Please write short paragraphs to answer each of the following question

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timer Asked: Dec 31st, 2018
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Question description

For each questions, you need to write a short paragraphs (150-200 words) to answer each of the questions. I've posted the slides that might help you to understand better on questions. Since questions are mostly asking for subjective answers, you don't have to read all the slides. Thank you.

1.What sense do you depend on the most and what sense do you depend on the least? Support your answer.

2.Of the three ways of learning in the book, what way do you think you learn best and why?

3.What do you think is the biggest problem with your memory at this time in your life?

4.How do you make decisions and solve problems?

Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 6 Learning © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. SECTION 6.1 HOW DO THE PARTS OF OUR BRAINS FUNCTION? 6.1 WHAT ARE THE THREE WAYS WE LEARN? • LEARNING: A CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR, RESULTING FROM EXPERIENCE • CENTRAL TO ALMOST ALL AREAS OF HUMAN EXISTENCE WE LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE • BEHAVIORISM: A FORMAL LEARNING THEORY FROM THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY • JOHN WATSON: FOCUSED ON ENVIRONMENT AND ASSOCIATED EFFECTS AS KEY DETERMINANTS OF LEARNING • B. F. SKINNER: DESIGNED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS TO DISCOVER BASIC RULES OF LEARNING WE LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE • CRITICAL FOR SURVIVAL • ADAPT BEHAVIORS FOR A PARTICULAR ENVIRONMENT • WHICH SOUNDS INDICATE POTENTIAL DANGER? • WHAT FOODS ARE DANGEROUS? • WHEN IS IT SAFE TO SLEEP? WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS 1. NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING 2. ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING 3. BY WATCHING OTHERS WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS • NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • INFORMATION ABOUT ONE EXTERNAL STIMULUS (E.G., A SIGHT, SMELL, SOUND) • HABITUATION: A DECREASE IN BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AFTER LENGTHY OR REPEATED EXPOSURE TO A STIMULUS • ESPECIALLY IF THE STIMULUS IS NEITHER HARMFUL NOR REWARDING • SEE FIGURE 6.2A NEXT SLIDE WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS • NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: INFORMATION ABOUT ONE EXTERNAL STIMULUS (E.G., A SIGHT, SMELL, SOUND) WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS • NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • SENSITIZATION: AN INCREASE IN BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE AFTER LENGTHY OR REPEATED EXPOSURE TO A STIMULUS • HEIGHTENED PREPARATION IN A SITUATION WITH POTENTIAL HARM OR REWARD • SEE FIGURE 6.2B NEXT SLIDE WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS • ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • UNDERSTANDING HOW TWO OR MORE PIECES OF INFORMATION ARE RELATED WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS • ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: LEARN THAT TWO STIMULI GO TOGETHER • EXAMPLE: MUSIC FROM SCARY MOVIES ELICITS ANXIOUSNESS WHEN HEARD • OPERANT CONDITIONING: LEARN THAT A BEHAVIOR LEADS TO A PARTICULAR OUTCOME • EXAMPLE: STUDYING LEADS TO BETTER GRADES WE LEARN IN THREE WAYS • LEARNING BY WATCHING OTHERS • OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING • MODELING • VICARIOUS CONDITIONING THE BRAIN CHANGES DURING LEARNING • LONG-TERM POTENTIATION (LTP) • THE STRENGTHENING OF SYNAPTIC CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NEURONS • RECALL THAT “CELLS THAT FIRE TOGETHER, WIRE TOGETHER” • EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL EVENTS CAUSES CHANGES IN THE BRAIN TO ALLOW LEARNING SECTION 6.2 HOW DO WE LEARN BY CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? 6.2 HOW DO WE LEARN BY CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? • FAMILIAR EXAMPLE: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SCARY MUSIC IN MOVIES AND BAD THINGS HAPPENING TO CHARACTERS THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • PAVLOV: NOBEL PRIZE IN 1904 FOR RESEARCH ON THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • OBSERVED DOGS BEGAN TO SALIVATE AS SOON AS THEY SAW BOWLS OF FOOD • SALIVATING AT THE SIGHT OF A BOWL IS NOT AUTOMATIC • BEHAVIOR ACQUIRED THROUGH LEARNING BY ASSOCIATION • SEE FIGURE 6.3B NEXT SLIDE THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN STIMULI ARE RELATED THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • A TYPE OF LEARNED RESPONSE IN WHICH A NEUTRAL OBJECT COMES TO ELICIT A RESPONSE WHEN IT IS ASSOCIATED WITH A STIMULUS THAT ALREADY PRODUCES A RESPONSE THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENTS REVEAL THE FOUR STEPS IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : 1. PRESENT UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS: EVOKES UNLEARNED RESPONSE 2. PRESENT NEUTRAL STIMULUS: NO RESPONSE 3. PAIR STIMULI FROM STEPS 1 AND 2: LEARNED RESPONSE (CONDITIONING TRIALS) 4. NEUTRAL STIMULUS ALONE WILL TRIGGER LEARNED RESPONSE (CRITICAL TRIALS) THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENTS REVEAL THE FOUR STEPS IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • STEP 1: PRESENTING FOOD CAUSES SALIVARY REFLEX • UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (US): A STIMULUS THAT ELICITS A RESPONSE THAT IS INNATE AND DOES NOT REQUIRE ANY PRIOR LEARNING (FOOD) • UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR): A RESPONSE THAT DOES NOT HAVE TO BE LEARNED, SUCH AS A REFLEX (SALIVATION) THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • STEP 2: CLICKING METRONOME IS NEUTRAL STIMULUS • NEUTRAL STIMULUS: ANYTHING SEEN OR HEARD; MUST NOT ASSOCIATE WITH THE UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • STEP 3 (CONDITIONING TRIALS): START OF LEARNING • DOG BEGINS TO ASSOCIATE US (FOOD) AND NEUTRAL STIMULUS (METRONOME) THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE RELATED • STEP 4 (CRITICAL TRIALS): ASSOCIATION LEARNED • METRONOME ALONE, WITHOUT FOOD, MAKES DOG SALIVATE • SEE FIGURE 6.3 NEXT SLIDE PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENTS REVEAL THE FOUR STEPS IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, WE LEARN THAT STIMULI ARE • CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS): A STIMULUS THAT ELICITS A RELATED RESPONSE ONLY AFTER LEARNING HAS TAKEN PLACE • CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR): A RESPONSE TO A CONDITIONED STIMULUS; A RESPONSE THAT HAS BEEN LEARNED • SEE SCIENTIFIC THINKING: PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENTS REVEAL LEARNING BY CLASSICAL CONDITIONING NEXT SLIDE LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • ANIMALS ADAPT VIA CONDITIONING • LEARNING TO PREDICT OUTCOMES LEADS TO NEW ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • ACQUISITION • ACQUISITION: THE GRADUAL FORMATION OF AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CONDITIONED AND UNCONDITIONED STIMULI. • STRONGEST CONDITIONING OCCURS WHEN CS IS PRESENTED SLIGHTLY BEFORE US • SEE FIGURE 6.5A NEXT SLIDE ACQUISITION, EXTINCTION, AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • EXTINCTION • EXTINCTION: A PROCESS IN WHICH THE CONDITIONED RESPONSE IS WEAKENED WHEN THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS IS REPEATED WITHOUT THE UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS • SEE FIGURE 6.5B NEXT SLIDE ACQUISITION, EXTINCTION, AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY • SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY: A PROCESS IN WHICH A PREVIOUSLY EXTINGUISHED RESPONSE REEMERGES AFTER THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS IS PRESENTED AGAIN • CAN OCCUR AFTER ONLY ONE PAIRING FOLLOWING EXTINCTION • RESPONSE WILL WEAKEN IF CS-US PAIRINGS DO NOT CONTINUE • SEE FIGURES 6.5C, 6.5D NEXT SLIDE ACQUISITION, EXTINCTION, AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • GENERALIZATION, DISCRIMINATION, AND