Module 7: Discussion Forum

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Within this module, what were the major points made from this weeks reading assignment regarding why Human Service leaders need to think globally? Of those covered, which do you feel are most important and why?

Please USE and REFERENCE this week's readings per the instructions.

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Cities in )00: oooooooooooooooooooooooooo )OO' oooooooooooooooooooooooooo Evolution, opined that local )OOC oooooooooooooooooooooooooo )OOC •oooooooooooooooooooooooooo character "is attained only 500C 'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO )OOC 'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO in course of adequate grasp )OOC >oooooooooooooooooooooooooo )OC 'OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 3OC IOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO and treatment ofthe whole 3OC oooooooooooooooooooooooooo 5OG Ioooooooooooooooooooooooooo environment, and in active . J oooooooooooooooooooooooooo sympathy with the essential 5OO ' ' oooooooooooooooooooooooooo DOC • oooooooooooooooooooooooooo DOC oooooooooooooooooooooooooo and characteristic life ofthe 500C oooooooooooooooooooooooooo 3OOC oooooooooooooooooooooooooo place concerned." Others oooooooooooooooooooooooooo .TOoooooooooooooooooooooooooo give more recent credit to DOOOOOOOOOOOO-JuuuUOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 such varied individuals as 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Buckminster Fuller, Saul 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Alinsky, or even Yoko Ono. 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 October 2012 Policy»Practice Whatever its roots, the phrase survives because it crystallizes an essential truth: the better we understand the broader world in which we live, the better equipped we are to act within our own sphere of influence. Framed that way, it clearly extends far beyond the realm of urban planning, or environmentalism, or social activism. It reaches right to the heart of human service management—how state and local agencies deliver services every day. The ability to provide optimal service to the next client who walks through our doors depends on having an "adequate grasp and treatment" of the global context in which we work. How, you may well ask, can we think globally when many of us, in these tight-budget times, can't even cross state lines to meet with colleagues or attend conferences? There are no simple answers, but all of us can find ways to engage in an invigorating discussion of international policy ideas, service delivery models, and demographic trends that will better prepare us to provide services here at home. As we evolve toward the U.S. human services marketplace of the future, there is so much we can learn from—and teach—our international colleagues grappling with like challenges. Pf ^.P 10 David Hansell is a managing director and the head of KPMG's Global Human & Social Services Center of Excellence. PolicyS Practice October 2012 IJHÜ "THINK GLOBALLy? why should state and local human service leaders take a global view of where service delivery is headed? First, cliché though it may be, the world is indeed getting smaller and more interdependent. Many of the demographic and economic forces that shape our human service challenges are common to our peers in other nations. Let's look at a few statistics that bear this out. First, the world is rapidly becoming more urbanized, as is the United States. More than half the world's population lives in cities and towns, having risen steadily from almost 30 percent in 1950. This growth has been matched in the United States, where today more than 80 percent of people live in urban centers.^ Second, populations are more mobile and migration across boundaries is increasing, making it more and more difficult to address social service issues within an isolated national (or subnational) context. For many, such migration is not of their choosing. In 2011, 42.5 million people were forcibly displaced worldwide, and almost half of them were younger than 18 years old,^ creating huge strains for social service systems around the world. The United States accepts more of these refugees for permanent resettlement than any other country. Third, populations in many countries, including the United States, are aging rapidly. By 2050, 2 billion people worldwide will be 60 years or older, more than triple the number in 2000. In 2010,16.2 percent ofthe U.S. population was more than 62 years old,"* a rise of over 20 percent from 2000. Between 2010 and 2050, the United States is projected to experience rapid growth in its older population, with the number of Americans aged 65 years and older projected to be 88.5 million by 2050.5 Fourth, the impacts ofthe Great Recession (or, as it's known in most of the world outside the United States, the Global Financial Crisis, or GFC) have caused unemployment rates to skyrocket in many countries, and they have yet to return to pre-GFC levels. The July 2012 U.S. unemployment rate was 8.3 percent, up from 4.7 percent five years earlier;*" for the Eurozone, unemployment was running at 11.2 percent in July 2012, with a five-year rise paralleling that in the United States.^ Fifth, governments around the world are looking to bring budget gaps under control, and reduce social welfare expenditures in particular. The United Kingdom aims to slash spending on social welfare by £10 billion by 2016."* The United States faces automatic budget cuts of $1.2 trillion over ten years, including major reductions in benefits programs, which will begin early next year unless an alternative budget agreement is reached by December 31. Given those parallels between the social and economic backdrops in the United States and trends across the globe, it's not surprising that the challenges facing human service agencies have similar parallels. Thus, the more we connect with each other, benchmark our work against that of our peers, and leverage global models to improve our own performance, the better equipped we'll be to deal with the accelerating pace of change at home. Many human service agencies in the United States and elsewhere have already acknowledged this. Some Requests for Proposals, for example, now specifically request benchmarking against global delivery models, or incorporation of international experience into delivery teams. And like our colleagues in human service consulting, we at KPMG are finding government clients increasingly interested in OOOOOOOUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU knowing what's happening around the world in their specific service domains. That's why KPMG has recently launched our Global Human & Social Services Center of Excellence (COE), which is marshalling all of our firm's international expertise to make it easily accessible to clients here and abroad. Our COE is also helping ensure that we, as a firm, are on top ofthe best work and most promising models being implemented worldwide. As we do this, we're finding that reforms in the human service marketplace are proceeding along remarkably similar lines. Agencies worldwide are focusing on how to integrate service delivery and create clientcentric models of care; how to ensure greater accountability for outcomes and tighten connections between payments and results; how to achieve greater cost-effectiveness in a world of increasing service demand and diminishing resources; and how to more effectively use technology to support service delivery. While variations exist from country to country, the themes are much the same, as the following examples illustrate. OUERCOMING SILOED SÊRUICeS Governments and public-sector leaders around the world are increasingly recognizing that human and social needs are intrinsically connected, and responses must be as well. Child protection programs, for example, have learned that children's welfare can be enhanced by interventions that increase parental ability to find gainful employment, meet family nutritional needs, or access health care. The integration of these services can reduce the incidence of abuse and neglect and, ultimately, removal of children from the home. Similarly, early childhood development programs are often more effective when they ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo MANy OF THE DeMOGRAPHIC AND eCONOMIC FORCES THAT SHAPE OUR OOOOOOOOOOC 0000000000( OOOOOOOOOO' oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooo OOOOOOOC ' oooooooo OOOOOOOOOC. oooooooooo oooooooooo oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc. oooooooooc oooooooo^^ OOOOOOOC oooooooo-....oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc oooooooooc OOÔÔÔÔOÔÔÔÔÔOOOOOOOOOOOOC ooooooooooooooooooooooooc ooooooooooooooooooooooooc ooooooooooooooooooooooooc ooooooooooooooooooooooooo OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooo HUMAN seRuice CHALLENGGS ARE COMMON TO OUR PEERS IN OTHER NATIONS. OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOI oooc OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOi take a more holistic view that includes fostering children's cognitive and social growth, supporting parental employment, and connecting children with health care and other needed services. These realizations are producing new approaches to integrating human and social services in order to create more effective solutions to many ofthe challenges facing populations in need. For example. Alberta, Canada's social assistance programs serve the full age and family spectrum of clients across four ministries, often with multiple delivery channels to address overlapping needs for protection, stability, and independence. These programs were established at different times, for different purposes, and evolved in different directions. In addition, unique technology applications were implemented sequentially to support individual programs, making it extremely costly to maintain separate applications and coordinate multiple services. Which U.S. human service agency would not identify with these problems? Alberta sought a new model to break down silos between participating ministries, and allow a common vision focused on the client, not the program. Managers from across participating ministries worked to create a comprehensive program view and common framework. This in turn provided the foundation for an integrated case management approach. 