Please write short paragraphs to answer each of the following question

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Question description

For each questions, you need to write a short paragraphs (150-200 words) to answer. I've posted links that are related with the questions. Some of them are videos and some are articles. I also post the slides that might help you to understand more about questions. But you do not have to read all the slides. Thank you.

1. How impressed are you by status symbols? How much are other people impressed by your status symbols? Which ones get you 'fired up' and which ones do you most detest? (chapter 5)

2.Do you want to feel a little enlightened? Embrace diversity? Even I was surprised as they all were.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=84OT0NLlqfM

Comments? Reactions? (chapter 6)

3.Comments on an executive order to ban the criminal history box on Federal Employment applications?

http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/11/02/new-obama-executive-order-will-ban-government-asking-criminal-history-job-applications/

Do you see possible consequences or repercussions? Any positives? (chapter 6 and 7)

4.http://www.charitywater.org/whywater/

Watch the video. It's astounding. Do we contribute to charities that are transparent and contribute to life like this one? I am seriously considering "The Spring" and donating monthly to this organization. Reasons to do it? Not to donate? (chapter 8)

5 Social Interaction in Everyday Life Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part . LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Explain the importance of social interaction and its relationship to social structure 2 Describe and illustrate status set, ascribed and achieved statuses, master status, and status inconsistency 3 Explain how and why social roles differ, and how people cope with role conflict and role strain Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 4 Compare and illustrate symbolic interaction, social exchange, and feminist explanations of social interaction 5 Describe and illustrate nonverbal communication, its importance, and crosscultural variations 6 Summarize the benefits and costs of online interaction Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 3 LO - 1 Social Interaction and Social Structure • Social interaction: Process of acting or reacting to one’s environment • Components - Verbal and nonverbal communication - People’s response based on their personal interests - Social interaction affects one’s behavior - Elements of social structure • Social structure: Organized pattern of behavior that governs relationships Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 4 LO - 2 Status • Social position occupied by a person in a society • Determines social identity • Status set: Collection of social statuses occupied by an individual at a given time • Changes throughout the course of one’s life • Relational - Connected to other statuses • Influences behavior and relationships Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 5 LO - 2 Figure 5.1 Is This Your Status Set? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 6 LO - 2 Status (continued) • Ascribed status: Social position that a person is born into • Achieved status: Social position attained by personal effort or assumed voluntarily • Master status: Overrides other statuses • Forms an important part of one’s social identity • Status inconsistency: Arises from occupying social positions that are ranked differently Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 7 LO - 2 Status: Application • Identify whether the following are ascribed or achieved • • • • • Latino Bartender Father Nurse Adolescent Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 8 LO - 3 Role • Behavior expected of a person in a particular status • Includes formal and informal behaviors • Role performance: Actual behavior of a person who occupies a status • Role set: Different roles attached to a single status Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 9 LO - 3 Figure 5.2 Role Set of a College Student Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 10 LO - 3 Role: Application • Describe the role for each of these statuses • • • • Attorney Son Waiter Mother Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 11 LO - 3 Role Conflict and Strain • Role conflict: Difficulties in playing two or more roles • Role strain: Arises from conflicting demands within a single status • Ways to minimize role conflict and Strain • Compromise, prioritize, and compartmentalize • Avoid taking up additional roles • Exit a role or status © Glenda/Shutterstock.com Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 12 LO - 3 Table 5.1 Why Do People Experience Role Conflict and Role Strain? