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Views of Human Resource Development: In the textbook, two main views of human resource development are examined. Discuss the similarities and differences between the views of performance-based and developmental HRD. Answer the questions: Which view do you believe is more relevant to your organization. Why? Use this week’s lecture as a basis for your post. Reference and cite the textbook in your original post. Performance-Based Human Resource Development and the Human Capital Theory Koppe (2014) stated that performance-based human resource development is related to human capital theory. Since performance-based views look at the organization’s profit and competitive advantage as the measurements of success, understanding a management theory that examines the individuals in an organization, and the bottom line, is a logical correlation. One of the discussion questions this week requires summarizing the basics of performance-based HRD. Understanding the effect of human capital aids in understanding performance-based development. Please watch this video to gain more knowledge of human capital theory: The New Science of Human Capital. Psacharopoulos (2006) stated that the basis of human capital theory is “the formation of human capital entails the sacrifice of resources today for the sake of a stream of benefits in the future” (p. 114). This definition indicates that HRD should focus on improving the human capital in an organization to increase the future bottom line. Nafukho, Hairston, and Brooks (2004) posited that human capital theory is related to HRD. According to Nafukho, Hairston, and Brooks (2004) a key similarity between human capital theory and HRD is that investing in individuals in an organization will increase productivity. Both human capital theory and performance-based HRD require the measurement of intangible assets. Psacharopolos (2006) and Nafukho, Hairston, and Brooks (2004) agreed that in performancebased HRD that human capital theory should be focused on the training of the individuals in the organization. The cost of training and the development of the individuals in the organization should be considered an investment in the future profit of the organization. The same argument could be made for the decision to go to Ashford University. The prospective student has to weigh the costs of the education, and for some, the loss of current income against the future return on his or her educational investment. Cornachionne and Daugherty (2013) stated that human capital theory is a tool for HRD. Human capital theory can be utilized to predict and interpret the effects to the profitability of an organization from the costs of investing in human capital. HRD staff and management should be experts in human capital theory. The knowledge allows HRD to examine various investment possibilities and determine which likely will have the highest rate of return for the organization (Cornachionne and Daugherty, 2013). Performance-based HRD is focused on the profitability of the organization rather than on the employees themselves. The employees receive training and increases in pay because they are viewed as assets of the organization rather than as individuals. This view has been criticized as dehumanizing the individuals of the organization. The other common view of HRD is the developmental view, which is a more humanistic approach. As you focus on the reading and assignments this week, the different views of HRD will become clear. The focus of this week is an overview of the basic functions of HRD. One question to consider as you read is how your personal views of the development of individuals in the organization connect to the theories. References: Cornachionne, E., & Daugherty, J. L. (2013). Trends in opportunity costs of U.S. postsecondary education: A national HRD and human capital theory analysis. New Horizons in Adult Education & Human Resource Development, 25(2). Retrieved from ProQuest database. Harvard Business Review (2008, December 1). The new science of human capital [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3rZSIqZ0pM Kopp, D. M. (2014). Human resource training & development: Performance improvement through workplace learning. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education Nafukho, F. M., Hairston, N. R., & Brook, K. (2004). Human capital theory: Implications for human resource development. Human Resource Development International, 7(4). doi: 10.1080/1367886042000299843 Psacharopoulos, G. (2006). The value of investment in education: Theory, evidence, and policy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Journal of Education Finance, 32(2). Retrieved from http://www.press.uillinois.edu/journals/jef.html 1 Introduction to Human Resource Development: Performance Through Learning © Roger Richter/Corbis Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: • Define human resource development. • Distinguish between human resource development and human resource management. • Identify the historic roots of human resource development. • Explain the consensus and debate in human resource development. • Demonstrate the roles in human resource development and apply its competencies to the ­workplace. What’s worse than training your workers and losing them? Not training them and keeping them! —Zig Ziglar Introduction Chapter 1 Pretest 1. Human resource development is best defined as workplace training for employees. a. true b. false 2. Some of the core skills of effective managers are human resource skills. a. true b. false 3. On-the-job training is the most common method of employee training today. a. true b. false 4. An assumption of human resource development is that employees should seek to be competent in the workplace. a. true b. false 5. Managerial skills are important for people who work in the training and development field. a. true b. false Answers can be found at the end of the chapter. Introduction Welcome! Let us start by confirming something you may already suspect: In today’s fastpaced, global marketplace, it is essential for organizations to attract, employ, and retain skilled and motivated workers to maintain their competitive advantage (Agbettor, 2013; Campbell, Coff, & Kryscynski, 2012; Hatch & Dyer, 2004; Neirotti & Paolucci, 2013). Training and developing employees are keys to successful retention and can ensure that employees are motivated to engage in continuous learning and fulfill their career aspirations while advancing the organization. According to the 2012 State of the Industry Report from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD), which is now known as the Association for Talent Development (ATD), U.S. companies spent approximately $160 billion on employee training and development for their employees—about as much as New Zealand’s gross domestic product (TradingEconomics, 2013). Simply put, a trained and developed workforce is no longer just desirable or advantageous, but is now necessary for an organization to survive and ultimately succeed (Campbell et al., 2012; Hatch & Dyer, 2004). In view of this reality, this textbook will explore every phase of the framework for employee training and the human resource development (HRD) ­process— analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation (ADDIE)—as well as HRD theories Defining Human Resource Development Chapter 1 and practice and human resource development’s implications to the business, management environments, as well as, society, at large. After reading this text, you will possess insight into the means, manner, and methods of employee training, and you will know how a trained and developed workforce affects and drives organizational performance. Navigating This Text This text is organized to help you learn about the functions, duties, and responsibilities of training, as well as the social responsibility of training and development. The book covers every phase of training, performance management, training transfer, career development, and organizational development. Additionally, the book will discuss the current consensus and debate within the training and development field, considering questions such as: • Is training about learning or performance? • Is human resource development a support or a lead function? • What return on investment (ROI) should organizations expect from training interventions? • Who is responsible for training transfer? • Is there an ethical dimension to training and development? 1.1 Defining Human Resource Development At its core HRD entails training employees in the workplace so they can perform their jobs effectively (Chalofsky, 1992; Kelly, 2000; McGuire & Jørgensen, 2011; Swanson, 1995; Werner & DeSimone, 2011). However, to conclude that HRD is just about training is tantamount to saying that the Beatles were just a rock-and-roll band from the 1960s. Although both statements are partially true, they are insufficient. Still, in the spirit of a social science, HRD’s definition does vary depending on who you ask. Some in the field contend that—semantics aside—HRD does, in fact, mean “training and development” (Stewart & Sambrook, 2012). Others in the field not only refuse to define HRD (Lee, 2001), but also claim that it defies definition entirely (Blake, 1995). Even the idea of what training employees means seems to be up for debate. Mayo and DuBois (1987) suggested that although “training involves learning, not all learning is training” (p. 2); others advised that definitions of training will vary depending on the given objectives (Nadler & Nadler, 1990; O’Toole, 2010). For example: • Training is learning when it relates to the present job requirements. • Training is development when it facilitates employee career growth within the present job and organization. • Training is education when it refers to the state of the worker’s long-term competency framework—not only ability, but also experiences—which go beyond the present job or organization. So, if you have concluded that there is no unified definition for HRD, then you would be right. However, there is hope. One tool we will use is the typology that Gilley, Eggland, and Gilley (2002) introduced that shows HRD’s depth and breadth (see Table 1.1). Distinguishing Between Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management Table 1.1: How do I HRD? Let me count the ways… Chapter 1 Term Individual domain focus Organizational domain focus Short term Training Performance management Long term Source: Gilley, Eggland, & Gilley, 2002. Career development Organizational development What Table 1.1 shows are the domains of HRD practice; that is, a day in the life of HRD. We see that, beyond training, HRD also includes the processes, products, and functions of career development, performance management, and organizational development. Additionally, two important dimensions or points of reference are considered: time frame (short term or long term) and focus (individual or organizational, including work teams). We therefore define and discuss training from a short-term, individual focus (Chapter 3); performance management (Chapter 2) from a short-term, organizational perspective; career development (Chapter 9) from a long-term, individual focus; and organizational development (Chapter 9), from a long-term, organizational point of view. Now, let us start our HRD journey by distinguishing between human resource development and human resource management. Then we will take a brief look at the history of training so we can better appreciate these modern perspectives—and definitions—of HRD. 1.2 Distinguishing Between Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management Human resource development is not an exact science; that is, it is interdisciplinary, drawing from other social sciences like sociology and anthropology, as well as business and economics. HRD shares similar missions to other disciplines, such as industrial and organizational psychology and organizational behavior, which focus on employee behaviors and attitudes and how these can be improved through both training programs and hiring practices, feedback, and management systems (Anderson, 2001). HRD itself, though, is a subset of the larger human resource management (HRM) field, which has as its professional organization the Society for Human Resource