SECOND-ORDER CONDITIONING • STIMULUS GENERALIZATION: LEARNING THAT OCCURS WHEN STIMULI THAT ARE SIMILAR BUT NOT IDENTICAL TO THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS PRODUCE THE CONDITIONED RESPONSE • ANIMALS RESPOND TO VARIATIONS IN CS LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • GENERALIZATION, DISCRIMINATION, AND SECOND-ORDER CONDITIONING • STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION: A DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN TWO SIMILAR STIMULI WHEN ONLY ONE OF THEM IS CONSISTENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS • SEE FIGURE 6.6 NEXT SLIDE GENERALIZATION, DISCRIMINATION, AND SECOND-ORDER CONDITIONING LEARNING VARIES IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • GENERALIZATION, DISCRIMINATION, AND SECOND-ORDER CONDITIONING • SECOND-ORDER CONDITIONING: SECOND CS BECOMES ASSOCIATED WITH FIRST CS; ELICITS CR WHEN PRESENTED ALONE • NEITHER US NOR ORIGINAL CS PRESENT • EXAMPLE: PAIRING BLACK SQUARE (SECOND CS) WITH METRONOME (FIRST CS) SO BLACK SQUARE PRODUCES SALIVATION (CR) ON ITS OWN WE LEARN FEAR RESPONSES THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • PHOBIA • ACQUIRED FEAR THAT IS VERY STRONG IN COMPARISON TO THREAT WE LEARN FEAR RESPONSES THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • THE CASE OF LITTLE ALBERT • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING DEMONSTRATED IN PHOBIAS: • WATSON SHOWED “LITTLE ALBERT” VARIOUS NEUTRAL OBJECTS (E.G., WHITE RAT, RABBIT, DOG, MONKEY, WHITE WOOL) • PAIRED RAT (CS) AND LOUD CLANGING (US) UNTIL RAT ALONE PRODUCED FEAR (CR) • FEAR GENERALIZED TO ALL SIMILAR STIMULI • SEE FIGURE 6.7 NEXT SLIDE THE CASE OF LITTLE ALBERT WE LEARN FEAR RESPONSES THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • COUNTERCONDITIONING • COUNTERCONDITIONING: EXPOSING SUBJECT TO PHOBIA DURING AN ENJOYABLE TASK • SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION: EXPOSURE TO FEARED STIMULUS WHILE RELAXING • CS -> CR1 (FEAR) CONNECTION REPLACED WITH CS -> CR2 (RELAXATION) CONNECTION ADAPTATION AND COGNITION INFLUENCE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • PAVLOV’S BELIEF: ANY TWO EVENTS PRESENTED TOGETHER WOULD PRODUCE LEARNED ASSOCIATION • BY 1960S, DATA SUGGESTED THAT SOME CONDITIONED STIMULI MORE LIKELY TO PRODUCE LEARNING ADAPTATION AND COGNITION INFLUENCE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • EVOLUTIONARY INFLUENCES • CERTAIN PAIRINGS MORE LIKELY TO BE ASSOCIATED • CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSIONS: EASY TO PRODUCE WITH SMELL OR TASTE CUES • AUDITORY AND VISUAL STIMULI: VALUE FOR SIGNALING DANGER • SEE FIGURE 6.8 NEXT SLIDE ADAPTATION AND COGNITION INFLUENCE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ADAPTATION AND COGNITION INFLUENCE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • COGNITIVE INFLUENCES • THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING, ANIMALS PREDICT EVENTS • EASIER WHEN CS BEFORE US RATHER THAN AFTER US • EASIER WHEN CS IS MORE UNEXPECTED OR SURPRISING • SEE FIGURE 6.9 NEXT SLIDE SECTION 6.3 HOW DO WE LEARN BY OPERANT CONDITIONING? 6.3 HOW DO WE LEARN BY OPERANT CONDITIONING? • OPERANT CONDITIONING • A LEARNING PROCESS IN WHICH THE CONSEQUENCES OF AN ACTION DETERMINE THE LIKELIHOOD THAT THE ACTION WILL BE PERFORMED IN THE FUTURE ANIMALS LEARN THROUGH THE OUTCOMES OF THEIR ACTIONS • THORNDIKE’S EXPERIMENTS REVEAL THE EFFECTS OF ACTION • THORNDIKE’S PUZZLE BOX: CHALLENGED FOOD-DEPRIVED ANIMALS TO FIND ESCAPE • TRAP DOOR WOULD OPEN IF ANIMAL PERFORMED SPECIFIC ACTION • ANIMAL QUICKLY LEARNED TO REPEAT BEHAVIOR TO FREE ITSELF AND REACH THE FOOD • SEE FIGURE 6.10 NEXT SLIDE THORNDIKE’S EXPERIMENTS REVEAL THE EFFECTS OF ACTION ANIMALS LEARN THROUGH THE OUTCOMES OF THEIR ACTIONS • THORNDIKE’S GENERAL THEORY OF LEARNING • LAW OF EFFECT: ANY BEHAVIOR LEADING TO A “SATISFYING STATE OF AFFAIRS” LIKELY TO BE REPEATED • ANY BEHAVIOR LEADING TO AN “ANNOYING STATE OF AFFAIRS” LESS LIKELY TO REOCCUR LEARNING VARIES IN OPERANT CONDITIONING • B. F. SKINNER’S LEARNING THEORY BASED ON THE LAW OF EFFECT • ANIMALS OPERATE ON ENVIRONMENTS TO PRODUCE EFFECTS • REINFORCER: STIMULUS OCCURS AFTER RESPONSE AND INCREASES LIKELIHOOD OF RESPONSE REOCCURRING • CONSEQUENCES DETERMINE LIKELIHOOD OF BEHAVIOR IN FUTURE • SEE FIGURE 6.11 NEXT SLIDE LEARNING VARIES IN OPERANT CONDITIONING • SHAPING • SHAPING: OPERANT-CONDITIONING TECHNIQUE; REINFORCE BEHAVIORS INCREASINGLY SIMILAR TO DESIRED BEHAVIOR • SEE FIGURE 6.12 NEXT SLIDE SHAPING LEARNING VARIES IN OPERANT CONDITIONING • REINFORCERS CAN BE CONDITIONED • REINFORCERS THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SURVIVAL, SUCH AS FOOD OR WATER, ARE CALLED PRIMARY REINFORCERS • EVENTS OR OBJECTS THAT SERVE AS REINFORCERS BUT DO NOT SATISFY BIOLOGICAL NEEDS ARE CALLED SECONDARY REINFORCERS LEARNING VARIES IN OPERANT CONDITIONING • REINFORCER POTENCY • PREMACK PRINCIPLE: MORE VALUED ACTIVITY CAN REINFORCE PERFORMANCE OF LESS VALUED ACTIVITY • EXAMPLE: “EAT YOUR SPINACH AND THEN YOU’LL GET DESSERT” REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT HAVE OPPOSITE EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR • REINFORCEMENT: BEHAVIOR MORE LIKELY TO BE REPEATED • PUNISHMENT: BEHAVIOR LESS LIKELY TO OCCUR AGAIN REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT • BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT INCREASE LIKELIHOOD OF A GIVEN BEHAVIOR REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT • POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT: THE ADDITION OF A STIMULUS TO INCREASE THE PROBABILITY THAT A BEHAVIOR WILL BE REPEATED • EXAMPLE: FEEDING A RAT AFTER IT HAS PRESSED A LEVER • NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT: THE REMOVAL OF A STIMULUS TO INCREASE THE PROBABILITY THAT A BEHAVIOR WILL BE REPEATED • EXAMPLE: TAKING A PILL TO GET RID OF A HEADACHE REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT • BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT REDUCE LIKELIHOOD THAT BEHAVIOR WILL BE REPEATED REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT • POSITIVE PUNISHMENT: THE ADDITION OF A STIMULUS TO DECREASE THE PROBABILITY THAT A BEHAVIOR WILL RECUR • EXAMPLE: ELECTRICAL SHOCK, SPEEDING TICKET • NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT: THE REMOVAL OF A STIMULUS TO DECREASE THE PROBABILITY THAT A BEHAVIOR WILL RECUR • EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FOOD, LOSS OF PRIVILEGES • SEE FIGURE 6.14 NEXT SLIDE REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT: BEHAVIOR REINFORCED EACH TIME IT OCCURS • FAST LEARNING, UNCOMMON IN REAL WORLD • PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT: BEHAVIOR IS OCCASIONALLY REINFORCED • MORE COMMON IN REAL WORLD REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • 1. 2. 3. 4. HOW REINFORCEMENT GIVEN BY HOW CONSISTENTLY GIVEN = FOUR COMMON SCHEDULES FIXED SCHEDULE: PREDICTABLE BASIS VARIABLE SCHEDULE: UNPREDICTABLE BASIS INTERVAL SCHEDULE: BASED ON PASSAGE OF TIME RATIO SCHEDULE: BASED ON NUMBER OF RESPONSES REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • FIXED INTERVAL SCHEDULE (FI): REINFORCING THE OCCURRENCE OF A PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR AFTER A PREDETERMINED AMOUNT OF TIME SINCE THE LAST REWARD • EXAMPLE: PAYCHECK REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • VARIABLE INTERVAL SCHEDULE (VI): REINFORCING THE OCCURRENCE OF A PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR AFTER AN UNPREDICTABLE AND VARYING AMOUNT OF TIME SINCE THE LAST REWARD • EXAMPLE: POP QUIZ • MORE CONSISTENT RESPONSE RATES THAN FIXED INTERVAL REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • FIXED RATIO SCHEDULE (FR): REINFORCING A PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR AFTER THAT BEHAVIOR HAS OCCURRED A PREDETERMINED NUMBER OF TIMES • EXAMPLE: PAID BY THE COMPLETED TASK • OFTEN YIELDS BETTER RESPONSE RATES THAN FIXED INTERVAL REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • VARIABLE RATIO SCHEDULE (VR): REINFORCING A PARTICULAR BEHAVIOR