12 PolicyS Practice October 2012 Similarly, the Australian Department of Human Services (DHS) has undergone significant reform over the past three years to put citizens first in the design and delivery of services. Working closely with community and private sectors, and involving end users in designing improved service delivery mechanisms, this effort has identified integration opportunities such as the establishment of more "one-stop shops," increased self-service access, and more coordinated support for people with complex needs. As part of this initiative, DHS and its advisers analyzed existing processes, identified the business drivers for future process design, and evaluated options for new model templates. These two examples from different ends ofthe world highlight the similarity in challenges that governments are facing, and the opportunities for integrated models of service delivery through the use of common platforms, streamlined and consistent processes, and frameworks that put the citizen at the center of service delivery. Public agencies are finding that integrating systems through a "single window" of customer service offers advantages to both citizens and government itself. Users can access services more effectively through a client-centric approach that brings multiple services to bear in addressing their needs. And governments can reduce their administrative costs and increase efficiency by removing duplicated processes such as client authentication and eligibility determination. Here in the United States, implementation ofthe Affordable Care Act (ACA) offers dramatic—but timelimited—opportunities for states to develop integrated models for eligibility and enrollment across health and human service programs. Many states are facing the need to replace legacy systems supporting multiple core programs (typically, Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, at a minimum), and are looking at integrated approaches that will meet ACA requirements, address broader technology updating needs, and support better-coordinated service delivery. The federal government has helped by creating regulatory and funding incentives to encourage movement in that direction. The increasing interdependency of public human service systems is also driving new approaches toward intergovernmental cooperation in service delivery and compliance enforcement. One prominent example is the 2007 Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance, which makes major strides toward a global approach to the enforcement of child support and protection obligations. Once ratified by a sufficient number of countries to take effect, it would strengthen global enforcement of child support, by providing for a uniform, comprehensive system of cooperation between child support authorities; establishing uniform procedures for the recognition and enforcement of other countries' child support decisions; and requiring effective measures for the prompt enforcement of maintenance decisions. ENHANCING PROGRAM ACCOUNTABILITy Around the globe, demand for services (in both absolute volume and complexity of need) is increasing at a time when fiscal and budgetary environments are tightening. These twin realities mandate increased focus on accountability for results accruing from investment in social programs. Working with clients around the world, we are observing a range of responses: restructuring contract deliverables from outputs or processes to outcomes; making payment for services delivered contingent on results achieved; and fostering greater transparency in reporting the impact of pubhc investments. Like those in the United States, human service agencies worldwide are realizing that optimizing accountability for results requires well-defined roles and responsibilities, metrics to track and improve performance on an ongoing basis, and contingency planning to identify, analyze, and mitigate foreseeable risks. Ontario, Canada, is developing an Integrated Social Assistance Monitoring Framework to drive greater accountability. The Ministry of Community and Social Services is creating this framework to align social assistance decision-making and accountability structures across the government and delivery agencies. Using this framework, the ministry is implementing a unified risk management, monitoring, and reporting framework. Governments are using this approach in individual program sectors as well. In Victoria, Australia, child welfare reforms reflect an enhanced focus on improving outcomes, driven by a new set of legislative mandates. In the Netherlands, the government identified a need for a sophisticated but achievable set of quality indicators that would publicly disseminate health care quality information, and the Ministry of Health developed a widely used Indicator Standard for health care providers that has improved transparency and accountability. In a parallel fashion, governments are seeking greater return on investment, and replication of evidence-based, cost-effective solutions. These may focus on reducing fraud, waste, and abuse; re-orienting service delivery in support of core mission; or replacing outmoded or ineffective service models. Toronto, Canada, conducted a Core Service Review of 1504municipally delivered services, all of which were screened through a "core" filter process, incorporating legislative requirements, public review, and validation with responsible management. The review resulted in ranking more than 350 activities along a core continuum, and identifying 160 efficiency opportunities for consideration by the City Council. This project is expected to help set the city on a fiscally sustainable path, closing its current $775 million budget gap. Governments here and abroad provide an enormous breadth and depth of services for vulnerable populations, and are learning that processes and infrastructure need to be continuously reviewed to identify superfluous activities, eliminate redundancy and duplication in the system, provide those in need with effective services, and help assure all citizens ofthe value of public social assistance investments. LeUERAGING TECHNOLOGy To governments looking for new ways to enhance services, technology becomes an important enabler to increase productivity, expand meaningful utilization of data, and provide more effective service. Technology can facilitate care coordination by allowing real-time, as-needed access to data generated by multiple service providers. Technology can also support shared administrative systems that allow governments to better leverage their operational budgets. For example, rather than running fragmented, program-specific systems (and with them, multiple help desks, service contracts, and infrastructure support), governments are increasingly looking toward robust enterprise platforms that serve multiple programs at reduced cost. The six local municipal housing associations in Berlin, Germany, are planning to establish a consolidated data center and to develop a joint strategy for the harmonization oftheir IT systems. With external support, the agencies analyzed the respective financial, operational, and strategic opportunities and risks of different options for harmonizing those systems. Under similar circumstances in the United Kingdom, a welfare-to-work provider required an IT infrastructure to support its growth strategy. The client transitioned from an in-house system to a Platform as a Service (PaaS) model in order to move its systems to a more cost-effective and efficient cloudbased delivery model that allowed greater flexibility and scalability. Technology can also support the integration of social service delivery. Social services in New York City are delivered across nine health and human service agencies each with their own legacy applications, interface policies, and information exchange processes. Recognizing the benefits of leveraging modern technology and coordinating agency practices to deliver more effective and efficient health and human services, the city has implemented HHS-Connect, which is streamlining processes such as screening and eligibility determination, case management, and contract management functions across these agencies. See Serve Locally on page 37 October 2012 Policy& Practice 13 association news NAPDM National Association for Program Information and Performance Measurennent NAPIPM holds 32'"' Annual Conference in Orlando, Florida The National Association for Program Information and Performance Measurement (NAPIPM), held their 32"'' annual conference September 9-12 at the Rosen Center in Orlando, Florida. The conference theme was "Turning Up the Heat on Process Improvement, Program Integrity and Payment Accuracy" and it provided a unique forum to provide program information, performance measurement tools, and training to improve timeliness, accuracy, and customer service. The conference offered workshops, keynote speakers, and valuable information from leaders in our professions including Jessica Shahin from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food and Nutrition Service; Kay Brown, U.S. Government Accountability Office; Andrew Feldman, Office of Management and Budget; and Michelle Dilks representing the Administration for Children and Families. Eighteen different workshops provided technical resources and valuable tools to the 37 states that were represented at the conference. NASCGV National Association of State Child Care Administrators an affiliate of the American Public Human Services Association APHSA and NASCCA Work Closely with the Senate on CCDBG Reauthorization APHSA and the National Association of State Child Care Administrators (NASCCA) are working closely with the U.S. Senate Health Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Subcommittee on Children and Families on Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) reauthorization. The subcommittee is in the process of drafting legislation for a reauthorization bill. The Senate HELP and Finance Committees are participating in the discussions. In addition, several hearings