Management. The society was founded in 1948 and represents more than 250,000 members in more than 140 countries (http://www.shrm.org). HRM traditionally encompasses all the human resources functions, including recruitment, selection, payroll, benefits, employee relations, and legal issues (Alagaraja, 2012). One way to look at the differences between HRM and HRD is to consider that, whereas HRM spends most of its efforts managing functions, HRD spends its energies developing people. Additionally, although the training and development function in many organizations falls within the HRM department or division, training and development are not necessarily bound to the HRM department. That is, any effective supervisor or manager should also possess the competencies of those who would train and develop. Such skills include managing individual performance, motivating employees, allocating resources, and monitoring the environment (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). Distinguishing Between Human Resource Development and Human Resource Management Chapter 1 Depending on whether HRD is part of the HRM department will also usually dictate the jobs and whether job duties and roles are centralized or differentiated. For example, for smaller organizations, the human resources manager may be responsible for both the administrative aspects of the organization’s human resources as well as the training and development functions. In larger companies with a substantial number of employees, there will typically be larger training budgets, and as a result, the HRD function may stand alone and even include the position of chief learning officer, a corporate officer responsible for all the organization’s learning and development. Figure 1.1 shows an example of a training and development department. Figure 1.1: Organization chart of a large HRD department HRD departments in larger organizations can be decentralized with specialized positions filled by individuals who are responsible and accountable for their particular aspect of the training and development function. Office of Human Resource Development Training and Development Director of Human Resource Development Talent Development Talent Acquisition Human Resource Planning Executive Support and Leadership Services Performance Management Human Resource Development Research and Evaluation Specialist Program Developer Management Development Specialist Skills Training Administrator Organization Development Specialist On-the-job Training Coordinator Safety Trainer Sales/ Customer Service Trainer f01.01_BUS375.ai Career Development Specialist As we will discuss in Chapter 2, the practice of HRD can also be directly impacted by HRM systems and policies. For example, if poor job performance is due to a trend of unable and unwilling employees, the organization must look at its personnel recruiting and selection practices. In sum, not only are HRM and HRD parallel functions, they also must be collaborative (DeCenzo, Robbins, & Verhulst, 2012). The Advent of Human Resource Development Chapter 1 1.3 The Advent of Human Resource Development Although the expression “human resource development” was used as early as 1962 (Harbison, 1962), Professor Leonard Nadler popularized the term in a speech given in 1969 at the ASTD’s annual conference in Miami, Florida. The concept of training, however can be traced back to antiquity. Steinmetz (1976) even concluded that as “primitive man invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter, and language, the need for training became an essential ingredient in the march of civilization” (p. 3). In ancient Babylonia, training processes between artisan and apprentice were codified so that artisans could teach their crafts to the next generation; this system also ensured that they could maintain an adequate number of craftsmen, in general (Usher, 1920). The Code of Hammurabi had laws chiseled into its black diorite for all citizens to read. Most of these laws dealt with strict moral and civil conduct in the 18th century BCE; for example, according to Section 218, a doctor could have his hands cut off after an unsuccessful surgery on a patient who died. But part of the code, specifically in Sections 188–189, detailed the relationship between the artisan and the unskilled novice, and this relationship could be considered a rudimentary method of apprenticeship. The sections state: “If an artisan take a son for adoption, and teach him his handicraft, one may not bring claim for him. If he does not teach him his handicraft, that son may return to his father’s house” (King, 2008). As a result, the Code of Hammurabi stands as a forerunner to the early apprenticeship programs of the 18th century that served as a foundation for today’s HRD. Training in the Late 1800s and Early 1900s © Bettmann/CORBIS The Code of Hammurabi loosely established the parameters of what would become the master–apprentice relationship. In the apprenticeship systems that followed centuries after Hammurabi’s time, the unskilled protégé would train under an experienced master to learn the craft and develop from an apprentice to a journeyman, and then from a yeoman to a master (King, 1964; Sleight, 1993). Even modern-day organizations like Wikimedia, the nonprofit foundation that operates Wikipedia, use a similar classification system to rank their editors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Novice editor Apprentice editor Journeyman editor Yeoman editor Experienced editor Senior editor I The Advent of Human Resource Development 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Chapter 1 Senior editor II Senior editor III Master editor I Master editor II Master editor III Direct instruction was essential in these early apprenticeship programs because the trainee was usually illiterate (Fleming, Gallichan, & Lamonde, 2005). The direct instructional method gave rise to what is today called on-the-job training (OJT) (King, 1964; Jacobs, 2003; Sleight, 1993; Steinmetz, 1976; Usher, 1920). In OJT, a new employee might be paired up with an experienced coworker who trained the newcomer by demonstrating the proper way to perform the job tasks. OJT is still the most common method—and considered the most economical—used for training today (Craig, 1987; Steinmetz, 1976; Werner & DeSimone, 2011). As the Industrial Revolution took hold, the traditional apprentice programs for unskilled workers were replaced by more formal vocational education programs located within factory premises (Kincheloe, 1999; Jacobs & Phillips, 2002; Sharma, 1994). According to Steinmetz (1976), in 1872 Hoe and Company opened a manufacturer of printing presses in New York City, one of the first factory schools. Similar factory schools followed, hosted by Western Electric, the Ford Motor Company, Westinghouse, and Siemens (Berg & Hudson, 1992 ; Kincheloe, 1999; Sharma, 1994; Sleight, 1993; Steinmetz, 1976). These factory schools used what is known as vestibule training, or “nearthe-job” training (Hardman, 1963; Naik, 2007), whereby the classroom or training room is located as close as conditions permit to the department for which the worker is being trained, and is furnished with the same machines that are used in production (Diemer, 1922; Hardman, 1963; Kelly, 1920; Steinmetz, 1976; U.S. Training Service, 1918). As training techniques became more sophisticated in the 19th and early 20th centuries, an understanding grew that in order to optimize job performance, not only did employers need to manage job task efficiencies, they also needed to consider the human factor of the job. Frederick Taylor (1911) first proposed this idea in his scientific management guidelines, which will be discussed later in this chapter. Following his analysis of a series of experiments conducted in the late 1920s and early 1930s at the Hawthorne Works factory of Western Electric, Elton Mayo observed a phenomenon that would be called the Hawthorne effect. Mayo found that employees performed better not as a function of controlling external factors (such as the intensity of workplace lighting, as was the case at Hawthorne), but as a response to the novelty of being observed by others (Mayo, 1949; Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939). Mayo’s research was subsequently upheld by other theorists like Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow; they concluded that workers ultimately are more motivated by intrinsic social factors, such as the need to feel valued, be recognized, and be given greater responsibility, than they are by extrinsic variables like work conditions and wages—what Herzberg called the “hygiene factors,” or the factors that maintained work life (Werner & DeSimone, 2011). That worker psychology and employee well-being could be drivers of productivity gave rise to the human relations movement (Herman, 2002; Sapru, 2008; Steinmetz, 1976; Werner The Advent of Human Resource Development Chapter 1 & DeSimone, 2011) and the idea of focusing not only on the training, but also on the development of employees. Consideration of the psychological issues of work life would lead to an appreciation of how insufficient it was for organizations to focus solely on a task-driven, autocratic work environment. World Wars Change Jobs and Influence Training The employment environment during the two world wars gave rise to training methods still in use today. During World War I, for example, an urgent need arose to train shipyard workers so that the United States could quickly assist Europe in the war effort (Steinmetz, 1976). To resolve this wartime training crisis, vocational director Charles Allen introduced the prepare, present, apply, and inspect method of job instruction (Allen, 1922; Allen & Klinefelter, 1938; McCord, 1976; Sleight, 1993). This method was also known as the show, tell, do, check method (see http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/006521817). Specifically, the system prepared the worker from both an informational standpoint and a developmental one. Here is how it worked: while preparing the plane assembly worker to learn how to rivet, the trainer would show the trainee the rivets and use the following training questions: • • • • • Have you ever seen a rivet? Can you tell a rivet from a bolt? Did you ever see any riveting? Is a rivet alike at both ends? Is a rivet round or square? During World War II large numbers of trained industrial workers left their jobs to enter the armed forces, severely limiting the organizational support coworkers normally provided in training their replacements (Dodd & Rice, 1942; Dooley, 2001; Steinmetz, 1976; Werner & DeSimone, 2011; Wiley, 1984). Because of the heavy demands placed on foremen and supervisors, the Training Within Industry (TWI) program was formed to train supervisors as instructors. The TWI program was introduced to fill quickly the demands for workers in the wartime industries; complex jobs formerly performed by highly skilled workers like machinists were broken down into smaller tasks so that new recruits could quickly learn them (Dinero, 2005; Dodd & Rice, 1942; Dooley, 2001; Gluck, 1988). TWI’s premise of preserving value with less work (Dinero, 2005) was not only a precursor to the current Lean production system (Betsi, 2006) that organizations such as Toyota use today, it is also considered a predecessor to what Peter Senge called the learning organization (Dinero, 2005; Senge, 1990) because of TWI’s focus on continuous improvement. The Advent of Human Resource Development Chapter 1 Did You Know? Rosie the Riveter The vacuum of labor during World War II gave rise to the Rosie the Riveter campaign, in which the government made a concerted effort to recruit and train women workers for the wartime industries (Gluck, 1988; Honey, 1984; Kopp, 2007; Rosie the Riveter Trust, 2006; U.S. Department of Education and Training, 1942). As a result of this campaign, the number of employed women grew from 14 million in 1940 to 19 million by 1945, rising from 26% to 36% of the workforce (Baxandall, Gordon, & Reverby, 1976). As a result, after the war the demographics of the workplace changed permanently, and training was not just focused on male workers anymore. (Chapter 10 will further discuss the social history of training.) 