AFTER THE BEHAVIOR HAS OCCURRED AN UNPREDICTABLE AND VARYING NUMBER OF TIMES • EXAMPLE: SLOT MACHINE • SEE FIGURE 6.15 NEXT SLIDE SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • SCHEDULES OF PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT • PARTIAL-REINFORCEMENT EXTINCTION EFFECT: BEHAVIOR LASTS LONGER UNDER PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT THAN UNDER CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT • TO CONDITION BEHAVIOR TO PERSIST: • USE CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT INITIALLY • SLOWLY CHANGE TO PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT OPERANT CONDITIONING AFFECTS OUR LIVES • PARENTAL PUNISHMENT IS INEFFECTIVE • TO BE EFFECTIVE, PUNISHMENT MUST BE • REASONABLE • UNPLEASANT • APPLIED IMMEDIATELY • CLEARLY CONNECTED TO THE UNWANTED BEHAVIOR OPERANT CONDITIONING AFFECTS OUR LIVES • PARENTAL PUNISHMENT IS INEFFECTIVE • PUNISHMENT CAN CAUSE CONFUSION • WRONGLY APPLIED AFTER DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR • LEADS TO NEGATIVE EMOTIONS (E.G., FEAR, ANXIETY) • FAILS TO OFFSET REINFORCING ASPECTS OF THE UNDESIRED BEHAVIOR • REINFORCEMENT TEACHES DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR • SEE FIGURE 6.16 NEXT SLIDE PARENTAL PUNISHMENT IS INEFFECTIVE OPERANT CONDITIONING AFFECTS OUR LIVES • BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION • BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION: OPERANT CONDITIONING REPLACES UNWANTED BEHAVIORS WITH DESIRABLE BEHAVIORS • TOKEN ECONOMIES: OPPORTUNITY TO EARN TOKENS (SECONDARY REINFORCERS) FOR COMPLETING TASKS AND LOSE TOKENS FOR BEHAVING BADLY • TOKENS LATER TRADED FOR OBJECTS OR PRIVILEGES • GIVES PARTICIPANTS SENSE OF CONTROL BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • BEHAVIORISTS BELIEVED CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES EXPLAINED ALL BEHAVIOR. IN REALITY, REINFORCEMENT EXPLAINS ONLY A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • DOPAMINE ACTIVITY AFFECTS REINFORCEMENT • DOPAMINE HAS A BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCE ON REINFORCING VALUE • DRUGS THAT BLOCK DOPAMINE’S EFFECTS DISRUPT OPERANT CONDITIONING • DRUGS THAT ENHANCE DOPAMINE ACTIVATION INCREASE REINFORCING VALUE OF STIMULI BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • BIOLOGY CONSTRAINS REINFORCEMENT • SOME ANIMAL BEHAVIORS HARDWIRED • DIFFICULT TO LEARN BEHAVIORS COUNTER TO EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION • CONDITIONING MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN MATCHED TO ANIMAL’S BIOLOGICAL PREDISPOSITIONS BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • LEARNING WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT • TOLMAN ARGUED THAT REINFORCEMENT IMPACTS PERFORMANCE MORE THAN KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION • RAN RATS THROUGH COMPLEX MAZES TO OBTAIN FOOD • COGNITIVE MAP: A VISUOSPATIAL MENTAL REPRESENTATION OF AN ENVIRONMENT BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT •CONDITIONING LEARNING WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT • IN TOLMAN’S STUDY THREE GROUPS OF RATS TRAVELED MAZE •GROUP 1: NO REINFORCEMENT •GROUP 2: REINFORCEMENT EVERY TRIAL •GROUP 3: REINFORCEMENT ONLY AFTER FIRST 10 TRIALS • SEE FIGURE 6.19 NEXT SLIDE LEARNING WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • LEARNING WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT • LATENT LEARNING: LEARNING THAT TAKES PLACE IN THE • • • ABSENCE OF REINFORCEMENT GROUP 1: SLOW, MANY WRONG TURNS GROUP 2: FASTER, FEWER ERRORS EACH TRIAL GROUP 3: BEFORE REINFORCEMENT, SIMILAR TO GROUP 1. AFTER REINFORCEMENT, BETTER THAN GROUP 2 BIOLOGY AND COGNITION INFLUENCE OPERANT CONDITIONING • LEARNING WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT • INSIGHT LEARNING: A SUDDEN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW TO SOLVE A PROBLEM AFTER A PERIOD OF EITHER INACTION OR THINKING ABOUT THE PROBLEM SECTION 6.4 HOW DO WE LEARN BY WATCHING OTHERS? 6.4 HOW DO WE LEARN BY WATCHING OTHERS? • BEHAVIORS WE LEARN BY WATCHING OTHERS • MECHANICAL SKILLS, SOCIAL ETIQUETTE, SITUATIONAL ANXIETY, ATTITUDES ABOUT POLITICS AND RELIGION • THREE WAYS WE LEARN BY WATCHING 1. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING 2. MODELING 3. VICARIOUS CONDITIONING THREE WAYS WE LEARN THROUGH WATCHING 1. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING: THE ACQUISITION OR MODIFICATION OF A BEHAVIOR AFTER EXPOSURE TO AT LEAST ONE PERFORMANCE OF THAT BEHAVIOR • EXAMPLES: FOODS SAFE TO EAT, OBJECTS AND SITUATIONS TO FEAR • POWERFUL ADAPTIVE TOOL • SEE FIGURE 6.20 NEXT SLIDE THREE WAYS WE LEARN THROUGH WATCHING THREE WAYS WE LEARN THROUGH WATCHING • BANDURA’S RESEARCH REVEALS LEARNING THROUGH OBSERVATION • OBSERVATION OF AGGRESSION: BANDURA’S BOBO DOLL STUDY • GROUP 1: WATCHED FILM OF ADULT PLAYING QUIETLY WITH BOBO, AN INFLATABLE DOLL • GROUP 2: WATCHED FILM OF ADULT ATTACKING BOBO • VIEWERS OF AGGRESSION WERE MORE THAN TWICE AS LIKELY TO PLAY AGGRESSIVELY THREE WAYS WE LEARN THROUGH WATCHING • LEARNING THROUGH MODELING • MODELING: THE IMITATION OF BEHAVIOR THROUGH OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING • MORE LIKELY TO IMITATE ACTIONS OF ATTRACTIVE, HIGH-STATUS MODELS SIMILAR TO OURSELVES • SEE FIGURE 6.22 NEXT SLIDE LEARNING THROUGH MODELING THREE WAYS WE LEARN THROUGH WATCHING • • LEARNING THROUGH VICARIOUS CONDITIONING 3. VICARIOUS CONDITIONING: LEARNING THE CONSEQUENCES OF AN ACTION BY WATCHING OTHERS BEING REWARDED OR PUNISHED FOR PERFORMING THE ACTION – • • REWARDED BEHAVIOR MORE IMITATED PUNISHED BEHAVIOR LESS IMITATED SEE FIGURE 6.23 NEXT SLIDE LEARNING THROUGH VICARIOUS CONDITIONING WATCHING OTHERS RESULTS IN CULTURAL TRANSMISSION • MEME: SHARED PIECE OF CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE • SIMILAR TO GENES, SELECTIVELY PASSED ACROSS GENERATIONS, CAN SPREAD MUCH FASTER • ANIMALS ALSO SHOW THIS KIND OF KNOWLEDGE SHARING • SEE FIGURE 6.24 NEXT SLIDE WATCHING OTHERS RESULTS IN CULTURAL TRANSMISSION BIOLOGY INFLUENCES OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING • MIRROR NEURONS • FIRE IN YOUR BRAIN AND OTHER PERSON’S BRAIN EVERY TIME YOU WATCH THEM ENGAGING IN AN ACTION • DOES NOT ALWAYS LEAD TO IMITATION • SCIENTISTS ARE STILL DEBATING MIRROR NEURONS’ FUNCTION
Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 7 Memory © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Section 7.1 How Do We Acquire Memories? 7.1 How Do We Acquire Memories? • Memory • The nervous system’s capacity to acquire and retain skills and knowledge for later retrieval We Acquire Memories by Processing Information • Encoding • The processing of information so that it can be stored • Storage • The retention of encoded representations over time • Retrieval • The act of recalling or remembering stored information when it is needed • See figure 7.2 next slide Attention Allows Us to Encode a Memory • Attention • Focusing mental resources on information; allows further processing for perception, memory, and response Attention Allows Us to Encode a Memory • Visual attention • We automatically pay attention to and recognize basic visual features in an environment, including color, shape, size, orientation, and movement • Auditory attention • Selective-listening studies examine what we do with auditory information that is not attended to • See figures 7.3, 7.4 next slide Selective Attention Allows Us to Filter Unwanted Information • Filter theory • Filter theory attempts to explain how we selectively attend to the most important information • Change blindness • An individual’s failure to notice large visual changes in the environment Section 7.2 How Do We Maintain Memories over Time? 7.2 How Do We Maintain Memories over Time? • Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed that we have three different types of memory stores: sensory storage, shortterm storage, and long-term storage • Each of these memory stores retains different encoded input, and each has the capacity to maintain information for a certain length of time • See figure 7.5 and table 7.1 next slide Sensory