were held on the topic, which focused mostly on improving the quality of child care and strengthening health and safety standards. APHSA and NASCCA submitted testimony for the record and have been working with congressional staff to provide recommendations for a reauthorization bill. APHSA and NASCCA's recommendations include changes that would promote state flexibility, improve quality, and provide adequate funding to improve child care access for working families. NASCCA's recent testimony for the record to the subcommittee can be found on NASCCA's web site at http://www.aphsa-nascca.org/ Home/Congress.asp. Si SERVE LOCALLY continued from page 13 UHAT Does THIS ALL MEAN FOR THE HUMAN MARKETPLACe? Reform efforts are proceeding along similar tracks in the United States and elsewhere, with some variations in drivers and focus, but much commonality in overall direction. Similar reform efforts are taking place within specific program sectors: welfareto-work, disability services, early childhood development, child protection, juvenile justice, senior services, aboriginal/indigenous population services, homelessness/social housing, and others. All of this makes for challenging, but exciting, times for human service managers in government. Budgets are tough, of course, but the experimentation that's underway with promising new approaches and techniques—enabled by flexible and adaptive technology—creates exciting future opportunities. The only certainty about the human service marketplace ofthe future is that it will look very different from today's. Our collective challenge—and opportunity—is to guide the development ofthat marketplace with an "adequate grasp and treatment" of both the global context and local focus of our work, so we can continue to help our clients progress toward achieving their goals. 01 Andrea Cohen and Christine Roaghead of KPMG LLP contributed to this article. 1. http://esa.un.org/unup/unup/p2k0data. asp 2. http://esa.un.org/unup/unup/p2k0data. asp 3. http://www.unhcr.org/4fd6f87f9.html 4. http://www.unhcr.org/4fd6f87f9.html 5. http://www.census.gov/prod/2010pubs/ p25-n38.pdf 6. http://www.dolgov/ 7. http://www. bloomberg. com/news/201207-31/euro-area-unemployment-ratereaches-record-ll-2-on-debt-crisis.html 8. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/ mar/21/welfare-10bn-cut-2012-budget October 2012 Policy&Practice 37 Copyright of Policy & Practice (19426828) is the property of American Public Human Services Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
AI Practitioner May 2011 Volume 13 Number 2 ISBN 978-1-907549-05-2 Sally Christie Liz Kinley is the Chief Executive (strategic operations) for Jigsaw Family Services New Zealand. A manager, facilitator and educator, she thrives on managing change and implementing large national projects. She is trained in Appreciative Inquiry and strongly committed to strength-based principles. Contact: liz@jigsaw.org.nz is the national project coordinator for Jigsaw. She has been involved in the health, social services and local government sectors for many years. Her passion is discovering how communities can play their part in the well being of children and their families. Contact: sally@jigsaw.org.nz Many Voices, One Purpose Innovations in New Zealand in AI Practice for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect ABSTRACT What does it take to activate and grow community involvement so that helping each other is a normal part of community life and families are well supported to raise their children safely? Through innovations in Appreciative Inquiry practice that draw on community development and social marketing methodologies, local communities are discovering, believing in and growing their own capacity to ensure the protection and nurturing of their children. Releasing community resourcefulness On Sunday, 17th October, 2010, a unique community event took place in New Zealand’s North Island coastal town of Thames. Over sixty people, from different parts of the Thames community, shared stories that revealed the wealth of their personal experience of what works best to get alongside children and families in positive and useful ways to promote safe, thriving children and flourishing families. Together, they identified patterns of supportive behaviour that consistently produced positive and helpful outcomes and concluded that if these patterns could be embedded into everyone’s everyday life in Thames, all local children and families would grow up safe and nurtured. The participants in this community-based conversation have now become the champions of a new social movement in their town. They are at the forefront of new thinking that is gaining traction within and beyond New Zealand, based on the premise that the solution to our unacceptably high rates of child abuse and neglect is already inherent within our communities. Until now we have relied on helping professionals, social service organisations and government systems to find a solution for what has been an intractable issue. This conventional paradigm is now shifting. While professional expertise will always be valued and needed when challenges arise, we have come to understand that families and communities themselves have the greatest capability for looking after their most vulnerable members, once they have had the opportunity to appreciatively reveal their own expertise and resourcefulness and re-claim that responsibility. That’s what the people of Thames began to do last October. As a leading and entrepreneurial national New Zealand not-for-profit organisation, Jigsaw has chosen to champion this paradigm shift through a national social change strategy called Many Voices One Purpose. This strategy is AIP May 11 Kinley and Christie: Many Voices, One Purpose More Articles at www.aipractitioner.com 18 AI Practitioner Volume 13 Number 2 ISBN 978-1-907549-05-2 Jigsaw seeks to coordinate opportunities for local communities to discover, believe in and grow their own capacity to ensure the protection and nurturing of their children. May 2011 based on the belief that ‘when we bring together our collective ideas, influence and wisdom, the impossible becomes the possible’. As an agency with a dual purpose – preventing child abuse and family violence, and promoting the safety and well being of children, their families and communities – Jigsaw seeks to coordinate opportunities for local communities to discover, believe in and grow their own capacity to ensure the protection and nurturing of their children. The transformational conversation that took place in Thames launched the pilot for ‘Many Voices One Purpose’, branded locally as ‘Thames Linking Communities’ (TLC). This leading edge initiative is funded through a partnership between Jigsaw and The Todd Foundation, a respected and innovative New Zealand philanthropic trust. Innovating through interconnected methodologies ‘Many Voices One Purpose’ is based on Appreciative Inquiry methodology. It is founded on the assumption that once people experience an appreciative conversation, hear stories validating their own and others’ successful experiences and absorb the wisdom and skills inherent within these stories, they are more likely to consciously and confidently initiate helpful interactions with others. The propensity for strengthening and sustaining these new helping behaviours over time is further heightened when the appreciative conversation takes place within a community development context, and is combined with a social marketing communications strategy specifically designed to inform and inspire people in ways that promote positive changes in their behaviour towards others. While Jigsaw has worked with each of these three methodologies over the past five years, this is the first time we have purposefully combined them within one integrated project. Early results suggest this innovation has produced a potent catalyst for social change. Table 1 on page 20 illustrates the way that the three methodologies interconnect with ease. They have similar core principles, which in combination strengthen, extend and create. Most importantly from Jigsaw’s perspective, they are all whole-system oriented, inclusive, empowering and facilitative, and match well with the fundamental assumption that drives Many Voices One Purpose: that all communities are inherently capable entities. We believe that once communities reveal their own resourcefulness and discover that change is both desirable and possible, through the evidence of their own stories, they will take action to bring their own dreams to life, producing their own social entrepreneurs and forging their own pathway to social transformation. Jigsaw’s relationship with Maori as our indigenous people Jigsaw’s organisational infrastructure, values and practices reflect the special relationship that was established between Maori (as the indigenous people of our land) and the English Crown, through the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. While historical debates about the meaning of the Treaty provisions continue today, its three foundation principles embody the Treaty’s spirit and intent, and shape the relationships between Maori and Tauiwi (people who have arrived here since 1840) within Jigsaw. Table 2 on page 21 illustrates principal values that guide Jigsaw’s relationships with Maori. AIP May 11 Kinley and Christie: Many Voices, One Purpose More Articles at www.aipractitioner.com 19 AI Practitioner May 2011 Volume 13 Number 2 ISBN 978-1-907549-05-2 Table 1: Combined methodologies: a potent mix for innovation in child abuse prevention Table 2: Working together within Jigsaw Appreciative Inquiry CommunityDevelopment Social marketing In every society, organisation or group, something works Just about everyone wants what’s best for their community People change their behaviour because they because they discover, co-create and chose alternatives that add greater value What we focus on becomes our reality Once people understand others’ circumstances they’re usually willing to help People do things because they acquire information or skills they did not previously have Reality is created in the moment and there are multiple realities If people are treated with respect, they usually respond the same way Change