1950s Workplace Training Developments The post–World War II workplace training of the 1950s included two significant developments. First, there was Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy, which classified the depth and breadth of learning objectives from a cognitive, psychomotor, and affective standpoint (Bloom, 1956; Estep, 2008; Naik, 2007). These learning outcomes now serve as the basis of the worker’s competency framework, often referred to as knowledge, skills, and attitudes, or KSAs (Biech, 2009; Estep, 2008; Sleight, 1993). (Chapter 3 will discuss Bloom’s taxonomy in detail.) A second midcentury advancement in the training field was the introduction of training evaluation. With the four-level training evaluation model of Donald Kirkpatrick (2009), organizations could now evaluate training and therefore better manage it at any of four levels: • • • • Level 1, reaction—“Did the trainee like the training?” Level 2, learning—“Did the trainee learn anything?” Level 3, behavior—“Was the trainee able to apply the training to the workplace?” Level 4, results—“Did the training lead to positive organizational outcomes?” As Chapter 8 will discuss, an employee may learn something (level 2) for many reasons, yet not apply it (level 3); that is, a worker may be able, but not willing, to do her job well. Chapter 7 will discuss how training evaluation evolved to include a return on investment (Phillips, 2003). The 1960s and 1970s: The Introduction of Computer-Based Training By the 1960s the American Society of Training Directors had changed its name to the American Society for Training & Development (Craig, 1987; Estep, 2008; Steinmetz, 1976). This semantic change also portended the shift in focus from the training to the trainee, which would spark the early interest in talent management and capacity building—hallmarks of workplace training and development in the 21st century (Rothwell, 2005b; Singh, 2013) that will be discussed in future chapters. The Advent of Human Resource Development Chapter 1 The 1960s and 1970s experienced a major shift from a goods-producing to a service-­providing economy (Joseph, 1998). Because of this shift to service, with its dependence on speed and information, computer-based training was introduced for the first time (Bedwell, 2010; Guile & Brooks, 1987). The introduction of computers made individualized employee training possible (Biech, 2009; Craig, 1987; Estep, 2008; Sleight, 1993; Werner & DeSimone, 2011) but also began to make knowledge about computers necessary (versus desirable) for many workers (Craig, 1987; Estep, 2008; Goldstein, 1989). Significant, too, was that training via computer also now opened up the possibilities and promise of self-directed instruction (Knowles, 1973). The 1980s and 1990s: The Emergence of Intellectual Capital If the late 1960s and the 1970s were about training employees for the service sector, the 1980s were the beginning of the “era of the knowledge worker in the knowledge society” (Meier & Stormer, 2009, p. 191). In this setting, intellectual capital became crucial, and as a result, workplace training systems not only sought to improve the worker’s psychomotor skill set for job tasks, but had to be learning systems as well. Specifically, organizations had to manage and retain job knowledge because the work processes had grown more sophisticated and job-task procedures were chronically revised and improved (Aswathappa, 2006; Drucker, 1999; Meier & Stormer, 2009; Newstrom & Davis, 1993; Powell & Snellman, 2004; Sleight, 1993; Sohag, 1992). The 1980s and 1990s saw major social, economic, and geopolitical changes in the form of new economic constraints and increasing international competition (Robinson, 2002). This environment would have an acute effect on how organizations did business—and therefore on the way organizations trained their employees (Malonis, 2000). Training and development programs needed to respond more quickly and effectively (Herman, 2002; Malonis, 2000; Sleight, 1993) just so organizations could maintain their competitive advantage (Porter, 2008). The mission of training a worker also would be altered due to the erosion of the so-called social contract, which previously gave workers a sense of long-term job security (Herman, 2002). Now, with the emergence of “boundary-less” organizations (Blundell, 1990) and new occupational mobility for workers (Rytina, 1982; Tolbert, 1980), there was a shift away from extensive training and toward “just-in-time” training; that is, training on what employees needed when they needed it, so they could immediately apply it (Schiller, Miller-Kovach, & Miller, 1994). Food for Thought: At-Will Employees The 1980s and 1990s saw more of a distinction between at-will employees (who may be terminated for any reason other than race, gender, or other protected class) and public sector employees, who generally cannot be disciplined, demoted, or terminated unless there is just cause, such as the violation of work rules, dishonesty, misconduct, or poor performance (Hodson & Sullivan, 2011). Consider This 1. Do you think the effectiveness of a training program could be impacted if the trainee is an “at-will” employee versus a public sector “just cause” employee? If so, how? The Advent of Human Resource Development Chapter 1 21st-Century Training and Today’s Influences on HRD In May 2014 the ASTD, the world’s largest professional association dedicated to the practice of training and development, renamed itself the Association for Talent Development (ATD) (http://www.astdnews.org). This rebranding of ASTD no doubt had to do with the need for targeted development of today’s employees. Many agree that the current and future health of America’s 21st-century economy depends directly on how broadly and deeply workers reach a new level of literacy—a “21st-century literacy” that includes strong academic skills, thinking, reasoning, teamwork skills, and proficiency in using technology (U.S. Department of Education, 2011). Training and development today faces formidable challenges, including globalization, an aging and retiring workforce that threatens a skills gap, ever-changing technology engendering workplace security and privacy issues, and the differing learning styles of generation X—workers born from 1965 to 1980—and the millennial generation (generation Y), those workers born from 1980 to 2000. Ginsberg and Wlodkowski (2009) describe a need to be “culturally responsive” when training and developing adults, given these new variables. However, there are opportunities, too, such as increased ethnic diversity, use of social media (Bingham & Conner, 2010; Remtulla, 2008), and the emergence not only of new technologies, but also technology that drives new normative behavior within the organization (for example, BYOD, or “bring your own device”) (Esposito, Kraenzel, Pepin, & Stein, 2011). With this ever-changing and competitive organizational environment, there seems to be a continued trend toward organizational impatience about training. From a practical standpoint, according to Peter Cappelli (2012), author of Why Good People Can’t Get Jobs, organizations today want their new recruits to “hit the ground running” and do not want to spend time with in-depth, formal training programs. An Accenture Consulting survey from late 2011 bears out this observation: 75% of employees who responded said OJT (63%) and shadowing other employees (12%) were the main ways they acquired their new skills, versus only 21% from formal company training (see Table 1.2). Table 1.2: How and where workers acquired new skills in the past five years Training method Percentage On-the-job experience 63% Formal training outside the workplace 19% Formal company training Informal means outside the workplace Shadowing and observing others Have not acquired any new skills Informal company learning programs Source: Smith, De León, Marshall, & Cantrell, 2012, p. 30. 21% 15% 12% 7% 6% HRD Consensus and Debate Chapter 1 HRD IN PRACTICE: HRD at the White House In 2009 President Barack Obama added to his cabinet what could be considered the first HRD position, that of the chief performance officer (CPO). The CPO is responsible for activities such as: • negotiating and establishing business performance metrics, formulae, and thresholds at various levels of the enterprise; • assimilating industry benchmarks or other external data against which to gauge business performance; • recommending a set of performance-based actions for the chief operations officer to implement; • prioritizing and budgeting enterprise and line-of-business strategic performance initiatives; • reporting strategic performance initiative progress and results (returns) to the executive team; and • implementing the components needed to collect, assimilate, analyze, and deliver business performance management data. To learn more about the CPO role follow the link: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-pressoffice/weekly-address-president-obama-discusses-efforts-reform-spending-governmentwaste-n Source: White House Office of Management and Budget. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb Consider This 1. What actions could a CPO carry out that could affect businesses? 2. Why do you think President Obama hired a CPO? 1.4 HRD Consensus and Debate Similar to other disciplines, there is not always harmony and unanimity among and between HRD scholars and practitioners regarding several aspects of the field. There are many differing viewpoints within the field of HRD, including whether training is about learning or performance, whether human resource development should be in a support or a lead function in the organization, what ROI organizations can expect from training, and ultimately, who is responsible for training transfer. HRD Consensus Within the field there is agreement on some key ideas, including HRD as an interdisciplinary discipline; that is, like other social sciences, HRD draws on different fields of study, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, and business. Richard Swanson (1995) suggested that HRD was complemented by three areas—psychological theory, economic theory, and systems theory—as follows: • Psychological theory captures the human aspect of developing employees, as well as the interplay between humans and systems. HRD Consensus and Debate Chapter 1 • Economic theory captures the core issues of the efficient and effective use of resources to meet productive goals in a competitive environment. • Systems theory captures the complex and dynamic interactions of environments, organizations, processes, and group and individual variables operating at any point in time, over time. Further, as part of his metaphor for the HRD discipline, Swanson depicts HRD sitting on a bed of ethics, underscoring, as Chapter 10 will discuss, how much ethics and social responsibility are interwoven throughout the field. Other points of agreement within the field, according to Swanson, include: 1. Practicing HRD within a collective setting. HRD is not an insular discipline; that is, the purpose of HRD’s product, processes, and functions is that they immerse themselves into a host organization to advance the organization, as well as the work teams and the employees themselves. 2. Problem orientation and improvement focus. Every organization, team, and employee has a present state of affairs. The premise here is that the present state, or status quo, is never sufficient and can always stand improvement. As Chapter 2 will discuss, whether an organization moves from the status quo to a desired future state has much to do with the outcome of driving forces versus restraining forces (Lewin, 1943). 3. Open systems theory perspective. HRD views the organization as an open system. Beyond the basic systems theory of the input-process-output model, HRD’s open system continually interacts with the ever-changing environment and critically reflects on feedback from and into the system so the next input is wiser—a process that Argyris (1977) called detecting and correcting—and the organization can therefore become a learning organization (Senge, 1990). 