Storage Allows Us to Maintain Information Very Briefly • Five types of sensory stores • • Sensory storage: A memory storage system that very briefly holds a vast amount of information from the five senses in close to their original sensory formats One type of sensory storage very briefly maintains visual input. Four other types of sensory stores maintain all the other sensory input: auditory, smell, taste, and touch Sensory Storage Allows Us to Maintain Information Very Briefly • Duration and capacity of sensory storage • • Sperling concluded that participants maintained many of the 12 items in sensory storage for about one-third of a second By maintaining a large amount of information for a fraction of a second, sensory storage enables us to experience the world as a continuous stream of information rather than as discrete sensations • See figure 7.7 next slide Working Memory Allows Us to Actively Maintain Information in Short-Term Storage • Short-term storage • A memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of information in awareness • Working memory • An active processing system that allows manipulation of different types of information to keep it available for current use Working Memory Allows Us to Actively Maintain Information in Short-Term Storage • Duration of short-term storage • Short-term storage may be a “location” for maintaining memories. Working memory allows for manipulation of sounds, images, and ideas for longer maintenance in short-term storage Working Memory Allows Us to Actively Maintain Information in Short-Term Storage • Capacity of short-term storage • • George Miller noted that the capacity limit of short-term storage is generally seven items (plus or minus two), which is referred to as the memory span Chunking: Using working memory to organize information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember • See figure 7.8 next slide Long-Term Storage Allows Us to Maintain Memories Relatively Permanently • Long-term storage • A memory storage system that allows relatively permanent storage, of a probably unlimited amount of information Long-Term Storage Allows Us to Maintain Memories Relatively Permanently • Encoding for long-term storage • Maintenance rehearsal: Using working memory processes to repeat information based on how it sounds (auditory information); provides only shallow encoding of information Long-Term Storage Allows Us to Maintain Memories Relatively Permanently • Encoding for long-term storage • Elaborative rehearsal: Using working memory processes to think about how new information relates to ourselves or our prior knowledge (semantic information); provides deeper encoding of information for more successful long-term storage • See figure 7.9 next slide Long-Term Storage Allows Us to Maintain Memories Relatively Permanently • Long-term storage versus short-term storage • Long-term storage lasts longer, has a far greater capacity, and depends on deep encoding of information Long-Term Storage Allows Us to Maintain Memories Relatively Permanently • Long-term storage versus short-term storage • • The primacy effect refers to the better memory people have for items presented at the beginning of the list The recency effect refers to the better memory people have for the most recent items, the ones at the end of the list • See figure 7.10 next slide Our Long-Term Storage Is Organized Based on Meaning • Schemas • Decisions about how to chunk information depend on schemas, ways of structuring memories in long-term storage that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information Our Long-Term Storage Is Organized Based on Meaning • Association networks • • Meaning of information is organized in long-term storage based on networks of associations Spreading activation models of memory. According to these models, information that is heard or seen activates specific nodes for memories in long-term storage • See figure 7.11 next slide Section 7.3 What Are Our Different Long-Term Storage Systems? 7.3 What Are Our Different Long-Term Storage Systems? • Henry Molaison (H.M.) • Retrograde amnesia • A condition in which people lose the ability to access memories they had before a brain injury 7.3 What Are Our Different Long-Term Storage Systems? • Anterograde amnesia • A condition in which people lose the ability to form new memories after experiencing a brain injury • See figures, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14a and 7.14b next slide Our Explicit Memories Involve Conscious Effort • After the surgery, H.M. could not encode new memories in long-term storage Our Explicit Memories Involve Conscious Effort • Amnesia and explicit memory • Explicit memory: The system for long-term storage of conscious memories that can be verbally described Our Explicit Memories Involve Conscious Effort • Episodic and semantic memory • • Episodic memory: A type of explicit memory that includes personal experiences Semantic memory: A type of explicit memory that includes knowledge about the world Our Implicit Memories Function Without Conscious Effort • Implicit memory and amnesia • Implicit memory: The system for long-term storage of unconscious memories that cannot be verbally described Our Implicit Memories Function Without Conscious Effort • Classical conditioning and procedural memory • • Classical conditioning employs implicit memory Procedural memory: A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits • See figure 7.17 next slide Prospective Memory Lets Us Remember to Do Something • Prospective memory • • Remembering to do something at some future time Remembering to do something takes up valuable cognitive resources • See figure 7.18 next slide Memory Is Processed by Several Regions of Our Brains • Memory’s physical location • Not all brain areas are equally involved in memory; a great deal of specialization occurs • Consolidation of memories • Consolidation: A process by which immediate memories become lasting through long-term storage • See figures 7.19, 7.20 next slide Memory Is Processed by Several Regions of Our Brains • Reconsolidation of memories • • Once memories are activated, they need to be consolidated again for long-term storage; this process is known as reconsolidation Retrieved memories can be affected by new circumstances, so reconsolidated memories may differ from their original versions Memory Is Processed by Several Regions of Our Brains • Reconsolidation of memories • Researchers have shown that using the classical conditioning technique of extinction during the period when memories are susceptible to reconsolidation can be an effective method for altering bad memories Section 7.4 How Do We Access Our Memories? 7.4 How Do We Access Our Memories? Retrieval Cues Help Us Access Our Memories • Retrieval cue • Anything that helps a person access information in long-term storage • Context and state aid retrieval • • Context-dependent memory effect State-dependent memory • See figure 7.22 next slide Retrieval Cues Help Us Access Our Memories • Mnemonics aid retrieval • • Mnemonics are learning aids or strategies that use retrieval cues to improve access to memory Method of loci We Forget Some of Our Memories • Forgetting • • The inability to access a memory from long-term storage Hermann Ebbinghaus examined how long it took him to relearn lists of unfamiliar nonsense syllables and used these data to develop the forgetting curve • See figure 7.23 next slide We Forget Some of Our Memories • Interference • • Retroactive interference: When access to older memories is impaired by newer memories Proactive interference: When access to newer memories is impaired by older memories • See figures 7.24a, 7.24b next slide We Forget Some of Our Memories • Blocking • • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon Blocking often occurs because of interference from words that are similar in some way, such as in sound or meaning, and that are repeatedly experienced We Forget Some of Our Memories • Absentmindedness • Absentmindedness is the inattentive or shallow encoding of events. The major cause of absentmindedness is failing