is more effective and sustained when people are collaborators, pollinators and participants within their own change process People have more confidence and comfort to journey to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known) People have to believe something is possible before they’ll work to make it happen Change happens most powerfully when people are enabled to become heroes of their own stories If we carry forward parts of the past, they should be what is best about the past People working together are better off and more successful than people working alone Communities are the most effective place for change to happen, with community leadership and support It is important to value differences Our differences can enrich the resourcefulness of our communities Respecting, acknowledging and combining our different strengths provides powerful leverage for change (Hammond, The Thin Book of AI) (The Community Tool Box) (National Social Marketing Centre UK) Treaty principles Treaty principles in action Jigsaw’s Vision and Values Tika - doing the right thing Pono - doing it with integrity Aroha - driving it with sincerity Partnership - We share decision-making power at all levels within our organisation and its activities. Protection - We work together to protect our indigenous treasures, including Maori mythology, knowledge, values, stories and traditions, Maori language, our shared natural environment and our people. Participation - We partner within our organisation, seeking equality of opportunity and outcomes. Vision - Spark the dream – thriving children, flourishing families Values - We value all people and act with generosity and integrity. We are inclusive, transparent and collaborative, seeking always to promote genuine, respectful relationships and to provide outstanding service. AIP May 11 Kinley and Christie: Many Voices, One Purpose More Articles at www.aipractitioner.com 20 AI Practitioner May 2011 Volume 13 Number 2 ISBN 978-1-907549-05-2 ‘It’s like an octopus: a body of people who are at the centre driving the new ideas, and then new tentacles growing out into every corner of our community.’ member of the Thames community The Thames Linking Communities [TLC] rollout We chose Thames as the pilot location because, as a compact service town of only 6,000 people, it is a discrete entity. This made it realistic to design a community development initiative which, over time, would touch the life of everyone living there. It was an additional bonus for the TLC pilot that our national project manager Sally Christie lives there, so she could immediately access a wide range of networks across the local community. With any community based initiative, Jigsaw always works in relationship with its local partner agency so the readiness of CAPS Hauraki to warmly welcome the initiative and the immediate support offered by Kaye Smith, in her role as the local child advocate for child witnesses of family violence, were both vital success factors for community trust and engagement. As ‘Many Voices One Purpose’ has been implemented in Thames through TLC, we have brought our strengths together for the same cause: the safety and well being of our children. This has involved: •• Engaging with mana whenua (local Maori tribal leaders and their representatives) from the outset; •• Seeking their mandate and blessing so that all local people, both Maori and Tauiwi, feel fully welcome and able to participate; •• Involving a bi-cultural team in the design of the TLC launch day and conversation design and creating a conversation that enables everyone’s voice to be heard; •• Inviting mana whenua to open the day with a Maori process of welcome; •• Strengthening local cultural understanding and relationships and seeking to ensure that Maori cultural concepts, values and protocols become embedded into every aspect of the initiative’s design and delivery. Working together in this way has been an essential element in ensuring that Maori living in Thames can experience TLC as inviting, inclusive, strength-based and beneficial for their tamariki (children) and whanau (extended families). During one of Sally’s earliest local conversations about ‘Many Voices One Purpose’, a member of the Thames community, who had no prior experience with child abuse or professional service delivery, summed up the initiative in one sentence: ‘It’s like an octopus: a body of people who are at the centre driving the new ideas, and then new tentacles growing out into every corner of our community.’ ‘Imagine that every day in our community every family had someone to call on to share their hopes, their good times and their hard times. Lead the change. Together we have the skills to make this happen.’ As this concept of the ‘octopus’ caught on, a small local coordinating group quickly emerged, engaged strongly with the concept of community ownership and leadership, and excited by the sense of local empowerment and the hope for change this initiative engendered. They organised the launch event for what came to be called TLC and publicised it widely with an inspiring AIP May 11 Kinley and Christie: Many Voices, One Purpose More Articles at www.aipractitioner.com 21 AI Practitioner Volume 13 Number 2 ISBN 978-1-907549-05-2 May 2011 Collage created by TLC community postcard, utilising social marketing language to promote the benefits of personal responsibility and invite ‘every person in our community’ to ‘accept responsibility’ for actively supporting the families and children of Thames. The bi-cultural conversation design team included Sally and Kaye on behalf of the local coordinating group, with Tau Huirama and Liz Kinley from Jigsaw. At first, we struggled to discover the question that would most perfectly engage participant’s hearts and minds in purposeful story telling and conversation. Then Tau created a breakthrough by taking it back to his own personal experience, recalling positive memories of large whanau Christmas gatherings at his aunt’s home: the deliciousness of her homegrown strawberries and the way this memory has sustained his life-long sense that abundance is possible even in the simplest of life styles. Within moments we had our central question: ‘Can you tell me about a time when something someone did for you or your family created a good experience that has had a lasting and positive effect on your life?’ Signs of positive impact in Thames: where to from here? Unsolicited feedback received throughout and immediately after the TLC launch day reflected participants’ excitement about being part of a meaningful change initiative for their community. As one participant wrote to the coordinating group: ‘What can I say? What a tremendous opportunity it was to really connect with each other. After the first round of “really meeting” with another person I was hooked. And the day just got better.’ ‘It was a delight and a pleasure to hear the round up of the ideas that had emerged from the process. What couldn’t we achieve, if we took the time more often to really listen?’ AIP May 11 Kinley and Christie: Many Voices, One Purpose More Articles at www.aipractitioner.com 22 AI Practitioner May 2011 Volume 13 Number 2 ISBN 978-1-907549-05-2 ‘It was a delight and a pleasure to hear the round up of the ideas that had emerged from the process. What couldn’t we achieve, if we took the time more often to really listen?’ participant in TLC launch It’s clear that an abundance of goodwill, curiosity and commitment has been awakened in Thames and is ready to provide a robust community-owned platform for the next phase of TLC development. A further community event in March, 2011 has now increased the size and spread of people involved and agreed the next set of actions for generating and spreading new helping behaviour through all parts of the community. A DVD of the highlights of the original conversation has proved to be a valuable resource for enhancing and mobilising further action at both personal and community agency levels. Community members attending recounted stories that illustrated their own personal behaviour changes in relation to helping others. Their comments demonstrated significantly increased levels of self-reflection and intentionality. For example: ‘I now listen much more’; ‘I find being consciously present when someone is with me makes a huge difference’; ‘I make a point of acknowledging strangers’. Community agency representatives also reported agency-based behaviour changes, with many who have traditionally worked ‘in silos’ now coming together to share resources. Beyond the boundaries of Thames, other communities where Jigsaw has partner agencies are eagerly exploring options for their own involvement. Some of these are geographical locations, while others are communities of interest such as sporting networks and large community-based workplaces. In the words of one group of TLC community participants: ‘It is about the rebuilding and weaving of the fabric of our community into a cloak that fits us all’. References The Community Tool Box, http://ctb.ku.edeu Hammond, S. (1998) The Thin Book of Appreciative Inquiry. Plano, TX: Thin Books. National Social Marketing Centre, UK. www.nsmc.com Back to Table of Contents AIP May 11 Kinley and Christie: Many Voices, One Purpose More Articles at www.aipractitioner.com 23 Copyright of AI Practitioner is the property of AI Practitioner and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. 