4. Expertise seeking. One of the assumptions of HRD is that competence in the workplace is never good enough. The idea here is that if the employee’s abilities, or KSAs, are merely competent, he or she is just one software update, policy change, new piece of equipment, or unaccustomed challenge away from incompetence. But employees who are expertise seeking can afford to take risks, experiment, and learn by trial and error because they will still be above the competent line. HRD Debate Because HRD is a relatively young discipline, there is also still much debate regarding the philosophical issues, processes, and outcomes surrounding the field. One of the key debates, for example, is HRD’s reason for being. That is, philosophically, why do employers train workers? Is training to improve employee performance, or is it to develop employees through learning (Kelly, 2000)? Well, it depends on who you ask! Catherine Yuelet/iStock/Thinkstock Employees who are trained to consistently seek expertise in their position are able to adapt easily when new equipment, software, or policies are introduced. HRD Consensus and Debate Chapter 1 For example, Swanson’s (1995) definition of HRD is more focused on performance improvement, “a process for developing and unleashing human expertise through training and development for the purpose of improving performance” (p. 208). Chalofsky’s (1992) definition, on the other hand, is focused more on workplace learning and employee growth: “HRD is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups, and organizations through the application of learning-based interventions for the purpose of optimizing human and organizational growth and effectiveness” (p. 179). It is possible, however, that these HRD definitions are variations on the same theme (that is, different sides of the same training and development coin). Organizational leaders should, in fact, reflect on whether they hold a performance-based or a developmental view of training (Dirkx, 2005; Laird, Naquin, & Holton, 2003). The next two sections look at the differences between these two views. Performance-Based View of HRD The performance-based view of training takes on a bottom-line perspective. That is, the primary focus in having well-trained employees is to increase their value to the organization along with their workplace productivity. And, like other organizational resources, without investment—in the form of development—human resources risk getting stale and outdated. This view underscores human capital theory (Becker, 1962), which states that an organization’s competitive advantage is derived by leveraging the intangible assets of well-trained human capital (Bielawski & Metcalf, 2003; Weatherly, 2003). Table 1.3 reflects on off-balancesheet assets. Food for Thought: Training—and the Dilemma of the Financial Statements HRD professionals may face challenges when they recommend that training dollars be spent, since training is a tangible expense, coming directly off an organization’s income statement. As a result, the short-sighted executive may only focus on this as an expense and not as an investment and ask, “When and where will I see the benefit for this training expense?” Consider This 1. How would you explain to a manager that the training expense is worth it? What additional research findings can you provide to support your case? HRD Consensus and Debate Chapter 1 Table 1.3: Human capital as a type of off-balance-sheet asset Human capital Customer Social Structural Tacit knowledge Customer relationships Corporate culture Intellectual property Vocational qualifications Customer loyalty Management philosophy Copyrights Education Professional certification Work-related know-how Work-related competence Brands License agreements Business collaborations Distribution channels Infrastructure assets Management practices Informal networking systems Coaching or mentoring relationships Patents Trade secrets Trademarks and service marks Design rights Source: Adapted from Weatherly, L. A. (2003). Human capital—The elusive asset measuring and managing human capital: A strategic imperative for HR. Research Quarterly. Copyright © 2003 Society of Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA. Used with permission. All rights reserved. Improved human capital due to training is considered an intangible asset. Other examples of intangible assets include intellectual capital, brand recognition, and excellent customer service (Weatherly, 2003). Intangible assets serve as performance drivers; that is, if these intangible assets are optimized, then they serve as good predictors to the tangible outcomes, such as revenue or market share. Human capital theory is linked to the previously mentioned scientific management introduced by Taylor (1911); in this system the optimal way to perform a job was scientifically determined via what was called time and motion studies. In such studies, a stopwatch was used to time a worker’s sequence of motions with the goal of benchmarking to determine the best way to perform a job. In this perspective the worker is seen as but one cog in the organizational production machine; as a result, aspects of job satisfaction and morale are marginalized. However, the quality management aspects of scientific management are still seen today in organizations such as Toyota and its Lean production system (Betsi, 2006). Food for Thought: Expert Seeking HRD riddle: What can you pull out of an expertise-seeking curve at any given time? An expert, of course! However, an expert has to return to the expert-seeking train; otherwise, he or she soon becomes merely competent and can very quickly become incompetent. The moral here is that an expert is never done (Farrington-Darby & Wilson, 2006). Consider This 1. What is the downside of being merely competent at one’s job? 2. Can the goal of HRD be to get from a state of incompetence to competence? Competencies of the Training and Development Professional Chapter 1 Developmental View of HRD Within the developmental view of training, not only is learning and development underscored, but also fulfillment, self-actualization, and the potentialities of human agency in the learning process of the worker (Auluck, 2011; Dirkx, 2005; Griffiths & Koukpaki, 2012; Khan & Saverall, 1993; Rusaw & Rusaw, 2008). Recently, even aspects of societal developmental have been laid at HRD’s doorstep (Hatcher, 2003; Kim, 2012b; Stolz, 2012), as well as linking HRD to human development itself (Kuchinke, 2010). In this perspective, worthy performance outcomes become a collateral, but intended, consequence of the development; that is, whether as a deliberate strategy or a fortunate by-product, as the quality of the learning goes, so goes the performance. In the final analysis it is perhaps different sides of the same coin and not an either–or but a both–and proposition, what Gorelick and others called Performance Through Learning (Gorelick, Milton, & April, 2004). The HRD debate of performance-based or developmental view also drives the relationship between HRD and other related domains; for example, HRD as part of human resource management. Where HRD is part of HRM, more of a performance-based view exists, and where HRD is part of adult education, more alignment exists with the developmental perspective of HRD (Garavan, Gunnigle, & Morley, 2000). 1.5 Competencies of the Training and Development Professional Since 1943 the field of training and development has been led by the ASTD, which is known today as the ATD and the ATD is touted as the world’s largest professional association dedicated to the practice of training and development (http://www.astd.org). The ATD regularly updates and publishes the skills and competencies required of a training and development professional through its competency model (see Figure 1.2), which includes foundational competencies in not only industry knowledge, but also interpersonal skills, business skills, and a global mindset. Specifically, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (U.S. Department of Labor, 2014a), those who would work in training and development need to have the following qualities: • Critical-thinking skills. Training and development managers use critical-thinking skills when assessing classes, materials, and programs. They must identify an organization’s training needs and recognize where changes and improvements can be made. • Decision-making skills. Training and development managers must decide on the best training programs to meet the organization’s needs. For example, they must review available training methods and materials and choose those that best fit each program. • Interpersonal skills. Training and development managers need strong interpersonal skills because delivering training programs requires collaborating with staff, trainees, subject matter experts, and the organization’s leaders. They also accomplish much of their work through teams. Competencies of the Training and Development Professional Chapter 1 • Managerial skills. Managerial skills are important for training and development leaders, who are often in charge of a staff and responsible for many programs. Training and development managers must be able to organize, motivate, and instruct those working under them. • Speaking skills. Speaking skills are essential for training and development managers, who often give presentations. They must be able to communicate information clearly and facilitate learning by diverse audiences. They also must be able to convey instructions to their staff effectively. Figure 1.2: Competency model The 21st-century workplace requires today’s training professionals to possess a wideranging skill set, as illustrated by ASTD’s competency model. Change Management Performance Improvement Knowledge Management Instructional Design Coaching Training Delivery Competencies for the Training & Development Profession Integrated Talent Management Learning Technologies Managing Learning Programs Evaluating Learning Impact T & D Areas of Expertise Business Skills Global Mindset Industry Knowledge Interpersonal Skills Personal Skills Technology Literacy Foundational Competencies Source: From p. 17 in The ASTD Competency Study: The Training and Development Profession Redefined. Copyright ©2013 by The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD). All Rights Reserved. For use by permission only. f01.02_BUS375.ai Competencies of the Training and Development Professional Chapter 1 Other organizations, too, focus on different aspects of the training and development field. In 1993, 50 years after the ASTD’s creation, the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) was founded with a specific interest in training and development scholarship and research. The AHRD was specifically created to encourage the systematic study of HRD theories, processes, and practices, and to support the application of research findings (Academy of Human Resource Development, n.d.). One of the founding members of the AHRD was Professor Richard Swanson, whose research and theories are noted throughout this text. The International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) is another organization within the training and development field that focuses on performance in the workplace. The ISPI specifically offers the performance improvement credential that, as its goal, improves performance by managing employees as human performance improvement systems, including a focus in change management and root cause analysis. These efforts are intended to maintain an organization’s competitiveness over time. Did You Know? About the ATD The ATD is the world’s largest association in training and development. Each month, local chapters have meetings that include a networking hour and a keynote speaker. Consider attending a local ATD meeting. You will find the latest ideas in training practice and opportunities for employment via ATD’s jobs board. About the ATD: The society’s members come from more than 100 countries, connect locally in more than 120 U.S. chapters, and come from more than 16 international partners. Members work in thousands of organizations of all sizes, in government, as independent consultants, and as suppliers. Visit: http://www.astd.org/Members/Chapters/Chapter-Locator.aspx?lat=25.8941&lng =-80.182098 Certifications in Training and Development Today one can benefit from any number of workplace training and development credentials. Certifications show employers your dedication and commitment to your profession. They show you are credible and knowledgeable about current trends and best practices in