to pay attention Our Unwanted Memories May Persist • Persistence • • • The continual recurrence of unwanted memories from long-term storage Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Erasing memories leads to many ethical questions Our Memories Can Be Distorted • Distortion • Human memory is not a perfectly accurate representation of the past; it is flawed • Memory bias • Memory bias is the changing of memories over time so that they become consistent with our current beliefs or attitudes Our Memories Can Be Distorted • Flashbulb memories • These vivid memories seem like a flash photo, capturing the circumstances in which we first learned of a surprising and consequential or emotionally arousing event • See figures 7.26a and 7.26b next slide Our Memories Can Be Distorted • Misattribution • • Misattribution occurs when we misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory In cryptomnesia, we think we have come up with a new idea but really have retrieved an old idea from memory and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source • See figure 7.27 next slide Our Memories Can Be Distorted • Suggestibility • When people are given misleading information, this information affects their memory for an event
Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 8 Thinking and Intelligence © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Section 8.1 WHAT IS THINKING? 8.1 What Is Thinking? Thinking Is the Manipulation of Mental Representations  Thinking  The mental manipulation of representations of information we encounter in our environments  Cognitive psychologists study thought and the understanding that results from thinking Thinking Is the Manipulation of Mental Representations   Analogical and symbolic representations  Analogical representations: Mental representations that have some of the physical characteristics of objects  Symbolic representations: Abstract mental representations that consist of words or ideas See figure 8.2 next slide Thinking Is the Manipulation of Mental Representations  Mental maps   Mental maps include a combination of analogical and symbolic representations See figure 8.3 next slide Thinking Depends on Categorization of Concepts  Schemas and the categorization of concepts  Schemas are our prior knowledge and experience with information  Schemas are related to the organization of analogical and symbolic representations in our minds Thinking Depends on Categorization of Concepts   Schemas and the categorization of concepts  When we use a schema to group things based on shared properties, we create a category  Concept: A mental representation of objects, events, or relations around common themes See figures 8.5a, 8.5b and table 8.1 next slide Thinking Depends on Categorization of Concepts  Defining attribute model   A way of thinking about concepts. A category is characterized by a list of features that determine if an object is a member of the category See figure 8.6 next slide Thinking Depends on Categorization of Concepts  Prototype model   A way of thinking about concepts. Within each category, there is a best example—a prototype—for that category See figure 8.8 next slide Thinking Depends on Categorization of Concepts  Exemplar model  A way of thinking about concepts. All concepts in a category are examples (exemplars); together, they form the category Thinking Depends on Categorization of Concepts   Stereotypes  Cognitive schemas that allow for easy, fast processing of information about people, events, or groups, based on their membership in certain groups  Gender role stereotypes are the socially prescribed behaviors for females and males See figures 8.10a, 8.10b next slide Section 8.2 HOW DO WE MAKE DECISIONS AND SOLVE PROBLEMS? 8.2 How Do We Make Decisions and Solve Problems?  Reasoning   Decision making   Attempting to select the best alternative among several options Problem solving   Using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable Finding a way around an obstacle to reach a goal See figures 8.11a, 8.11b next slide How We Think Biases Decision Making  An algorithm is a set of procedures to follow when thinking and making a decision  “Rule of thumb” decisions are generally fine—good enough in our daily lives How We Think Biases Decision Making  Heuristics  Heuristic: A shortcut (rule of thumb or informal guideline) used to reduce the amount of thinking that is needed to make decisions  The availability heuristic is the tendency to make a decision based on information that comes most easily to mind How We Think Biases Decision Making  Heuristics  The representativeness heuristic is the tendency to place people or objects in a category if they are similar to the concept that is the prototype  The representativeness heuristic can lead to faulty reasoning if we fail to take other information into account (e.g., the base rate) How We Think Biases Decision Making  Framing   The paradox of choice   How information is presented affects how that information is perceived and influences decisions When too many options are available, especially when all of them are attractive, we experience conflict and indecision See figures 8.14a, 8.14b next slide We Solve Problems to Achieve Goals  Subgoals   In many cases, solving the problem requires breaking the task into subgoals See figure 8.15 next slide We Solve Problems to Achieve Goals  Working backward   Analogy   Working backward is helpful when the appropriate steps for solving a problem are not clear; it involves proceeding from the goal state to the initial state Finding an appropriate analogy for a problem can help achieve goals See figures 8.16a, 8.16b next slide We Solve Problems to Achieve Goals   Sudden insight  Insight is the metaphorical lightbulb that goes on in your head when you suddenly realize the solution to a problem  Wolfgang Kohler, insight in chimpanzees experiment See figure 8.17 and table 8.2 next slide We Overcome Obstacles to Solve Problems  Restructuring   Overcoming mental sets   Thinking about a problem in a new way in order to solve it Mental sets: A tendency to approach a problem in the same way that has worked in the past, which may make it harder to solve it See figure 8.18 next slide We Overcome Obstacles to Solve Problems  Overcoming functional fixedness   Functional fixedness: A tendency to think of things based on their usual functions, which may make it harder to solve a problem See figures 8.19a, 8.19b next slide
Section 8.3 What Is Intelligence? 8.3 What Is Intelligence? • Intelligence • The ability to use knowledge to reason, make decisions, make sense of events, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges • See figure 8.20 next slide One General Factor May Underlie Intelligence • IQ scores reveal intelligence • Alfred Binet • Intelligence quotient (IQ): An index of intelligence originally computed by dividing a child’s estimated mental age by the child’s chronological age, then multiplying this number by 100 • See figure 8.21 next slide One General Factor May Underlie Intelligence • General intelligence • Charles Spearman • General intelligence: The idea that one general factor underlies intelligence • See figure 8.22 next slide There May Be Multiple Aspects of Intelligence • Fluid and crystallized intelligence • Raymond Cattell • Fluid intelligence: Intelligence that reflects the ability to process information, particularly in novel or complex circumstances • Crystallized intelligence: Intelligence that reflects both the knowledge a person acquires through experience and the ability to use that knowledge • See figure 8.23 and table 8.3 next slide There May Be Multiple Aspects of Intelligence • Multiple intelligences • Howard Gardner • Multiple intelligences: The idea that people have many different types of intelligence that are independent of one another There May Be Multiple Aspects of Intelligence • Multiple intelligences • Howard Gardner • Multiple intelligences are: Bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, mathematical/logical, spatial, intrapersonal, and interpersonal • See figure 8.24 next slide There May Be