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International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 21; November 2012 Application of Management Theories and Philosophies in Nigeria and Their Associated Problems Prof. B.E.A. Oghojafor Faculty of Business Administration University of Lagos Lagos, Nigeria Mr. Ademola Idowu Department of Business Administration University of Lagos Lagos, Nigeria Dr. O.J. George Department of Business Administration University of Lagos Lagos, Nigeria Abstract This paper uses culture as a major driver of the application of management theories in Nigeria, and examines the associated problems with a view to recommending appropriate solutions. It defines culture along divergence, universalism, convergence and situational lines of demarcation; and notes, from the point of view of African contributions to management thought, that, management ideas are universal, but their level of development differs from one civilisation to another. The paper is based on secondary sources of data collected from the structured survey of articles and texts published in the last twenty years, and on, specifically, a typical Nigerian Management Model which is predicated on the African core values. The paper reviews the literature of some examples of management theories and discusses the problems which are associated with the application of management theories in Nigeria. This paper reveals that despite these problems, management scholars and academicians are working on the adaptation or formulation of necessary African and indeed Nigerian management theories. The paper recommends possible solutions to the identified problems which include the need for Nigeria to forge international cooperation with countries of similar backgrounds with the aim of conducting cross – cultural studies in management theories. Keywords: Culture, Applicability, Nigerian Management model, Problem 1. Introduction Theory, in its conceptualisation, can be defined as a systematic collection of related principles, and Management theory as a way of categorising pertinent management knowledge (Inyang, 2007). Management theory is also a combination of the concepts and principles of management (Nwachukwu, 1992). It is argued in literature that Management, as a human responsibility and a process that drives economic development and activities, is as old as human civilization or history. It is, therefore, noteworthy that Africa as part of the global community had existed in her own unique ways and unique cultures and managed the environment throughout history. It is on record that the quiet of this environment was however, extensively disrupted in the 19th century when the Europeans scrambled for and partitioned Africa. 72 © Centre for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijbssnet.com This marked the beginning of colonialism in Africa where the people’s thought processes and cultures were altered through western “civilization” influences. African management thought was a major culprit of these western influences(Inyang, 2007). As an illustration of the above claim, and as noted by Kiggundu (1991), it is acknowledged that during colonisation, the various colonial powers first destroyed or devalued local institutions and management practices, and then substituted them with their own colonial administrative systems out of the belief in Western cultural, biological and technological superiority over Africans. While it can be noted that indigenous perspectives were ignored or denigrated, Dia (1996) argues that many Africa’s problems today are due to a structural and functional separation between informal, indigenous institutions rooted in Africa’s history and culture and formal institutions mostly transplanted from outside. The contribution of culture as a main driver of application of management theories in Nigeria can be found in the study by Akporherhe (2002) which suggests that culture is the acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and to generate social behaviour. Culture is learned through education, socialisation and experience and passed from one generation to another; therefore it can be said to be enduring. Oghojafor, George and Owoyemi (2012) also define culture as the way of life of a set of people. Hofstede (1980) defines culture as the pattern, ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, acquired and communicated mainly by symbols, amounting to the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values. As a concluding remark on culture in this paper, Oghojafor, et al. (2012) state that it is not to ignore the fact that cultures do undergo constant changes as people are more or else forced to adjust to new environments and new ways of doing things; and they see culture as consisting of such figurative rather than literal vehicles of meaning, including beliefs, ritual practices, art form and ceremonies, as well as informal cultural practices such as language, gossip, stories and rituals of daily life. 1.1 Aim and Objective The objective of this paper is to discuss management theories and philosophy in Nigeria and the problems which are associated with their application. It is also to discuss possible solutions to these problems. 2. Methodology This paper is a conceptual research work based on literature review. It is also based on a mono-method qualitative approach using secondary sources of data collection. Secondary data are data collected and recorded by a third party researcher for purposes other than contemporary needs of the researcher (Harris, 2001). The paper is a product of structured survey of articles, majority of which were published in the last twenty years. This major database covers about forty business and social science publications. Using key words Culture, Applicability, Management theory, Nigerian Management model along with Developing Counties enabled me to generate a list of more than fifty articles and texts. 3. Applicability of management theories to developing countries Applicability of management theories and practices has historically been a major interest of scholars dealing with developing countries’ situations. Researchers have been discussing this issue from divergence, universality, convergence, and situational perspectives. According to the divergence perspective, mostly comparative management literature, western management theories stop at the cultural boundary of each nation. It is the position of this view that culture is indeed the main source of management differences between developed and developing countries (Hoskisson, Eden, Ming and Wright, 2000). Cross-cultural researchers are said to believe that there is no such thing as a universal theory of management. In contrast, those with universal view were noted to have argued that culture does not limit the applicability of management theories and believe that there are similar management practices within organisations all around the world. Those with convergence perspective consider the degree of industrialisation as the main determinant for applicability of management theories (Hofstede,1993). 73 International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 21; November 2012 The convergence view on the other hand believes that the western management theories may not be applicable in developing countries as a result of the technical and economic difficulties in these countries rather than cultural constraints. Like Hafsi and Farashahi (2005:2) state, ‘situational or contingency theorists, as opposed to universalists, consider different situational factors such as manager’s personality, firms’ ownership and sector (i.e. private or public), and their hierarchy as the main determinants for the applicability of management theories’. Keeping these views in mind, this paper will focus on the interplay of divergence perspective and universalism which shows that cultural differences are the major source of variations in cross – managerial behaviour in developing countries (Barrett and Bass, 1976). This position will apply to the discussion of African contributions to the development of management thought and indeed management theories and philosophies in Nigeria. 4. African contributions to development of management thought As a result of the fact that Africa had no documentation of her past before the coming of the Europeans, her contribution to development of management thought has not been given even a passing mention in writing on management particularly by Western writers. It is also noted that the fact that African historians and archeologists had shown that there were ancient kingdoms and empires in Africa is an indisputable proof that Africans gave serious thought to effective management for achieving organisational and state goals( Ifechukwu, 1994). According to George (1968), it is noteworthy that a few of the western textbooks that discuss management history acknowledge the great pyramids in Egypt as illustrating early outstanding management activities in Africa. By extension, it is on record that the practice of management can be traced back thousands of years. This is because the Egyptians applied the management functions of planning, organising and controlling when they constructed the pyramids. These great pyramids, which were built in 2900 B.C. are a classical example of management and co-ordination. It is interesting to note that one pyramid required 100,000 men, working for 20 years, covering 13 acres, using 2.3 million blocks, each weighing an average of 2.5 tons. It is also noted that in ancient Ghana, there was the Empire of Ghana. The empire could not have survived without effective organisation and management. It should be noted, of course, that the modern state of Ghana is located far away from Ancient Ghana. In the East and North of Africa, there were great African civilisations. All the above evidence suggests that the recognition of the need for effective management for achievement of organisational goals is a universal phenomenon. In the case of Africa, (with the exception of Egypt) African thoughts about management were never committed to writing. This, perhaps, has led to slow process of studying Africa’s own original conceptions of management (Ifechukwu, 1994). It is clear from the above illustration that management ideas are universal but their level of development differs from one civilization to another. Who knows what would have happened in Africa if Western civilisation brought through colonialisation in Africa did not happen and Africa had the opportunity to develop her own peculiar ways of management? The position in Africa today could have been better or worse, who knows? The coming of the Europeans resulted in a permanent dislocation in the march to African civilisation (Ifechukwu, 1994). 