your field. In fact, 64% of employers in a recent CareerBuilder survey found social interview skills and the ability to communicate well to be the most important assets in a potential employee. Three major certifications are the Human Performance Improvement (HPI), the Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP), and the Certified Performance Technologist (CPT) credentials (Hale, 2007). Table 1.4 shows the differences in the training credentials. Competencies of the Training and Development Professional Chapter 1 Table 1.4: Comparisons of three major training and development certifications The HPI certificate allows you to focus on the part of training that: The CPLP credential encompasses 9 areas of expertise (www.astd.org): The CPT credential follows these 10 standards (www.ispi. org): • Identifies and analyzes important human performance gaps • Designs and develops costeffective and justifiable solutions to close performance gaps • Implements impactful solutions • Designing learning • Delivering training • Human performance improvement • Measuring and evaluating • Facilitating organizational change • Managing the learning function • Coaching • Managing organizational knowledge • Career planning and talent management • • • • • • • • • • Focuses on results or outcomes Takes a systemic view Adds value Works in partnership with clients and stakeholders Determines need or opportunity Determines cause Designs solutions, including implementation and evaluation Ensures solutions’ conformity and feasibility Implements solutions Evaluates results and impact Food for Thought: Does the Millennial Generation’s Attitude Create a Training Challenge? In a 2010 report, the Pew Research Center examined millennials’ attitudes and opinions across a spectrum of issues; millennials are people born between 1980 and 2000. Most millennials show evidence of a generation that is highly educated, self-confident, technologically savvy, and ambitious. Millennials use social media and send text messages on their cell phones significantly more often than older generations do. Not surprisingly, the reports found that millennials are also more likely to view technology in a positive light. Demographically, millennials are more ethnically diverse than previous generations. According to Pew’s report, they are also more accepting of interracial marriage. Because employers are especially interested in understanding the profile of a millennial, several researchers have explored the effects of the generation on the workforce. Author Ron Alsop of the Wall Street Journal found through research that millennials are largely seen as entitled and narcissistic. But he finds that millennials’ self-confidence is likely a product of highly involved (“helicopter”) parents who vehemently encouraged the importance of selfesteem. Research also finds that millennials, although good team players, are particularly ambitious, seeking constant appraisal and lightning-fast promotions up the corporate ladder. However, they desire a good work–life balance, and to satisfy their desire for a fulfilling job, they are also frequent job-hoppers, frustrating employers with low retention rates. Research has also shown that although millennials are generally more willing than older generations to sacrifice liberties for security, they also want the United States to take a backseat to the United Nations in international problems. Source: McGrath, J. (n.d.). How the millennial generation works. Retrieved from HowStuffWorks website: http://people.howstuffworks.com/culturetraditions/generation-gaps/millennial-generation1.htm Consider This 1. What effects do you think the changing workforce will have on employee training and development? Summary and Resources Chapter 1 Summary and Resources Chapter Summary • This chapter first defined human resource development, or HRD. At its core, HRD is about training workers to perform their jobs effectively. A relatively new field, HRD is often part of the human resource management department; sometimes, depending on the organization’s size, it is a separate department that is led by a chief learning officer. • The chapter then distinguished between human resource development and human resource management. HRD is a subset of the larger human resource management department. One way to look at the differences between HRM and HRD is to consider that, whereas human resource management spends most of its efforts managing functions, human resource development spends its energies developing people. • The chapter discussed the historic roots of human resource development. Although human resource development is a relatively new term, the concept of training can be traced back to antiquity. The chapter looked at HRD from the late 1800s to the present day. • Like other disciplines, there is consensus on certain principles, as well as debate on others. Most in the field, for example, agree that HRD is improvement focused, is expertise seeking, and has an open systems framework. Yet there is debate about whether HRD is about performance or learning; is it about training or development? The chapter reconciled this debate, at least temporarily, by suggesting that overall, HRD is focused on peformance through learning. • The chapter discussed the roles in HRD and the competencies of the HRD professional in the workplace. To work in the field of training and development, a requisite skill set includes industry knowledge as well as interpersonal skills, business skills, and a global mindset. Many in the field become certified with credentials such as the HPI, CPLP, or CPT. Posttest 1. Which of the following most accurately describes training’s development function? a. It helps the employee learn how to fulfill his or her present job requirements. b. It orients the worker to the requirements and culture of his or her new position or new organization. c. It addresses the employee’s long-term competency and experience beyond his or her current job or organization. d. It facilitates the worker’s career growth and expertise within his or her current job and organization. 2. Which of the following addresses the short-term, organizational perspective of human resource development? a. training b. career development c. performance management d. organizational development Summary and Resources Chapter 1 3. What is the relationship between human resource development and human resource management? a. HRD is a field separate from HRM, with little in common apart from their names. b. HRD is a subset of HRM. 4. c. HRD departments exist only in companies that do NOT have HRM departments. d. HRM is a subdivision of the HRD field. works primarily with an organization’s functions, whereas focuses on the organization’s people. a. Human resource management; human resource development b. Training; development c. Human resource development; human resource management d. Development; training 5. The Training Within Industry program that began during World War II . a. was criticized for discouraging workers from learning more and improving b. broke skilled work into smaller, more manageable tasks that could be learned quickly c. led to the development of the prepare, present, apply and inspect method of job instruction d. was a separate program that trained women for work in wartime industries 6. A health care organization’s training evaluation asks whether an employee follows proper hazardous material disposal procedures after safety training. This question is an example of which level of Kirkpatrick’s training evaluation model? a. level 1, reaction b. level 2, learning c. level 3, behavior d. level 4, results 7. In the performance-based view of HRD, the primary purpose of training employees is to . a. contribute to their fulfillment and self-actualization b. benefit society by creating a skilled and content workforce c. benefit the economy by ensuring the purchasing power of wage earners d. increase their productivity and thus their value to the organization 8. HRD is best characterized as a(n) a. insular b. relatively older c. interdisciplinary d. consistent discipline. Summary and Resources Chapter 1 9. Chris wants to become certified as an expert in fostering strong, positive partnerships with customers. Which of the following certifications should Chris pursue? a. Human Performance Improvement (HPI) b. Human Training and Development Leader (HTDL) c. Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) d. Certified Performance Technologist (CPT) 10. Maya works with colleagues from different departments to create customized online training for employees at her company. She works successfully with managers from different departments as well as programmers to create and launch online training programs. Maya could be described as having which type of skills? a. diversity skills b. interpersonal skills c. decision-making skills d. time-management skills Assess Your Learning: Critical Reflection 1. 2. 3. 4. Why is human resource development so difficult to define? What aspects of human resource management impact the practice of HRD? What is meant by “HRD is a relatively new discipline, yet an old realm of practice?” Explain how the phrase “performance through learning” reconciles the two views of HRD. 5. Explain the importance of being credentialed in workplace training. Additional Resources Web Resources For training and development position and salary info: http://www.bls.gov, http://www.onetonline.com, or http://www.salary.com To understand more about the Hawthorne effect: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/hawthorne.html Accenture’s finding on skills gap: http://newsroom.accenture.com/news/accenture-study-finds-us-workers-underpressure-to-improve-skills-but-need-more-support-from-employers.print About Toyota’s Lean production system: http://www.lean.org/Common/LexiconTerm.aspx?termid=353 For the ATD’s interactive competency model: http://www.astd.org/Certification/Competency-Model More on how to become a training and development manager: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/training-and-development-managers. htm#tab-4 More on Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) certification: http://www.astd.org/Certification Summary and Resources Chapter 1 Watch a video that summarizes the changing workforce: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XIQkDldpmI For a description of the field of human resource development by Shirley Caruso, the chief editor for EAdultEducation.org: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oONwRBRvj4 Read an article about the value of certification: http://www.cnn.com/2009/LIVING/worklife/02/11/cb.jobs.certification/index.html Further Reading Cappelli, P. (2012). Why good people can’t get jobs. Philadephia: Wharton Digital Press. Gilley, J. W., Eggland, S. A., & Gilley, A. M. (2002). Human resource development. New York: Perseus. Griffiths, D. A., & Koukpaki, S. (2012). Societal HRD and societal competitive advantage. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 14(3), 318–332. doi: 10.1177/1523422312446058 Jacobs, R. L., & Phillips, J. (2002). Implementing on-the-job learning: Thirteen case studies from the real world of training. Alexandria, VA: ASTD. Answers and Rejoinders to Chapter Pretest 1. false. Although training employees to perform their jobs effectively is at the core of human resource development (HRD), this alone is an insufficient definition. Human resource development is complex. Although there is no unified agreement on its definition, it can be said that HRD includes not only training but all processes, products, and functions of career development, performance management, and organizational development. 2. true. Though an organization’s HRD functions often fall within a human resource management (HRM) department, they do not have to be bound to the HRM division. Training and development competencies such as managing individual performance, motivating employees, and others are held by effective managers and supervisors in all departments. 3. true. On-the-job training, in which direct instruction is used to teach a new employee the proper way to perform job tasks, is considered the most economical method of training. Originating with apprenticeship programs centuries ago, on-the-job training remains the most common method of training today. 