Multiple Aspects of Intelligence • Multiple intelligences • Robert Sternberg • Triarchic theory: The idea that people have three types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical There May Be Multiple Aspects of Intelligence • Multiple intelligences • Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory: • Analytical intelligence is similar to that measured by standard intelligence tests • Creative intelligence involves the ability to gain insight and solve novel problems • Practical intelligence refers to dealing with everyday tasks • See figure 8.25 next slide There May Be Multiple Aspects of Intelligence • Emotional intelligence (EI) • This form of intelligence consists of four abilities: managing our own emotions, using our emotions to guide our thoughts and actions, recognizing other people’s emotions, and understanding emotional language Intelligence Is a Result of Genes and Environment • Behavior genetics • Behavioral geneticists study the genetic basis of behaviors and traits such as intelligence • Twin and adoption studies • See figure 8.26 next slide Intelligence Is a Result of Genes and Environment • Environmental factors • Poor nutrition • Prenatal factors (e.g., the parents’ intake of drugs and alcohol) • Postnatal factors (e.g., family, social class, education, cultural beliefs, and our own drug and alcohol use) • An enriched environment can aid in the development of intelligence • See figures 8.27, 8.28 next slide Section 8.4 How Do We Measure Intelligence? 8.4 How Do We Measure Intelligence? Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests • All psychometric tests have some features in common • Reliability: How consistently a psychometric test produces similar results each time it is used • Validity: How well a psychometric test measures what it is intended to measure Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests • Achievement and aptitude tests • Achievement test: A psychometric test that is designed to test what knowledge and skills a person has learned, ACT • Aptitude test: A psychometric test that is designed to test a person’s ability to learn—that is, the person’s future performance, SAT Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests • Intelligence tests • Alfred Binet: Original intelligence test • Lewis Terman: Stanford-Binet test • David Wechsler: The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests • Intelligence quotient • Mental age: An assessment of a child’s intellectual standing compared with that of same age peers; determined by comparing the child’s test score with the average score for children of each chronological age • Normal distribution • See figure 8.30 next slide Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests • Validity and reliability • For psychometric tests to be useful, they must be standardized, they must have reliability, and they must have validity • Miller Analogy Test • See figures 8.31a, 8.31b next slide Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests • Cultural bias • One important criticism of intelligence tests is that they may penalize people who belong or don’t belong to particular cultures or groups • See figure 8.32 next slide Intelligence Is Associated With Cognitive Performance • Speed of mental processing • People who score lower on intelligence tests consistently respond more slowly on tests of reaction time than those who score higher on intelligence tests • Choice reaction time Intelligence Is Associated With Cognitive Performance • Working memory and attention • General intelligence scores are also closely related to working memory • The link between working memory and general intelligence may be attention • See figures 8.33a and 8.33b next slide Intelligence Is Associated With Cognitive Performance • Intelligence and the brain • Many studies have documented a relationship between brain size and intelligence; however, these findings are only correlations • Savants • Have minimal intellectual capacities in most domains, but at a very early age demonstrate exceptional ability in some “intelligent” process • Rain Man Many Factors Determine Group Differences in Intelligence • The most controversial aspect of intelligence testing over the last century has been the idea that genetics can explain overall differences in intelligence scores between racial groups • Arthur Jensen Many Factors Determine Group Differences in Intelligence • Biological differences • The first issue to consider is whether “race” is a biologically meaningful concept • The vast majority of genes—perhaps as many as 99.9 percent— are identical among all humans • See figures 8.36a, 8.36b next slide Many Factors Determine Group Differences in Intelligence • Environmental differences • Even if there are differences in IQ score between races, we cannot conclude that race causes the differences if there are any environmental differences between the groups Many Factors Determine Group Differences in Intelligence • Stereotype threat • Stereotype threat: Apprehension about confirming negative stereotypes related to a person’s own group • It has been found that stereotyped groups perform worse than non-stereotyped groups when they are being evaluated. This effect is reversed when the threat is reduced, such as when an exam is presented as nonevaluative • See figure 8.37 next slide
Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. SECTION 5.1 HOW DO SENSATION AND PERCEPTION AFFECT US? 5.1 HOW DO SENSATION AND PERCEPTION AFFECT US? • SENSATION • THE SENSE ORGANS’ DETECTION OF EXTERNAL PHYSICAL STIMULUS AND THE TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION ABOUT THIS STIMULUS TO THE BRAIN • PERCEPTION • THE PROCESSING, ORGANIZATION, AND INTERPRETATION OF SENSORY SIGNALS IN THE BRAIN; THESE PROCESSES RESULT IN AN INTERNAL NEURAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PHYSICAL STIMULUS OUR SENSES DETECT PHYSICAL STIMULI, AND OUR BRAINS PROCESS PERCEPTION • FROM SENSATION TO PERCEPTION • SENSORY RECEPTORS: SENSORY ORGANS THAT DETECT PHYSICAL STIMULATION FROM THE EXTERNAL WORLD AND CHANGE THAT STIMULATION INTO INFORMATION THAT CAN BE PROCESSED BY THE BRAIN • TRANSDUCTION: A PROCESS BY WHICH SENSORY RECEPTORS CHANGE PHYSICAL STIMULI INTO SIGNALS THAT ARE EVENTUALLY SENT TO THE BRAIN • SEE FIGURES 5.2, 5.3 NEXT SLIDE THERE MUST BE A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF A STIMULUS FOR US TO DETECT IT • THRESHOLD TO DETECT SENSORY INFORMATION • ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD: THE SMALLEST AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL STIMULATION REQUIRED TO DETECT A SENSORY INPUT HALF OF THE TIME IT IS PRESENT • DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD: THE MINIMUM DIFFERENCE IN PHYSICAL STIMULATION REQUIRED TO DETECT A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SENSORY INPUTS • WEBER’S LAW • JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE • SEE FIGURE 5.4 AND TABLE 5.1 NEXT SLIDE THERE MUST BE A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF A STIMULUS FOR US TO DETECT IT • SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY • SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY: DETECTION OF A FAINT STIMULUS REQUIRES A JUDGMENT—IT IS NOT AN ALL-OR-NONE PROCESS • SEE FIGURES 5.5A, 5.5B NEXT SLIDE THERE MUST BE A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF A STIMULUS FOR US TO DETECT IT • SENSORY ADAPTATION • SENSORY ADAPTATION: A DECREASE IN SENSITIVITY TO A CONSTANT LEVEL OF STIMULATION SECTION 5.2 HOW DO WE SEE? 5.2 HOW DO WE SEE? • EVERY TIME YOU OPEN YOUR EYES, NEARLY HALF YOUR BRAIN SPRINGS INTO ACTION SENSORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES DETECT LIGHT • FOCUSING LIGHT IN THE EYE • THE WAVES PASS THROUGH THE CORNEA OF YOUR EYE • THE LIGHT THEN PASSES THROUGH THE PUPIL • THE IRIS, A CIRCULAR MUSCLE, GIVES EYES THEIR COLOR AND CONTROLS THE PUPIL’S SIZE TO DETERMINE HOW MUCH LIGHT ENTERS THE EYE SENSORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES DETECT LIGHT • FOCUSING LIGHT IN THE EYE • LENS: THE ADJUSTABLE, TRANSPARENT STRUCTURE BEHIND THE PUPIL; THIS