5. The management theories and philosophies in Nigeria - A Typical Nigerian Model It is a universally accepted principle that man behaves according to his value systems .It is also a reality of life that the core values serve as a code of conduct which in turn serves as directions of how people are expected to behave (Porter,1962). The Nigerian management philosophy reflects the core values of African culture. And according to Ifechukwu (2010:9), ‘the core values include extended family, human relations orientation, coprosperity or social mutual concern, respect for elders and tradition, consensus, competition and hero-worship’. He (2010) also affirms that the Nigerian management model indicates a managerial style that shows a high concern for both people and production and a system where decision-making is by consensus. The model offers an explicit concept for structuring the character of participation within each phase in management decisionmaking. 74 © Centre for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijbssnet.com 5.1 Culture and managerial practices in Nigeria A body of literature has risen in response to the erroneous claim that there was no management practice in Nigeria. In order to debunk the claim, a number of articles and books have been written arguing for the adoption and incorporation of African and indeed Nigerian philosophy into management as reviewed below: Africans and indeed Nigerians gave serious thought to effective management for achieving organisational and state goals. As stated above, Nigerian culture like African culture stresses the following values: extended family or relationships, co-prosperity, respect for tradition, competition, hero-worship, consensus, age grade system (Ifechukwu, 1994). The practice or application of these core values enjoys illustration among the major Nigerian tribal groups of Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa/Fulani. For instance, among the Yoruba of Nigeria, there was the Oyo Empire with the Alafin of Oyo as the head. There were other great kingdoms such as the Benin Kingdom. These could not have existed without effective organisations (Ifechukwu, 1994). Furthermore, among the Igbo of Nigeria, there is a Council of Elders that advises the Obi or Igwe. There is also age grades through which the village could achieve various village programmes during peace or war times. The town has town criers for announcement of important messages to the towns folk. These features in a traditional Igbo society are suggestive of the recognition of management principles and techniques for purposes of achieving group and organisational goals. It is also on record that when Lord Lugard came to Nigeria, he found that the Hausa already had their own effective system of public administration which Lugard used through indirect rule (Ifechukwu, 1994). 5.2 Other examples of management in Nigeria The call for indigenous approaches to management and leadership falls within the broader call for an African/Nigeria rebirth that seeks to recover the identity of Nigerians as detailed below: 5.2.1 Employment relations practice in Nigeria; pre-colonial era Economic/industrial democracy and other forms of participation of workers in decision-making process in their various workplaces were well developed in the UK based on their culture before these were transferred to Nigeria (and other former British colonies), and were therefore expected to be problematic (George, Kuye and Onakala, 2012). Iwuji(1968) writes on the conflict which resulted from the transfer of the British Voluntarist employment relations system to Nigeria due to the differences in culture between Great Britain and Nigeria and as a result of the heterogeneity and incompatibility thrown up by the forced merger of the nearly two hundred and fifty ethnic groups in Nigeria. It was also stated and noted that in pre-colonial years, there was no monetary currency as a medium of exchange for the services enjoyed. Rewards were said to be in form of food and shelter, by working on another person’s farm, by providing security in return for good gestures or in some cases as part of the dowry for a beautiful bride. There was in existence an employer-employee relationship in Nigeria before the colonial era which was based on the predominantly agricultural economy, culture and traditions which were the basis for systems of work and reward. Iwuji (1968) also notes that slaves were hired to work in large farms and plantations as an integral part of the social and political systems in Nigeria during the pre-colonial period. The employer / family determined the reward system. He also provided food, housing and security for all the employees and would determine when they would get married and to whom. This employment relations system was said to be in practice in the territories (the Northern Protectorate, the Southern Protectorate and the Lagos colony) that the British colonial masters joined together between 1906 and 1911 to become Nigeria before the colonisation of the territories. With the reported colonisation of these territories, the British Voluntarists Employment Relations Practice(ERP) was introduced which could only survive through the introduction of monetary economy in form of payment of wages and salaries(George, et al.,2012). 75 International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 21; November 2012 5.2.2 Paternalistic Employment Relations Practice (ERP) as a case study for Pre-colonial Nigerian Management Practice Once more, the incorrect conclusions that there was no management practice in Nigeria in pre-colonial era have been debunked as can be seen in the following specific example: Ubeku (1983) stated that there was an employment relations system in practice in Nigeria (and most former British colonies) before the arrival of the British colonial masters; this was the Paternalistic employment relations system. The Nigerian Paternalistic employment relations practice was based on the predominantly agricultural economy, culture and traditions which formed the basis for systems of work and reward while the British Voluntarist employment relations practice evolved based on the prevailing social, political and economic philosophy at the period of industrial revolution of the 18th and early 19th centuries in Britain. Furthermore, the British type of political democracy (the parliamentary democratic system) was transferred to replace the various monarchical political systems between the various ethnic groups joined together to become one country while the British Voluntarists employment relations practice was transferred and made to replace the Paternalistic employment relations practice. Both transfers were said to be done without due regard for the differences in culture between Britain and Nigeria on one hand, and differences in cultures of the ethnic groups merged to become one Nigeria on the other hand (Yesufu, 1982). It was also stated and noted that when the traditional leaders (Obas, Chiefs, Obis and Emirs) were employed as the recruitment agents by the colonial masters, the family heads usually sent the troublesome sons and children of less favoured wives some of whom later became educated and joined wage employment. This system of employment relations practice was referred to as the Paternalistic System (George, Kuye, and Onakala, 2012). The study by George (1968) concludes that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to device a template of employment relations practice and other management practices in one cultural area and transfer to another cultural area or areas. 5.2.3 Federal Character as an example of Post-Colonial Nigerian Management Practice. There existed a lot of differences in the educational developments among the different states which led to employment advantages for some Nigerians from some states and employment disadvantages for their fellow Nigerians from other states (George, Owoyemi, and Onakala, 2012). In the educational system, the Northerners were offered admission to the Federal government financed universities with lower qualifications as compared with their counterparts from the South, especially from the South West; the whole idea amounted to ‘holding the south down so that the north could catch up’. The Federal Government of Nigeria spends more money on education in the Northern States than in the Southern States up till today. The elite from the North with the coalition of some British administrators had to delay the granting of independence so as to be able to catch up with the Southerners. It was also stated that although Independence was eventually granted on 1 October 1960, it was observed that within the new nation that there were disparities in culture, stages of social and economic development and even in levels of political awareness of the people. Adamolekun, Erero and Oshionebo (1991) write that when the British left after attaining independence, the Nigerian civil service was dominated by the Southerners who were exposed to Christianity and western education while most of the Northerners who were exposed to the Islamic education could not be recruited. George, Owoyemi and Onakala(2012) note that this led to the application of the constitutional provision of the Federal Character. The 1979 Constitution of Nigeria therefore enacted the Principle of the Federal Character and made provisions for the creation of the Federal Character Commission. Quota System was therefore introduced, yet the problem could not be properly solved and by 1975 it had manifested into a serious political issue that if not well handled could have led to the break-up of the country (Afigbo, 1989). 76 © Centre for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijbssnet.com There was therefore a need for employment to be on the basis of state of origin rather than according to merit as prescribed by the British Voluntarist employment relations practice. This was because if it was left to merit, only people from certain states or regions especially some states/regions in the south would be employable; while people from most parts of the north would not be employable (Nnoli, 1978). The effect of this was that the Northerners who were not educationally and professionally qualified were brought in or the post would be offered to an expatriate on contract while a Northerner was trained as quickly as possible. In some cases, the less qualified Northerner ended up being the boss of a more qualified Southerner. All these went on in the Judiciary, Foreign Service, and every arm of the government including the Presidency which the Northerners saw as their birth right; so far since independence in 1960 more Northerners had occupied the post (George, et al., 2012). 