4. false. In fact, one of HRD’s assumptions is that competence in the workplace is never good enough, because if an employee’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes are just competent, they can quickly become incompetent. Instead, employees should seek expertise. 5. true. The Bureau of Labor Statistics lists managerial skills as one of the required qualities for those working in training and development. Managerial skills are necessary to help motivate, organize, and provide directions to people who are responsible for managing employees and programs. Answers and Rejoinders to Chapter Posttest 1. d. Training can be defined as development when it facilitates the worker’s career growth within his or her current organization or job. When it relates to the present job requirements, training can be thought of as learning, and when it refers to the Summary and Resources 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Chapter 1 worker’s competency framework beyond the present job or organization, it can be thought of as education. c. The domains of human resource development practice can be categorized according to two dimensions: short-term versus long-term time frame and individual versus organizational focus. Performance management is the aspect of HRD that has an organizational perspective with a short-term focus. b. HRD is one of several functions traditionally encompassed by HRM; these also include recruitment, selection, payroll, benefits, and employee relations. a. One way to summarize the differences between human resource management and human resource development is that HRD spends its efforts developing people, whereas HRM focuses more on managing functions. Training and development both fall within the HRD function of developing people. b. With large numbers of trained workers away at war, the Training Within Industry program was formed to teach new recruits—both men and women—to fill in for skilled workers as quickly as possible. To do this, complex jobs were broken down into small tasks that new workers could learn quickly. This program was a predecessor to the current Lean production system and also to the concept of the learning organization, because it focused on continuous improvement. c. Level 3 of Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model asks whether the trainee was able to apply the training to the workplace. Whether an employee is able to follow safety procedures taught in the training is one indication of how effective the training was. Others include whether the employee liked the training (reaction), whether he or she learned anything (learning), and whether it led to positive organizational outcomes (results). d. Whereas in the developmental view of HRD the purpose of training is to develop human potential and even to benefit society, the performance-based view focuses on efficiency and improvements to the organization’s bottom line. c. HRD is a relatively young, interdisciplinary discipline that draws on many different fields of study, including psychological theory, economic theory, and systems theory. Because of its youth, HRD is not consistent but involves much debate about its purposes and processes. Rather than being insular, it aims to immerse itself within an organization. c. Being certified in training and development can demonstrate employees’ knowledge in current best practices and show commitment to the field. Chris should pursue becoming a Certified Professional in Learning and Performance (CPLP) because one of the areas this credential focuses on is creating partnerships with stakeholders such as customers. b. Maya has strong interpersonal skills. Interpersonal skills was listed by the American Society for Training & Development as one of the skills needed for training and development professionals. Interpersonal skills involves working together with a number of people, including managers and experts in the field. Summary and Resources Chapter 1 Key Terms apprentice An individual who is employed to learn an occupation and is registered with a sponsor in an approved apprenticeship program according to RCW 49.04 (the Revised Code of Washington, or RCW, is the compilation of all permanent laws now in force). apprenticeship programs A foundation for today’s HRD; apprenticeship programs are a combination of on-the-job training and related classroom instruction under the supervision of a journey-level craftsperson or trade professional in which workers learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a highly skilled occupation. Association for Talent Development (ATD) The world’s largest professional association dedicated to the practice of training and development; its mission is to empower professionals to develop knowledge and skills successfully. artisan One who produces something (as cheese or wine) in limited quantities, often using traditional methods; a worker who practices a trade or handicraft. Bloom’s taxonomy The classification of learning objectives to show forms and levels of learning in different domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor; HRD focuses on the cognitive domain that refers to knowledge structures. career development The extension of the development component of training and development; describes adult progression through work roles—a primary venue for HRD practice and hence an important contributor to HRD practice. competence An employee’s ability to perform the job properly; unlike expertise, competence is about outcome, not process or development, and it maintains the system. development The planned growth and expansion of knowledge and expertise of people beyond the present job requirements; in HRD, training is development that facilitates employee growth in the present job. developmental view of training The view that worthy performance outcomes become a collateral but intended consequence of the development; that is, whether as a deliberate strategy or a fortunate by-product, as the quality of the learning goes, so goes the performance. economic theory Swanson’s theory that captures the core issues of the efficient and effective use of resources to meet productive goals in a competitive environment; it is recognized as a primary driver and survival metric of organizations. education In HRD, training is education when it is used to prepare a worker but is not necessarily related to the present job; education is general, provides background, and increases understanding. (In the human capital model, education, or training, is seen as a major tool to influence workers’ acquisition of the needed knowledge and skills.) expertise A human state or mastery of the specific KSAs of the job, but also a state of mind for continuous improvement, which expert employees tend to have; in HRD, expertise is the process, and it seeks to change the system. expertise seeking Expert employees’ behaviors to seek superior performance and development to take risks, experiment, and learn through errors in order to be above the competent line; learners must adopt new paradigms and “unlearn” old ones in order to seek expertise. factory schools The first programs of formal instruction to be sponsored by businesses, held on company premises for their employees; also called corporation schools. Hawthorne effect A phenomenon in which employees’ performance improves in response to being observed; it was noted by Summary and Resources Elton Mayo and confirmed the need to consider the human factor in order to optimize job performance. human capital theory The theory that an organization’s competitive advantage is derived by leveraging the intangible assets of well-trained human capital. human relations movement The movement that is firmly rooted in humanism, social science, and economics, it began around 1945 as a result of Hawthorne experiments by Elton Mayo. human resource development (HRD) ­ Performance through learning via organizational communication within an organization; individual and organizational training and development of the human workforce that affects and drives organizational performance for organizational survival and success. human resource management (HRM) A function that traditionally encompasses all the human resources functions, including recruitment, selection, payroll, benefits, employee relations, and legal issues of the organization. incompetence The inability to perform one’s job properly. intellectual capital One of the drivers in organizational growth and development; also called “knowledge assets.” interdisciplinary Drawing from multiple disciplines; the underlying theory and philosophy of HRD includes systems theory, learning theory, motivation theory, change theory, and human capital. job knowledge The understanding of a set of responsibilities specific to a job; often used to assess how closely the existing job description matches the worker’s assigned tasks or to measure worker’s mastery of the concepts needed to perform certain work; in other words, job performance. Chapter 1 Kirkpatrick Donald Kirkpatrick is a creator of the learning and training evaluation model; well known for Kirkpatrick’s fourlevel evaluation model that is used to determine the effectiveness of the training and development process. knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) The elements of employees’ performance ability. Knowledge means understanding ideas or principles related to a particular subject; skills refers to psychomotor or cognitive activity in terms of ease and precision in task performance; attitudes are a person’s general feelings of favorableness/ unfavorableness. knowledge society A society in which the creation, dissemination, and use of information and knowledge has become the most important factor of production; also called postcapitalist society, where knowledge will be the means of production and a basic economic resource. knowledge worker A term coined by Peter Drucker around 1960 to refer to individuals with considerable theoretical knowledge and learning; also called knowledge entrepreneurs, free agents, or human capital. learning In HRD, training is learning when it relates to the present job requirements. learning organization A structure in which the organizational learning processes occur. As defined by Peter Senge, a learning organization has at its core systems thinking, team learning, mental models, personal mastery, and a shared vision. on-the-job training (OJT) The direct instructional method to train a new employee in the workplace; an experienced coworker trains the newcomer by demonstrating the proper way to perform the job tasks. organizational development A process used to enhance the effectiveness of the organization and its members through Summary and Resources planned interventions; long-term and organizational point of view in HRD. performance-based view of training A view of training that focuses on specific and desired outcomes; it begins with objectives, such as work outputs, and then sets expectations, provides feedback, introduces tools, rewards skill development, teaches new skills and knowledge, and so forth. performance management A job analysis and design for examination of what employees do, how they do it, and what results are achieved, as well as the way in which tasks are combined; it does not necessarily honor human potential in organizations as ­performance-oriented HRD does. psychological theory Swanson’s theory that captures the core human aspects of developing human resources as the sociotechnical interplay of humans and system; it acknowledges human beings as brokers of productivity and renewal, along with cultural and behavioral nuances. scientific management This term was coined in 1910 to describe the system of industrial management created and promoted by Frederick Taylor in which the optimal way to perform a job was scientifically determined via time and motion studies. show, tell, do, check method The prepare, present, apply, and inspect method of job instruction; introduced by Charles Allen in order to resolve the wartime training crisis during World War I. status quo The present state of affairs. systems theory Swanson’s theory that captures the complex and dynamic interactions of environments, organizations, processes, and group and individual variables operating at any point in time over time; it recognizes