STRUCTURE FOCUSES LIGHT ON THE RETINA, RESULTING IN A CRISP VISUAL IMAGE • SEE FIGURE 5.6 STEP 1 & 2 NEXT SLIDE SENSORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES DETECT LIGHT • RODS AND CONES • RETINA: THE THIN INNER SURFACE OF THE BACK OF THE EYEBALL; THIS SURFACE CONTAINS THE SENSORY RECEPTORS • RODS: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE RETINA THAT DETECT LIGHT WAVES AND TRANSDUCE THEM INTO SIGNALS THAT ARE PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS VISION. RODS RESPOND BEST TO LOW LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION, AND THEREFORE DO NOT SUPPORT COLOR VISION OR DETECTION OF FINE DETAIL SENSORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES DETECT LIGHT • RODS AND CONES • CONES: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE RETINA THAT DETECT LIGHT WAVES AND TRANSDUCE THEM INTO SIGNALS THAT ARE PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS VISION. CONES RESPOND BEST TO HIGHER LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION, AND THEREFORE THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR SEEING COLOR AND FINE DETAIL • EACH RETINA HOLDS APPROXIMATELY 120 MILLION RODS AND 6 MILLION CONES. NEAR THE CENTER OF THE RETINA IS A SMALL REGION CALLED THE FOVEA WHERE CONES ARE DENSELY PACKED SENSORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES DETECT LIGHT • FROM THE EYE TO THE BRAIN • INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT THE EYE HAS SENSED IS DELIVERED TO THE GANGLION CELLS • THE AXONS OF EACH GANGLION CELL ARE GATHERED INTO A BUNDLE. THIS BUNDLE IS CALLED THE OPTIC NERVE • BLIND SPOTS IN YOUR LEFT AND RIGHT VISUAL FIELDS, WHERE THE OPTIC NERVE EXITS THE RETINA SENSORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EYES DETECT LIGHT • FROM THE EYE TO THE BRAIN • HALF OF THE AXONS IN THE OPTIC NERVES CROSS TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BRAIN. THE REST OF THE AXONS STAY ON THE SAME SIDE OF THE BRAIN. THE POINT WHERE THE AXONS CROSS IS KNOWN AS THE OPTIC CHIASM • THE INFORMATION PASSES THROUGH THE THALAMUS AND TRAVELS TO THE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX IN THE OCCIPITAL LOBES • SEE FIGURE 5.6 STEP 3 & 4 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE COLOR BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT • PHYSICAL EXPERIENCE OF COLOR • THE AMPLITUDE IS THE HEIGHT OF THE LIGHT WAVE FROM BASE TO PEAK; PEOPLE EXPERIENCE THIS QUALITY AS BRIGHTNESS • THE WAVELENGTH OF THE LIGHT WAVE IS THE DISTANCE FROM PEAK TO PEAK. THIS DISTANCE DETERMINES YOUR PERCEPTION OF BOTH HUE AND SATURATION WE PERCEIVE COLOR BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT • PHYSICAL EXPERIENCE OF COLOR • HUE REFERS TO THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS THAT PLACE A PARTICULAR COLOR IN THE SPECTRUM • SATURATION IS THE INTENSITY OF THE COLOR • SEE FIGURES 5.7, 5.8 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE COLOR BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT • TRICHROMATIC THEORY • TRICHROMATIC THEORY: THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF CONE RECEPTOR CELLS IN THE RETINA THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR COLOR PERCEPTION. EACH TYPE RESPONDS OPTIMALLY TO DIFFERENT BUT OVERLAPPING RANGES OF WAVELENGTHS • SEE FIGURE 5.9 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE COLOR BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT • TRICHROMATIC THEORY • THE COMBINING OF WAVELENGTHS IS CALLED ADDITIVE COLOR MIXING • THE COMBINING OF PIGMENTS IS CALLED SUBTRACTIVE COLOR MIXING • SEE FIGURES 5.10A, 5.10B NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE COLOR BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT • OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY • OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY: THE PROPOSAL THAT GANGLION CELLS IN THE RETINA RECEIVE EXCITATORY INPUT FROM ONE TYPE OF CONE AND INHIBITORY INPUT FROM ANOTHER TYPE OF CONE, CREATING THE PERCEPTION THAT SOME COLORS ARE OPPOSITES • SEE FIGURE 5.11 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE OBJECTS BY ORGANIZING VISUAL INFORMATION • THE FOUNDERS OF GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY POSTULATED A SERIES OF LAWS TO EXPLAIN HOW OUR BRAINS GROUP THE PERCEIVED FEATURES OF A VISUAL SCENE INTO ORGANIZED WHOLES • FIGURE AND GROUND • FIGURE GROUND: AN OBJECT IS A FIGURE THAT IS DISTINCT FROM THE BACKGROUND. THE BACKGROUND IS REFERRED TO AS THE GROUND • SEE FIGURE 5.12 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE OBJECTS BY ORGANIZING VISUAL INFORMATION • GROUPING • GROUPING: THE VISUAL SYSTEM’S ORGANIZATION OF FEATURES AND REGIONS TO CREATE THE PERCEPTION OF A WHOLE, UNIFIED OBJECT • GROUP VISUAL INFORMATION BASED ON THE PROXIMITY OF PARTS AND BY THE SIMILARITY OF PARTS • SEE FIGURE 5.13 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE OBJECTS BY ORGANIZING VISUAL INFORMATION • BOTTOM-UP AND TOP-DOWN PROCESSING • BOTTOM-UP PROCESSING: THE PERCEPTION OF OBJECTS IS DUE TO ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULUS INPUT BY SENSORY RECEPTORS; THIS ANALYSIS THEN INFLUENCES THE MORE COMPLEX, CONCEPTUAL PROCESSING OF THAT INFORMATION IN THE BRAIN WE PERCEIVE OBJECTS BY ORGANIZING VISUAL INFORMATION • BOTTOM-UP AND TOP-DOWN PROCESSING • TOP-DOWN PROCESSING: THE PERCEPTION OF OBJECTS IS DUE TO THE COMPLEX ANALYSIS OF PRIOR EXPERIENCES AND EXPECTATIONS WITHIN THE BRAIN; THIS ANALYSIS INFLUENCES HOW SENSORY RECEPTORS PROCESS STIMULUS INPUT FROM THE ENVIRONMENT WHEN WE PERCEIVE DEPTH, WE CAN LOCATE OBJECTS IN SPACE • BINOCULAR DEPTH CUES • CUES OF DEPTH PERCEPTION THAT ARISE BECAUSE PEOPLE HAVE TWO EYES • MONOCULAR DEPTH CUES • CUES OF DEPTH PERCEPTION THAT ARE AVAILABLE TO EACH EYE ALONE WHEN WE PERCEIVE DEPTH, WE CAN LOCATE OBJECTS IN SPACE • BINOCULAR DEPTH PERCEPTION • BINOCULAR DISPARITY: WE USE BOTH EYES TO PERCEIVE DEPTH THROUGH BINOCULAR DISPARITY, WHERE EACH RETINA HAS A SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT VIEW OF THE WORLD • SEE FIGURE 5.15 NEXT SLIDE WHEN WE PERCEIVE DEPTH, WE CAN LOCATE OBJECTS IN SPACE • MONOCULAR DEPTH PERCEPTION • PICTORIAL DEPTH CUES; OCCLUSION, HEIGHT IN FIELD, RELATIVE SIZE, FAMILIAR SIZE, LINEAR PERSPECTIVE, AND TEXTURE GRADIENT • SEE FIGURE 5.16 NEXT SLIDE CUES IN OUR BRAINS AND IN THE WORLD ALLOW US TO PERCEIVE MOTION • MOTION AFTEREFFECTS • MOTION AFTEREFFECTS MAY OCCUR WHEN YOU GAZE AT A MOVING IMAGE FOR A LONG TIME AND THEN LOOK AT A STATIONARY SCENE • STROBOSCOPIC MOTION • MOVIES ARE MADE UP OF STILL IMAGES. EACH IMAGE IS SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT FROM THE ONE BEFORE IT. WHEN THE SERIES IS PRESENTED FAST ENOUGH, WE PERCEIVE THE ILLUSION OF MOTION PICTURES. THIS PERCEPTUAL ILLUSION IS CALLED STROBOSCOPIC MOTION SECTION 5.3 HOW DO WE HEAR? 5.3 HOW DO WE HEAR? • HEARING IS ALSO CALLED AUDITION. THIS SENSORY MECHANISM ENABLES US TO DETERMINE WHAT IS HAPPENING IN OUR ENVIRONMENTS. IT PROVIDES A MEDIUM FOR SPOKEN LANGUAGE. IT BRINGS PLEASURE TO OUR LIVES (THROUGH MUSIC, FOR EXAMPLE) AUDITORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EARS DETECT SOUND WAVES • FROM THE EAR TO THE BRAIN • THE PROCESS OF HEARING BEGINS WHEN SOUND WAVES ARRIVE AT THE SHELL-SHAPED STRUCTURE OF YOUR OUTER EAR • EARDRUM: A THIN MEMBRANE THAT MARKS THE BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE EAR; SOUND WAVES CAUSE THE EARDRUM TO VIBRATE • SEE FIGURE 5.18A NEXT SLIDE AUDITORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EARS DETECT SOUND WAVES • FROM THE EAR TO THE BRAIN • COCHLEA: A COILED, BONY, FLUID-FILLED TUBE IN THE INNER EAR THAT HOUSES THE SENSORY RECEPTORS • HAIR CELLS: SENSORY RECEPTORS LOCATED IN THE COCHLEA THAT DETECT SOUND WAVES AND TRANSDUCE THEM INTO SIGNALS THAT ULTIMATELY ARE PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS SOUND • SEE FIGURE 5.18B NEXT SLIDE AUDITORY RECEPTORS IN OUR EARS DETECT SOUND WAVES • FROM THE EAR TO THE BRAIN • TRANSDUCTION INITIATES THE CREATION OF ACTION POTENTIALS IN THE AUDITORY NERVE. THE AUDITORY NERVE SENDS THE INFORMATION TO THE SENSORY PROCESSING CENTER OF THE