5.2.4 Industrial / economic /Political Democracy as a case study for Management Practice Denovan (1974) notes that despite the international spread of industrial/economic democracy which commenced around 1915 in Britain and some parts of Western Europe, nothing of such was heard of Nigeria until 1972 when the then military government promulgated the ‘Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decree’ (often referred to as the Indigenisation Decree). The objectives of the Decree were as follows (i) to create opportunities for the Nigerian indigenous businessman; (ii) to maximise local retention of profits; and (iii) to increase level of intermediate capital and goods production. This decree made it imperative for foreign enterprises to sell shares to their employees and that the enterprises should make loans available to the employees, in some cases some state governments bought the shares for their indigenes(George,Owoyemi and Okanlawon, 2012). 5.2.5 Corporate governance and culture Ethnicity also plays a major role in the ‘board politics’ and is another major socio-cultural issue which contributes to the problem. Merit in this case has to give way to ethnicity. Another factor is religion. They reported in their paper, the application of “anointing oil” to appease god in order to improve the fortunes of a business organisation (George, et al., 2012). Having presented the typical Nigerian model and associated propositions, and various examples of management practice in Nigeria; this will be followed by the section on problems associated with the application of management theories in Nigeria. 6. Problems associated with the application of management theories in Nigeria According to Ogundele (2005) and Inyang (2007), there are several problems that are facing researchers in Nigeria, other African countries and developing countries at large in the application of management theories. First, is the problem of Intra-Cultural differences which Ogundele (2005) notes in the context that Africa has a higher degree of ethnic, cultural and linguistic pluralism than other continents. These differences have made it difficult in having a common idea or front in the area of development of a consistent and acceptable management practice. Second, apart from religious differences which have also affected the development of management thought, the struggle for hegemony between one tribe and the other has affected the acceptability of a culturally bound theory of management over the other. Ethnicity, which can also cause divisiveness among ethnic groups and some people receiving political patronage from the authority, affects the process of developing management theory (Ogundele, 2005; Inyang, 2007). Ethnicity leads to creation of ethnically homogenous groups of residential enclaves and voluntary associations. Ethnicity can also be the cause of divisiveness, with some ethnic groups receiving preferential treatment by those in authority. Since each ethnic group has distinct culture, this can constitute problem in formulating theories that could effectively reflect different ethnic shades. Third, Oghojafor, et al (2012) note the abuse in the adoption of “Federal Character” as a Government policy in the distribution of opportunities and facilities among the different sections of the country. They therefore rationalise that any system which allows merit to be compromised under any circumstances will be retrogressive. 77 International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 21; November 2012 Fourth, while basic research is carried out in order to discover knowledge, applied research is conversion of knowledge to practice. Academicians and scholars in Nigeria have found themselves in a situation where government institutions and the private sector engage in activities that are capable of generating immediate profits and returns on investment. Since researchers have to operate within their immediate environment, they are constrained by the requirements and expectations of the private and public institutions. Therefore, researches that could lead to the development of useful theories and applications are relegated to the background which leads to lack of orientation and tradition for basic and applied research (Ogundele, 2005). Fifth, researches that are capable of leading to the development of sound theories could go beyond the affordability of the researchers. In Nigeria, such funds for such researches are rarely available from the public and private sectors (Ogundele, 2005). Sixth, it is known that academicians in developing countries are often not motivated to engage in research work that would produce relevant management theories. This is because such theories do not produce immediate financial gains which are the hallmark of the value in the society in which the financially poor academicians have found themselves(Ogundele, 2005). Seventh, until recently in Nigeria when merit award was instituted, outstanding contributions to knowledge by Nigerians were often given recognition only by foreign bodies and countries. That, in a way, was responsible for the choice of publishing abroad by researchers and academicians. Thus, the knowledge bases of foreign countries were expanded while those of Nigeria and other developing countries remained stagnant (Ogundele, 2005). Eighth, it is noteworthy that the continent of Africa and other developing parts of the world including Nigeria are confronted by forces of change and disunity which make them dynamic and volatile. Since management theories are designed for predicting or explaining behaviour in relatively stable environment, the fast pace of change would render irrelevant a theory that was put in place to explain behaviour before the changes occurred. Therefore, unstable political, economic, social and other factors in the environment present their unique problems to theory development in developing countries including Nigeria (Ogundele, 2005). Furthermore, there is inconsistency in legislation / administrative policies as theories in management and other social sciences are designed to help in improving the functioning of the established systems. This is based on the assumption that the external environment will be relatively stable to guarantee continuity. However, in situations where government legislations and administrative policies are changed as soon as there is change of government administration, this will invalidate theoretical formulations based on past scenario(Ogundele, 2005). Also, governments in Africa have been unable to play their roles by providing research facilities and grants to encourage both basic and applied researches. Most researches have been killed because the originator or researcher did not come from a favoured tribe, while many other researchers have been frustrated by bureaucratic bottlenecks. The private sector too has not contributed much to research efforts in Africa(Inyang, 2007). In addition, many of our managers, apart from not realising that they are veritable sources of information to the search for indigenous management theory, find it difficult to document their experiences. The managers themselves did nothing to encourage the development of the management principles and theory. Their major interest was on quick service and money. To achieve that end, the areas of their greatest emphasis were technical know-how or technology, cost and the balance sheet. Through ignorance, no inquiry was made into proper and adequate administrative functions and ideal leadership styles (Jaja and Zeb-Opibi, 1999). Finally, the relative newness of the study of management in our universities has affected its acceptability, credibility and relevance in our system. Management, as it were, has not evolved as a local curriculum but a curriculum wholly transferred from foreign university programmes or brochures. The study of management has suffered from lack of indigenous literature that would propagate African management rather than the management theories and practices of the West. 78 © Centre for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijbssnet.com Many questions do come to mind, some of which are: are Nigerian managers not capable of managing multinational companies? Or are the expatriates desperate to take over the management of their companies? It is important to answer these questions(Inyang, 2007). The various issues that are associated with the application of management theories in Nigeria have been highlighted in this section; the possible solutions and suggestions will be discussed under Discussion and Conclusion below. 