purpose, pieces, and relationships that can maximize or strangle systems and subsystems, and no one element of the system can be viewed separately from other elements. Chapter 1 time and motion studies Studies in which a stopwatch was used to time a worker’s sequence of motions with the goal of benchmarking to determine the best way to perform a job. training The process of developing knowledge and expertise in people; training is specific and helps people acquire skill through the use of what they learned; short-term, individual focus in HRD frame. training evaluation The four-level Kirkpatrick model, which suggests that training should be evaluated at four levels: reactions, learning, transfer, and results. Training Within Industry (TWI) A systematic, on-the-job training method that trains supervisors as instructors so that new workers can quickly learn complex jobs; TWI includes four training-specific programs: Job Instruction Training, Job Relations Training, Job Methods Training, and Program Development. vestibule training “Near-the-job” training, whereby the classroom or training room is located as close as conditions permit to the department for which the worker is being trained and is furnished with the same machines that are used in production. vocational education Practically illustrated and attempted job or career skill instruction; for example, marketing education, technical education, and industrial and trade education. Performance Management 2 Wavebreak Media Ltd/Wavebreak Media/Thinkstock Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to: • List perspectives on job performance. • Explain the performance formula. • Contrast between expertise, competence, and incompetence. • Describe job performance during on-boarding. • Analyze poor performance interventions. It’s much more difficult to measure non-performance than performance! —Harold S. Geneen Introduction Chapter 2 Pretest 1. An employee’s performance is always motivated by economic goals such as the need to earn a living. a. true b. false 2. Training and development prevents anxiety in new employees. a. true b. false 3. Expertise can be defined as a state of mind focused on continuous improvement. a. true b. false 4. Employees new to an organization should be considered incompetent to complete required tasks. a. true b. false 5. Managing employee performance is an exercise in closing the gap between what employees are paid to do and what they are actually able to do. a. true b. false Answers can be found at the end of the chapter. Introduction Raquel was hired as the new frontline supervisor for the finishing department at Marshall Press Consolidated. The operations manager immediately told Raquel that the finishing department as a whole was performing poorly, leading to many vendor complaints and a loss of customers; the operations manager hoped Raquel could turn things around. Raquel would be supervising the finishing department’s four employees: Dave, Sandra, Greg, and Juanita. Dave has been with Marshall and in the finishing department for more than 10 years; Sandra was recently hired by Raquel’s predecessor, just a month prior to Raquel starting; Greg has been with Marshall for 12 years but was transferred to the finishing department only recently; and Juanita has been with Marshall for almost 30 years and has worked in many departments over time. After a few weeks of observing the performance of her employees, Raquel concluded that each fell into one of four performance categories: • • • • Able and willing—Dave Not able, but willing—Sandra Able, but not willing—Greg Not able and not willing—Juanita Perspectives in Workplace Performance Chapter 2 Raquel intended to sit down with each employee and discuss his or her specific job performance. How do you think Raquel should manage each type of worker performance? Certainly, as this scenario suggests, a main objective of training employees is to assist them in performing their jobs well. This chapter will look at the concept of job performance, not only the different types of performance—ranging from expertise to competence to incompetence—but also the determinants of performance, such as knowledge, skills, and attitudes, as well as the individual’s level of motivation and the impact of the work environment. But let us first start by considering perspectives of workplace performance. Food for Thought: Theory X and Theory Y How you view the nature of employee job performance may be related to your assumptions about employees in general. Consider McGregor’s (1960) Theory X and Y. These theories described the work environment and the relationship of managers to the worker. Managers who embrace Theory X believe they must direct and coerce workers to get them to perform, whereas managers who embrace Theory Y assume that employees will perform when they are motivated by the freedom and autonomy they are given in the workplace (Kopelman, Prottas, & Falk, 2010; Sahin, 2012). Consider This 1. What are the pros and cons of each theory? 2.1 Perspectives in Workplace Performance This chapter will discuss performance and managing that performance (P), the related activities expected of a worker and how well the worker performs those activities. But what exactly is the nature of performance in the workplace? Swanson and Holton (2001) observed that the concept of performance has largely been a practice-based phenomenon with little philosophical consideration. As a result, let us first consider the concept of job performance by critically reflecting on three core philosophical perspectives: • Performance as a natural outcome of human activity • Performance as necessary for economic activity • Performance as a tool for organizational oppression Performance as a Natural Outcome of Human Activity In this view—which is also consistent with Knowles’s (1973) view that adult learners are motivated to learn something relevant and Maslow’s (1943) proposition that human beings pursue the need to self-actualize—performance is accepted as a natural part of human A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 existence and regarded as a basic human need. In this perspective of performance, the premise is that “few people are content not to perform” (Swanson & Holton, 2001, p. 132). Performance as Necessary for Economic Activity This perspective of performance is value neutral and utilitarian; that is, this view sees perJeancliclac/iStock/Thinkstock formance as neither inherently good nor bad, One perspective on performance says that humans but rather as a means to economic ends. A are born with an innate need to perform in order to pragmatic perspective with a rational exchange reach self-actualization. (for example, an honest day’s pay for an honest day’s work), this view sees performance as necessary for individuals to earn livelihoods and be productive members of society. Here, performance leads to enhanced work and career paths (this idea will be discussed further in Chapter 9). Performance as an Instrument of Organizational Oppression In perhaps the most controversial view, performance is viewed as a means of control and dehumanization. Through focusing on performance, organizations are seen as coercing and demanding behaviors from individuals in return for compensation. Performance is viewed as threatening to humans and potentially abusive. This view is not so far afield when you think about workers who are exploited in the poorer nations of the world—those who may be producing the goods we use here every day. Nabb and Armstrong (2005) explored this view at its extreme in their monograph of Jewish slave labor’s exploitation in the Nazi concentration camps in World War II. Chapter 10 will discuss aspects of the ethics and social responsibility of human resource management, as well as the human resource development role. Understanding organizational oppression influences organizational training because the organization needs to consider its own duty to provide training and choose who gets access to training. These philosophical perspectives are important because studies bear out how important the supervisor’s performance philosophy is in influencing employee job performance (Ellinger, 2003). But whatever your philosophical view of workplace performance, there is also a practicality to how well and why employees perform their jobs. So, now let us look at the variables of everyday job performance. 2.2 A Formula for Job Performance If we train employees so they can learn to perform the functions of their job, then it is imperative that we first understand what components make up job performance. To start, when analyzing—and therefore managing—workplace performance, you should know that performance is always a dependent variable. That is, employee performance—good or bad—does not just happen; it is an outcome of three variables, namely: A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 • ability—the capacity of the employee to perform the job; collectively, the employee’s knowledge, skills, and attitudes; • motivation (M)—the employee’s willingness to perform the job voluntarily; and • environment (E)—anything within the organizational environment (such as supervisor, systems, and coworkers) that would affect the employee’s job performance. This leads to a good rule of thumb: If an employee has poor job performance, it is either because the employee is not able or not willing, or something in the organizational environment is infringing on the employee’s efforts. Here is how it works specifically, using each variable: The Variables of the Performance Formula P = Performance KSAs = Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes M = Motivation E = Environment These variables interact and come together to create the performance formula, as follows (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010; Mitchell, 1982): Performance = f(KSAs × M × E ) KSAs = Ability; M = Motivation; E = Environment The premise of the formula is relatively straightforward. When we evaluate an employee’s job performance, we can first gauge it from a binary sense; in other words, is one of the independent variables positive (+) or negative (-)? If we deem the state of any of the variables as negative (-), the job performance would be negative because, as we learned in grade school: 1 × 1 × −1 = −1 And, it makes common sense, too; we would expect job performance to be impacted: If the employee is not able (−) If an employee is not willing (−) If something in the environment is negatively affecting the employee (−) The performance formula has a caveat, however; it should only be used as a point of departure, and it should be used more figuratively than mathematically because invariably you may have someone point out that when you multiply two negatives you get a positive. Although we do not take the formula so literally, it is worth noting that if an employee was not able (−) and not willing (−), the environment might not stay positive (+) for long. Hence, three negatives equal a negative! The performance formula does not address capacities or specific tactical decisions on performance, for example. Furthermore, because it has been shown that an employee’s increased ability is linked to an employee’s motivation (Weick, 1984) and vice versa, the formula would indeed have a circular logic error if put into an Excel® spreadsheet! A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 Food for Thought: Who Performs Better: Individuals or Teams? HRD considers the performance of not only individuals and the organization, but also teams. There has been research and debate about whether individuals perform better by themselves or as part of group (Forsyth, 2010; Kerr & Tindale, 2004; Stangor, 2013). And, the short answer is … it depends. Consider these domains of performance introduced by Bass and Avolio (1994): conjunctive (worst effort completes group), disjunctive (best individual enhances group), and additive (combined effort). The best way to illustrate this idea is to use the relay race between teams A, B, and C; each team has four runners, and the race is timed in seconds. Team A has the following times for its runners: 46, 47, 47, and 49. Team B has the following times for its runners: 44, 45, 49, and 53. Team C has the following times for its runners: 45, 45, 46, and 51. If we evaluate performance conjunctively, then Team A wins. Team A’s worst effort (49 seconds) finishes the group first before Teams B and C are complete (53 and 51, respectively). If we evaluate performance disjunctively, then Team B wins. The best individual effort (44 seconds) was within Team B. If we evaluate performance additively, then Team C wins. The summation of Team C’s runners (187 seconds) is faster than both Team A and Team B. Consider This 1. What would be organizational examples for: a. conjunctive performance? b. disjunctive performance? c. additive performance? 