children write
stories about their experiences, create scenarios or talk about their actions. After establishing
language and literacy, the creative experiences continue through essential and innovative
curricula that nurture the children’s cognitive development.
In my summer break placement job , I worked as a teaching assistant in my home city. It
is different when I had placement job in UK. The course setting and the way of teaching is
different apparently. Then my colleague and my supervisor may not able to critical value the
activity. Then I am seek to receive the suggestion of improvement.
Banerjee, R., Alsalman, A. and Alqafari, S., 2016. Supporting sociodramatic play in preschools
to promote language and literacy skills of English language learners. Early Childhood
Education Journal, 44(4), pp.299-305.
Bingham, G.E., Quinn, M.F., McRoy, K., Zhang, X. and Gerde, H.K., 2018. Integrating Writing
into the Early Childhood Curriculum: A Frame for Intentional and Meaningful Writing
Experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, pp.1-11.
Bryant, P., & Goswami, U. (2016). Phonological skills and learning to read. Routledge.
Cooley, C.H., 2017. Human nature and the social order. Routledge.
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T.L. and Knafo‐Noam, A., 2015. Prosocial development. Handbook of
child psychology and developmental science, pp.1-47.
Gallotti, M., Fairhurst, M.T. and Frith, C.D., 2017. Alignment in social
interactions. Consciousness and Cognition, 48, pp.253-261.
Ilgaz, H., Hassinger-Das, B., Hirsh-Pasek, K. and Golinkoff, R.M., 2018. Making the case for
playful learning. In International Handbook of Early Childhood Education (pp. 12451263). Springer, Dordrecht.
Owens Jr, R.E., 2015. Language development: An introduction. Pearson.
Popova, Y.B., 2015. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative
understanding. In Stories, Meaning, and Experience (pp. 61-103). Routledge.
Roskos, K.A. ed., 2017. Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple
Sengers, P., 2018. The engineering of experience. In Funology 2 (pp. 287-299). Springer, Cham.
Van Manen, M., 2016. Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive
what I have learntt
by Qiuxia Ye
Submission date: 27-Nov-2018 11:11AM (UT C+0000)
Submission ID: 95604091
File name: edu306_what_I_have_learnt.docx (70.32K)
Word count: 2071
Character count: 11838
what I have learntt
SIMILARIT Y INDEX
INT ERNET SOURCES
ST UDENT PAPERS
Louise Barrett. "Social brains, simple minds:
does social complexity really require cognitive
complexity?", Philosophical Transactions of
The Royal Society B Biological Sciences,
Int ernet Source
what I have learntt
T hank you f or this submission, which I f oundan
enjoyable read on an interesting topic. What I think it
did particularly ef f ectively was of f er a good activity
f or the young people, with some helpf ul comments
about language learning and literacy development.
T he two main areas I would suggest as priorities f or
development would be (1) making much greater use
of the academic literature about children's language
learning - there is a huge amount available, and I
would encourage you to read as widely as you can in
this; and (2) of f ering more detailed ref lection on the
proposed activity, really breaking down the choices
that you have made so you can explain better the
reasons behind them. If you were to submit the
work you have written here f or Stage T wo, I think it
would be on the borderline between passing and
f ailing, and I would encourage you to look at the
marking criteria f or the BA to ensure you are making
changes that move your f inal submission in the right
T hank you f or inviting specif ic f eedback on the
draf t, and I have of f ered comments on this where
relevant. If you would like to discuss any of these
f urther, please f eel f ree to make use of my of f ice
hour (on T hursdays), or arrange another meeting
with me around our other commitments.
Best of luck with the second stage of this
assignment, and I look f orward to seeing how it
T his is a nice statement - do you have a ref erence?
Great! What are some of the reasons f or this?
So what, would you say, is specif ically attractive about f amilies?
T he language here seems quite dif f erent f rom earlier in the assignment- can you please check
you are quoting directly where appropriate, and paraphrasing, more obviously in your own
words, where it is not?
Could you say a little more about this - what would "intellectual" expression look like f or you?
T here are some really interesting ideas about language learning in here. I wonder, could you
make them more specif ic to this particular activity? And perhaps tie them in with some of the
literature you use in the f ollowing paragraph?
How would you say your proposed activity supports students in these dif f erent aspects of
T here's not a ref erence in this paragraph, despite quite a lot of specif ic inf ormation being
of f ered. Could you maybe tie this back to your sources more closely?
So this seems like a really obvious point to link back to the activity you've proposed - how
would you say it supports these dif f erent skills?
T hat's true - and anything else?
I think the activity you propose is good. My main piece of advice in this regard would be to
analyse it more closely, and draw out more clearly the dif f erent choices you have made - f or
instance of topic, of the way of approaching it, and of how it f its with the students' other
learning - so you can maximise opportunities f or critical commentary.
Image by Duane Schoon, used here under a Creative Commons licence: https://www.flickr.com/photos/32127264@N08/4530185934/
EDU306 – What is Learning?
Dr Tim Herrick
The module explores understandings about how people learn, and implications that these understandings have had and
continue to have for how we conduct key social practices. Among these practices we will focus on teaching, caring for
children, ways of assessing learning, and on educating generally. A range of work from various thinkers will be
explored, some of whom - such as Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky - might be familiar, while some - such as Ernst von
Glasersfeld or Daniel Kahnemann - might be less familiar.
We will also look ‘beneath’ understandings of learning to the worldviews on which they stand. As learning involves
knowing and knowledge, this will include several distinct perspectives on the nature of knowledge. The main debate
we’ll explore in the module is between ‘realist’ perspectives on knowledge, and ‘constructivist’ perspectives. Both of
these worldviews have a significant impact on questions of ‘intelligence’ and ‘ability’. As you might imagine, the
consequences of these ideas on everyone involved in education, from children to politicians, are significant. We’ll
explore these debates, including both extreme positions and those more from the middle; and look at other aspects of
learning and how these might influence education – for example, questions of learning style, whether thinking involves
more than the mind, and errors or blindspots in our thinking processes that fundamentally shape what we do and how
we do it.
All of this matters because ‘realism’ and ‘constructivism’ are foundational concepts: they carry implications for how
we conceptualise some things that we are used to taking for granted: the nature of truth, the process and products of
science, the basis for ethics, the outcomes of research, assumptions about what is, ...
Purchase answer to see full