7. Discussion The above challenges or difficulties are, however, not insurmountable as many African scholars and academicians are beginning to advocate the evolution and development of indigenous African management theories and practices. African scholars of management in particular have the onerous responsibility of developing their research skill, to enhance proper evolution of African management knowledge and practices, toward evolving a coherent indigenous management theory. On the basis of the review of the African core values and the forgoing African management model, the following propositions are formulated according to Ifechkwu (2010): a. African (Nigerian) managers with an orientation in Nigerian culture tend to practise participative management style. b. African (Nigerian) managers from communities where authority or leadership is believed to be divinely ordained tend to practise paternalistic management style. c. African (Nigerian) managers from communities which practise extended family system (where everyone is expected to be his/her brother’s keeper) tend to practise human-relations approach to management. d. People-oriented style tends to be more widespread in the public sector than in the private sector. e. African (Nigerian) managers coming from a background of extended family system also tend to be involved in nepotism in recruitment of personnel. f. The adoption of task orientation as a managerial style by managers in Africa (Nigerian) to the neglect of human relations could lead to industrial disharmony in the industries. The emphasis here is on the need to develop local concepts and theories of management that are in line with our peculiar situations or circumstances and that will be most effective in achieving our development goals (Inyang, 2007). Under the principle of equifinality, there is no universally best managerial style. Effective management is always contingency or situational management. African management scholars therefore have a duty to evolve an authentic African management model suitable for the African environment and culture (Koontz, O’Donnel and Weihrich, 1980). Drucker(1985) and Ifechukwu (2010:14) make the same point when they observe that ‘technology can be imported at low cost and with a minimum of cultural risk while institutions, by contrast, need cultural roots to grow and prosper. Policy-makers, in Africa, need therefore to engage in social innovation by formulating policies, strategies and programmes that are African and yet modern’. They note that Japan borrowed or imitated Western technology and by so doing holds the West at bay but at the same time remains Japanese. Our models for development must be based on African culture for Africa to develop. The core values of African culture should be taught in African schools at all levels. They should be incorporated in leadership courses and management training programmes in Africa (Drucker, 1985; Ifechukwu, 2010). Multinational enterprises (MNEs) present a range of economic benefits to the countries where they locate subsidiaries. One of the economic benefits should be the training of the indigenous managers in the arts of contemporary management practices based on the fact that the parent companies are located in the economically developed environments with access to the latest theoretical and practical techniques of scientific management of complex organisations. Nigeria- based multinational companies should benefit from their parent companies (Edwards, 2001.,George, et al., 2012). 79 International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 21; November 2012 8. Conclusion This paper has addressed an omission in the literature and has thus added to knowledge by formulating propositions which are based on the review of the African core values which include extended family, human relations orientation among other values. The paper also emphasises the need to adapt these techniques to suit the local environments but more importantly, there is an urgent need to create theories and techniques that are founded on the ideals of our culture and business environment. Akinnusi (1979) reinforces this when he said it requires a lot of research to generate data for theory building and he calls for experimental studies aimed at evaluating different approaches and techniques. Our schools of management should blaze the trail in innovative techniques. It is not too much to expect our management educators to produce cases and textbooks based on solid research into the nature of management as practised in Nigeria. This, of necessity, requires the co-operation of the business community who must willingly admit and assist the academic community in the latter’s search for information and data. It should be noted that Nigeria shares similar backgrounds with other developing nations of the world and Africa in particular; thus, international co-operation similar to that among Western European nations should be forged with the sole purpose of conducting cross-cultural studies in areas of management education and training. 9. Limitation of the Study / Further Research Work Although this qualitative study is necessary, it may not be sufficient to test the propositions developed for this paper. Further research which will generate direct empirical support is therefore suggested. Archival research to examine whether the experience of Nigerian managers is consistent with the propositions is also necessary. I am aware of difficulty in the application of African management theories in Nigeria. Appropriate information can, however, be retrieved from either corporate documents or interviews with decision participants to determine whether the experience in these cases and others is consistent with the Nigerian management model and the propositions. Furthermore, a concerted effort is required to understand our culture from the perspective of how it enhances or hinders productive efforts. To do so will require an in depth study of our traditional social institutions and processes such as the kingship system, initiation rites and rituals, festivals, myths and mythologies, proverbs and the role of change agents such as the so-called witch doctors and sorcerers who are akin to today’s organisational development consultants. From such studies, no doubt, we will be able to understand the beliefs, norms, values, fears and expectations which people carry with them into organisations. Furthermore, the techniques adopted in managing those systems might prove to be more useful to the management of our organisations, and the training and the education of our managers than the so-called modern theories and techniques(Akinnusi, 1979). Researches should also be conducted by sociologists and economists as to how best to tame the twin beasts of corruption and bad management. The researchers should also come out with how to make governance less expensive and less attractive so that the politicians and the civil servants will not see their positions as avenues to amass wealth; rather it should be seen as an opportunity to serve(George, et al., 2012). 80 © Centre for Promoting Ideas, USA www.ijbssnet.com References Adamolekun, L., Erero, J., and Oshionebo, B. (1991). “Federal Character and Management of the Federal Civil Service and the Military”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 21: 75-88. Afigbo, A. (1989). ‘Federal Character: Its Meaning and History’, Nigeria: Heinemann Educational Books. Akinnusi, D.M.(1979). “The Role of Training and Development in Organisational Growth and National Development”, Beacon. 1 (2), 20 – 22. Akporherhe, F.(2002).The Challenge of English and other foreign languages on Nigerian culture. ‘Journal of Nigerian Languages and Culture’. 3: 29-33. Barrett, G.V. and Bass, B.M. (1976). Values and the Search for value – free dimensions of culture. Journal of CrossCultural Psychology, 18, 143 -164. Dia, M. (1996). Africa’s management in the 1990s and beyond. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Denovan, J.F. (1974). “Nigeria after “Indigenisation Decree”. Is There Any Room Left for the American Businessman’? International Lawyer, 8(3): 23 – 38. Drucker, P.F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Edwards, R.W. (2001). Multinational corporation subsidiaries roles: Reflections from a policy perceptive. International Journal of Business Studies, 9(2), 91-102. Elaigwu, J.I. (1991). “Ballot box or barracks for Nigeria”. Peace Review: A journal of Social Justice. 3(4), 28-31. George, C.S. (1968). The History of Management Thought. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. George, O.J., Kuye, O.L., and Onokala, U.C. (2012). ‘Culture and Management Practices are Siamese Twins: The Case of Employee Relations Practice in Nigeria (Cadbury Nigeria plc) and the United Kingdom (Cadbury Worldwide UK). Business and Management Review 3(2): 9-22. George, O. J., Owoyemi, O. and Okanlawon, A. (2012). ‘The coming of ‘Industrial/Economic Democracy to Nigeria from the United Kingdom. International Review of Business and Sciences. 1(8): 2-9. George, O. J., Owoyemi, O., and Onakola, U. (2012). “Evolution of Employment and Industrial Relations practice: The Nigerian experience. International Journal of Business and Social Science: 3(12), (pp. 188-194). Hafsi, T. and Farashahi, M. (2005). Applicability of Management theories to developing countries: a synthesis. 45(4). Harris, H.(2001). ‘Content Analysis of Secondary Data: A study of courage in Managerial Decision Making’. Journal of Business Ethics, 34(3-4): 191 -208. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organisations: Software of the wind. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural Constraints in Management Theories, Academy of Management Executive, 7(1): 81-94. Hofstede, G. H. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values, London: Saye Publications. Hoskisson,R.E., Eden, L., Ming, L.C., and Wright, M. (2000). Strategy in Emerging Economies, Academy of Management Journal, 43(3): 249-267. Ifechukwu, J.A.O. (2010). African Approach to Management: Notes toward a Theory: Lagos, p.9. Ifechukwu, J.A.O. (1994). Business Management: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. Lagos. Pp. 77-78. Inyang, B.J. (2007). Management theory: Principles and Practice, 2nd edition: Calabar Nigeria: MGb Publishers. Iwuji, E.C. (1968). International handbook of industrial relations contemporary Developments and Research, London: Aldwych Press. Jaja, S.A. and Zeb-Obipi, I.(1991). Management: elements and theories. PortHarcourt, Nigeria:Pearl Publishers. Kiggundu, M.N. (1991).The challenge of management development in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Management Development, 10(6): 32-47. Koontz, H., O’Donnel, C. and Weihrich, H. (1980). Management Seventh Edition, International Student Edition, Aukland, Bogota, etc: McGraw-Hill International Book Company. Nnoli, O. (1978). ‘Ethnic Politics in Nigeria’, Fourth Dimension Publishers. Nwachukwu, C.C. (1992). Management theory and practice. Onitsha, Nigeria: Africana FEP Publishers Limited. Oghojafor, B., George, O. and Owoyemi, O. (2012). Corporate Governance and National Culture are Siamese Twins: The Case of Cadbury (Nigeria) Plc. International Journal of Business and Social Science., 3(15): 270. Ogundele, O.J.K. (2006). Management and Organisation: Theory and Behaviour. Molofin Nominee, Lagos, 237-239. Porter, E.H. (1962). The Parable of The Spindle. Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp. 58-66. Ubeku, A.K. (1983). Industrial relations in developing countries: The case of Nigeria. London: Macmillan Press. Yesufu, T. M. (1982). ‘The dynamics of industrial relations: The Nigerian experience, ‘University Press Limited’, Ibadan. 81

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