2. Within organizations, is there a context for promoting individual performance over group performance? 3. Which type of domain of performance underscores that a team is only as good as its weakest link? Breaking Down the Performance Formula If the objective is to ensure that the variables of performance stay positive (+), it is key that we understand what makes up KSAs, M, and E. So, let us start by further defining the variables. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSA) Knowledge (K) is an understanding of ideas or principles related to a particular job subject (Bloom, 1956). Additionally, job knowledge is communicated, especially between trainer and trainee, within the explicit, implicit, and/or tacit realm as part of knowledge management. As A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 illustrates, whether an idea is explicit, implicit, or tacit will depend on whether the idea has been, or can be, articulated (Nickols, 2000). Figure 2.1: Knowledge management flowchart Effective training in the workplace is a function of the trainer and trainee effectively communicating job knowledge. How a trainer communicates job knowledge can fall within the explicit, implicit, and/or tacit realm. Has it been articulated? If No: Can it be articulated? If Yes: Explicit If Yes: Implicit If No: Tacit Source: Adapted from Nickols, F. W. (2000). The knowledge in knowledge management. In J. W. Cortada & J. A. Woods (Eds.), The knowledge management yearbook, 2000–2001 (pp. 12–21). Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. f02.01_BUS375.ai • Explicit knowledge is that which can be and has been articulated. Examples of explicit knowledge would be information found in the company policy manual, facts given out about the company health benefits program, or information shared in a how-to training video. • Implicit knowledge is knowledge that can be articulated but has not been (at least, not yet). For example, as a new employee, I may ask during my orientation, “Where are the restrooms located?” My coworker responds, “Oh, down the stairs to the left.” In this exchange—but for me asking—the information about the location of the restrooms was in the implicit realm; it only becomes explicit knowledge when articulated. Similarly, an existing employee may ask for clarification on a personal time-off policy, thus getting information unknown but for inquiring. When it comes to training, specifically, the reasons a trainer, whether it be a supervisor or coworker, does not tell the understudy everything that he or she would need to know for effective job performance could vary from noble to self-serving (Allen, 1922). Here are some reasons and examples of implicit knowledge; that is, why something that could have been articulated was not: –– Productive reason: “Sure, I could tell Gabriel everything, but I believe he will learn better if he tries out some things himself and learns by trial and error; he’ll understand things better that way.” –– Neutral reason (including trainer laziness): “Ah, sorry; I had forgotten to tell you that.” A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 –– Counterproductive reason: “If I tell Gabriel too much, he’ll know as much as I do and then the higher-ups won’t value me as much!” So-called lies of omission fall under this reasoning. • Tacit knowledge is that which cannot be articulated; tacit knowledge can be described as “learned by doing.” This type of job knowledge will not be found in a training manual, and the worker is usually unconsciously competent in this knowledge; in other words, the worker is so skilled he or she does not even think about the skill, let alone have an ability to describe it. This is known as automaticity. One example of tacit knowledge would be a longtime worker who can identify production patterns, recognize market trends, or project outcomes out of what could be called instinct. Polanyi (1967) described tacit knowledge as “we can know more than we can tell” (p. 4); the French might describe this as je ne sais quoi knowledge. From a training perspective, understanding knowledge management is essential, especially as it relates to implicit knowledge. Effective training programs ensure that important facts about job performance are conveyed to new hires. In short, the quality of training is dependent in no small part on the communication patterns between the trainer and trainee as it relates to job knowledge. Not only do trainers have to understand explicit, tacit, and implicit communication patterns, they also must be able to use that proper communication pattern at the proper time, even sometimes all three in one training session. Now that we have evaluated the knowledge piece of KSAs, let us look at skills (S). Skills are the psychomotor or cognitive aptitude in terms of ease and precision of how one does a task (Bloom, 1956). Skill sets can be broken down within the job as must know, need to know, and nice to know (McArdle, 1999). Must-know skills usually are legally required by the government; for example, “to maintain your business license, the city requires caregivers at a day care facility to be trained and certified in CPR.” Need-to-know skills would usually be organizationally bound; for example, “You need to know how to work the phone system or web press here if you wish to work at Kopp, Inc.” Nice-to-know skills are just that—desirable, but not necessary. For example, “Because we have many Hispanic customers, speaking Spanish would be desirable for the new receptionist position.” Interestingly, with an increasingly diverse workplace, this nice-to-know skill may actually be a need-to-know skill, especially in metropolitan areas such as Miami, New York, and Los Angeles. From a performance evaluation standpoint, it is important to differentiate between these skills and evaluate appropriately. That is, you may have a rater who focuses only on an employee exceeding expectations in the desirable region of performance yet ignore that the employee is still lacking in the necessary skills. Job Aids—Cost-Effective Way to Improve Knowledge and Skills Immediately Is it possible to improve performance without a training intervention? The answer is yes. A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 Job aids, sometimes called performance support aids (Rossett & Schafer, 2006), are noninstructive interventions to improve job performance. Specifically, when added to the work situation, job aids are anything that improves job performance by guiding, facilitating, or reminding performers what to do in accomplishing job tasks (Chalupsky & Kopf, 1967; Stolovitch & Keeps, 2011). According to Stolovitch and Keeps (2011), job aids have the following characteristics: • They give information that enables the user to know what actions and decisions a specific task requires. • They reduce training time by minimizing the amount of knowledge or skills the user must remember to perform the task. • They assume the user has prerequisite skills and knowledge to carry out specified actions and interpret information. • They are used during actual performance of the task. Job aids are intended to assist the employee in immediate performance tasks, not to develop the employee. Job aids can take on many different forms: from checklists, how-to instructions, and laminated cards with phone extensions, to scale models and to-do lists (Sleight, 1993; Willmore, 2006). According to Rossett and Schafer (2006), job aids are “helpers in life and work … a repository for information, processes, and perspectives that inform and guide planning and action” (p. 2). When lack of skill or knowledge is the cause of inadequate performance, job aids (versus training) are appropriate (Stolovitch & Keeps, 2011). See the case study at the end of the chapter for a different view of job aids. Attitudes (A) are person’s general feelings of favorableness or unfavorableness, especially as those feelings relate to new learning. Although it is true that one does not get a second chance to make a good first impression, further (functional) interaction with a coworker or supervisor can change someone’s attitude. One way to frame this dynamic is using attitudinal direction. For example, I remember a student who was giving me a bad attitude and was rude to me during class meetings. One day after class, I took the student aside and asked her why she was acting this way toward me. She explained that, earlier in the semester, she had seen me on campus walking toward her and said “Good morning, Dr. Kopp,” whereupon I ignored her and kept walking. She thought I had heard her, but I had not. Indeed, if we “reverse engineer” her behavior toward me, we can see how it was linked to her initial perceptions, per her attitudinal direction. (For more on the effects of attitude direction, attitude intensity, and structure of beliefs on differentiation, see Harvey, Reich, and Wyer, 1968.) Attitudinal Direction Perception + Judgment → Emotion Emotion → Behavior Perception: “I see Dr. Kopp.” Judgment: “He’s aloof and rude.” Emotion: “I feel hurt and upset.” Behavior: “I’ll be rude to him, too.” A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 This text defines KSAs as “knowledge, skills, and attitudes”; however, other authors refer to KSAs as “knowledge, skills, and abilities.” Clark (2012) explains the variation in the Food for Thought feature box titled “What Does the A in KSA Really Mean: Attitude or Ability?” Food for Thought: What Does the A in KSA Really Mean: Attitude or Ability? The Case for A as Attitude The Department of Defense Handbook: A System Approach to Training (U.S. Department of Defense, 1988), uses the terms knowledge, skills, and attitude. The handbook lists the learning levels for attitude: • • • • Receiving Responding Valuing (Judgment) Competence Knowledge, skills, and attitudes relate directly to the Bloom’s taxonomy domains of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor: • Cognitive—knowledge • Affective—attitude • Psychomotor—skills Robert Gagné (1972) developed five categories of learning: • • • • • Verbal information Intellectual skill Cognitive strategy Attitude Motor skill However, perhaps the first mention of tying the three KSAs together is in a book edited by Robert Gagné (1962). In Chapter 9 Meredith Crawford (1962) describes how the course objectives depend on how accurate the determination of knowledge and skills is. And as the training progresses, the learners form attitudes about: • the training program, • the knowledge and skills they are expected to acquire, and • the parent organization. The Case for A as Abilities The U.S. Department of Energy (1994) training handbook uses the terms knowledge, skills, and abilities. In Human Resource Development (2011), the authors, Randy DeSimone and Jon Werner, use the term abilities. They define abilities as general capacities related to the performance of a set of tasks. These capacities develop over time through the interaction of heredity and experience. Although skills are similar to abilities, they differ in that they combine abilities (continued) A Formula for Job Performance Chapter 2 with capabilities that are developed due to training and experience. The authors go on to define knowledge as an understanding of factors or principles related to a particular subject. Based on this definition, it seems that abilities are really the “informal” version of skills— sort of like informal learning and formal learning. Following this line of reasoning, rather than just three categories, perhaps there should be four: knowledge (formal), intelligence (informal), abilities (informal), and skills (formal)—or for short, KIAS. In addition, DeSimone and Werner write that it is KSAs, attitud...
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