THALAMUS AND FINALLY TO THE PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX IN THE BRAIN • SEE FIGURE 5.18C NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE SOUND BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOUND WAVES • LOUDNESS AND PITCH OF SOUNDS • THE HEIGHT OF THE SOUND WAVES IS CALLED THE AMPLITUDE. AMPLITUDE DETERMINES OUR PERCEPTION OF LOUDNESS • THE DISTANCE BETWEEN PEAKS OF SOUND WAVES IS THE WAVELENGTH. THE TIME BETWEEN THE PEAKS IN WAVELENGTH IS CALLED THE FREQUENCY. THE FREQUENCY OF THE WAVES DETERMINES THE PITCH OF THE SOUND, FROM HIGH TO LOW • SEE FIGURE 5.19 NEXT SLIDE WE PERCEIVE SOUND BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOUND WAVES • TEMPORAL AND PLACE CODING • TEMPORAL CODING: THE PERCEPTION OF LOWER-PITCHED SOUNDS IS A RESULT OF THE RATE AT WHICH HAIR CELLS ARE STIMULATED BY SOUND WAVES OF LOWER FREQUENCIES • PLACE CODING: THE PERCEPTION OF HIGHER-PITCHED SOUNDS DEPENDS ON THE POINT ON THE BASILAR MEMBRANE WHERE HAIR CELLS ARE STIMULATED BY SOUND WAVES OF VARYING HIGHER FREQUENCIES WE PERCEIVE SOUND BASED ON PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF SOUND WAVES • LOCALIZATION • THE EAR ESTIMATES THE LOCATION OF A SOUND BASED FIRST ON WHEN THE SOUND ARRIVES AND SECOND ON THE AMPLITUDE, OR INTENSITY, OF THE SOUND WAVE • SEE FIGURE 5.20 NEXT SLIDE SECTION 5.4 HOW CAN WE TASTE AND SMELL? 5.4 HOW CAN WE TASTE AND SMELL? • TOGETHER, TASTE AND SMELL PRODUCE THE EXPERIENCE OF FLAVOR. IN FACT, FLAVOR IS BASED MORE ON SMELL THAN ON TASTE • THE SENSE OF TASTE IS ALSO CALLED GUSTATION • THE SENSE OF SMELL IS ALSO CALLED OLFACTION RECEPTORS IN OUR TASTE BUDS DETECT CHEMICAL MOLECULES • FROM MOUTH TO BRAIN • TASTE BUDS: STRUCTURES, LOCATED IN PAPILLAE ON THE TONGUE, THAT CONTAIN THE SENSORY RECEPTORS • CALLED TASTE RECEPTORS • PAPILLAE: STRUCTURES ON THE TONGUE THAT CONTAIN GROUPINGS OF TASTE BUDS • SEE FIGURE 5.21 NEXT SLIDE RECEPTORS IN OUR TASTE BUDS DETECT CHEMICAL MOLECULES • FIVE MAIN TASTES • SWEET, SOUR, SALTY, BITTER, AND UMAMI (JAPANESE FOR “SAVORY” OR “YUMMY”). UMAMI WAS DISCOVERED IN 2007 AND IS THE MOST RECENTLY RECOGNIZED TASTE SENSATION • SUPERTASTERS ARE HIGHLY AWARE OF FLAVORS AND TEXTURES AND ARE MORE LIKELY THAN OTHERS TO FEEL PAIN WHEN EATING VERY SPICY FOODS. SUPERTASTERS HAVE NEARLY SIX TIMES AS MANY TASTE BUDS AS NORMAL TASTERS RECEPTORS IN OUR TASTE BUDS DETECT CHEMICAL MOLECULES • TASTE PREFERENCE • TEXTURE OF FOOD ALSO AFFECTS TASTE PREFERENCES • WHETHER THE FOOD CAUSES DISCOMFORT • CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON FOOD PREFERENCES BEGIN IN THE WOMB OUR OLFACTORY RECEPTORS DETECT ODORANTS • WHEN A DOG IS OUT FOR A WALK, WHY DOES IT SNIFF VIRTUALLY EVERY OBJECT AND CREATURE IT ENCOUNTERS? THE SENSE OF SMELL, WHICH IS ALSO CALLED OLFACTION, IS THE DOG’S MAIN WAY OF PERCEIVING THE WORLD OUR OLFACTORY RECEPTORS DETECT ODORANTS • FROM THE NOSE TO THE BRAIN • OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM: A THIN LAYER OF TISSUE, DEEP WITHIN THE NASAL CAVITY, THAT CONTAINS THE OLFACTORY RECEPTORS; THESE SENSORY RECEPTORS PRODUCE INFORMATION THAT IS PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS SMELL • CHEMICAL MOLECULES ARE CALLED ODORANTS OUR OLFACTORY RECEPTORS DETECT ODORANTS • FROM THE NOSE TO THE BRAIN • OLFACTORY BULB: A BRAIN STRUCTURE ABOVE THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM IN THE NASAL CAVITY; FROM THIS STRUCTURE, THE OLFACTORY NERVE CARRIES INFORMATION ABOUT SMELL TO THE BRAIN • SEE FIGURE 5.22 NEXT SLIDE OUR OLFACTORY RECEPTORS DETECT ODORANTS • TEN THOUSAND SMELLS • HUMANS CAN DETECT ABOUT 10,000 SMELLS, BUT RESEARCHERS ARE STILL EXPLORING HOW THE RECEPTORS TRANSDUCE ODORANTS INTO THE PERCEPTION OF THESE DISTINCT SMELLS OUR OLFACTORY RECEPTORS DETECT ODORANTS • SMELL PERCEPTION • INFORMATION ABOUT WHETHER A SMELL IS PLEASANT OR UNPLEASANT IS PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN’S PREFRONTAL CORTEX SECTION 5.5 HOW DO WE FEEL TOUCH AND PAIN? 5.5 HOW DO WE FEEL TOUCH AND PAIN? • WHEN YOU SEE, HEAR, TASTE, OR SMELL SOMETHING, RECEPTORS IN JUST ONE SMALL PART OF YOUR BODY HAVE BEEN STIMULATED. BUT TOUCH RECEPTORS EXIST ALL OVER YOUR BODY. IN FACT, THE SKIN IS THE LARGEST ORGAN FOR SENSORY RECEPTION RECEPTORS IN OUR SKIN DETECT TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE • FROM SKIN TO THE BRAIN • WARM RECEPTORS: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN THAT DETECT THE TEMPERATURE OF STIMULI AND TRANSDUCE IT INTO INFORMATION PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS WARMTH • COLD RECEPTORS: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN THAT DETECT THE TEMPERATURE OF STIMULI AND TRANSDUCE IT INTO INFORMATION PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS COLD RECEPTORS IN OUR SKIN DETECT TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE • FROM SKIN TO THE BRAIN • PRESSURE RECEPTORS: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN THAT DETECT TACTILE STIMULATION AND TRANSDUCE IT INTO INFORMATION PROCESSED IN THE BRAIN AS DIFFERENT TYPES OF PRESSURE ON THE SKIN • TOUCH INFORMATION TRAVELS FIRST THROUGH THE THALAMUS AND THEN TO THE SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX, WHICH PROCESSES THE INFORMATION • SEE FIGURE 5.23 NEXT SLIDE RECEPTORS IN OUR SKIN DETECT TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE • PERCEPTION OF TOUCH • PENFIELD DISCOVERED THAT ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX COULD EVOKE THE PERCEPTION OF TOUCH IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE BODY • FOR THE MOST SENSITIVE REGIONS OF THE BODY, SUCH AS LIPS AND FINGERS, A GREAT DEAL OF THE CORTEX IS DEDICATED TO PROCESSING TOUCH WE DETECT PAIN IN OUR SKIN AND THROUGHOUT THE BODY • TWO TYPES OF PAIN RECEPTORS • FAST FIBERS: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN, MUSCLES, ORGANS, AND MEMBRANES AROUND BOTH BONES AND JOINTS; THESE MYELINATED FIBERS QUICKLY CONVEY INTENSE SENSORY INPUT TO THE BRAIN, WHERE IT IS PERCEIVED AS SHARP, IMMEDIATE PAIN WE DETECT PAIN IN OUR SKIN AND THROUGHOUT THE BODY • TWO TYPES OF PAIN RECEPTORS • SLOW FIBERS: SENSORY RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN, MUSCLES, ORGANS, AND MEMBRANES AROUND BOTH BONES AND JOINTS; THESE UNMYELINATED FIBERS SLOWLY CONVEY INTENSE SENSORY INPUT TO THE BRAIN, WHERE IT IS PERCEIVED AS CHRONIC, DULL, STEADY PAIN WE DETECT PAIN IN OUR SKIN AND THROUGHOUT THE BODY • CONTROLLING PAIN • DISTRACTION CAN REDUCE YOUR PERCEPTION OF PAIN • LISTENING TO MUSIC IS AN EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE WAY TO REDUCE POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, PERHAPS BECAUSE IT HELPS PATIENTS RELAX INTERNAL SENSORY SYSTEMS HELP US FUNCTION IN SPACE • OUR KINESTHETIC SENSE TELLS US HOW OUR BODY AND LIMBS ARE POSITIONED IN SPACE • KINESTHETIC SENSATIONS COME FROM RECEPTORS IN MUSCLES, TENDONS, AND JOINTS • OUR VESTIBULAR SENSE ALLOWS US TO MAINTAIN BALANCE • THE VESTIBULAR SENSE USES INFORMATION FROM RECEPTORS IN STRUCTURES OF THE INNER EAR CALLED THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS

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TutorLeal
School: New York University

Attached.

OUTLINE
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Reference


Question and Answer
1. What sense do you depend on the most and what sense do you depend on the least?
Support your answer.
I depend on the auditory sense the most. In college there are lectures that form part of the
instruction. The lectures include discussions that group members also engage. In talking and
discussions listening helps carry forward conversation. Healthy discussions can only occur with
listening and information processing. Auditory sense is used most in life by listening to
television, radio as well as telephone conversations. The class presentations have confirmed that
auditory sense is great in building memory better than visual. The ability to recall words produce
better results with auditory memory development.
The sense of touch is the one I use the least, because the sensory organ...

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