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 13 LO - 3 Role: Application • Is it role conflict or strain? • A man finds it difficult to be a politician because he does not like public speaking • A mom cannot take time off from work to go to her daughter’s soccer match • A friend asks a student for assistance in cheating Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 14 LO - 4 Explaining Social Interaction: Symbolic Interaction • Self-fulfilling prophecy: Defining something as real and acting on it, making it a reality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. Thinkstock Images/Stockbyte/Getty Images • People taking each other and the context into account • Social construction of reality evolves through direct and indirect interaction • One’s perception of reality shapes his/her behavior SOC5 | CH5 15 Explaining Social Interaction: Symbolic Interaction (continued) LO - 4 • Ethnomethodology: Study of how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality that make daily interactions possible • People make sense of every day life by observing conversations and grasping interaction rules • Dramaturgical analysis: Examines social interaction as if it is occurring on a stage • Social interaction involves impression management - People display front stage and back stage behavior Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 16 LO - 4 Explaining Social Interaction: Application • How might ethnomethodologists question the assumptions of the following? • A restaurant • A supermarket • A family dinner Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 17 LO - 4 Explaining Social Interaction: Social Exchange Theory and Feminist Theories • Social exchange theory: Individuals try to maximize rewards and minimize costs through interactions • Involves striking a balance between giving and taking • Feminist theories • Women are comfortable with expressing their feelings • Women’s speech tends to be supportive and tentative Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 18 Explaining Social Interaction: Application LO - 4 (continued) • What are the potential costs and benefits of these interactions? • A student and professor • A first date • A friendship Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 19 LO - 5 Nonverbal Communication • Messages sent without using words • Nonverbal messages Digital Vision/Thinkstock • Silence • Visual cues - Gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact • Touch - Perceived differently between genders and across cultures • Personal space Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 20 LO - 5 Personal Space • Public space - Formal • Marked by objects • Private space - Informal • Reflects individual interests • Indicates status and power • Determined by cultural norms and values George Doyle & Ciaran Griffin/Stockbyte/Getty Images Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 21 LO - 5 Nonverbal Communication: Application • How might you nonverbally communicate each of the following? • • • • “I’m angry with you!” “I’m confused.” “Don’t come any closer.” “You’re cute!” Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 22 LO - 6 Online Interaction • Social media: Enables users to create, share, and exchange information and ideas • Demographic variations • Internet and smart phone usage depend on income levels and locality • Digital divide exists between social classes • Online activities • Using social networking sites, accessing healthcare information, doing banking, learning about community events, and using navigation devices Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 23 LO - 6 Benefits of Online Interaction • Video games encourage children to build, explore, collaborate, and improve hand-eye coordination and problem solving skills • Increased frequency of interaction between parents and children • Facilitates communication between married and committed adults • Helps maintain and revive dormant relationships • Helps find opportunities online Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 24 LO - 6 Disadvantages of Online Interaction • Cyberbullying and stalking • Privacy issues Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. Sylvie Bouchard/Shutterstock.com • Negative impact on quality and quantity of parent-child interaction • Causes distraction between couples • Romance scams • Constant compulsion to connect online exists • Online harassment and humiliation SOC5 | CH5 25 Chapter Review • What is social structure and social interaction? • What are the parts of social structure? • What is social construction of reality? • How do different perspectives explain interaction? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 26 Chapter Review (continued) • State the importance of nonverbal communication. • How does online communication shape one’s interactions? • What are the benefits and costs of online interaction? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 27 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • Social interaction Social structure Status Status set Ascribed status Achieved status Master status Status inconsistency Role Role performance • • • • • • • • Role set Role conflict Role strain Self-fulfilling prophecy Ethnomethodology Dramaturgical analysis Social exchange theory Nonverbal communication • Social media • Social networking site Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 28 SUMMARY • Social structure is an organized pattern of behavior that governs human relationships • Building blocks of social structure - Status and role • Micro-level perspectives of social interaction - Symbolic interaction, social exchange theory, and feminist theories • Nonverbal messages - Silence, visual cues, touch, and personal space • People interact online through social media Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 29 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH5 30
6 Groups, Organizations, and Institutions Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Compare and illustrate the different types of social groups, explain why people conform to group pressure, and the impact of social networks 2 Describe and illustrate three types of formal organizations, the strengths and shortcomings of bureaucracies, and explain how informal groups affect organizations 3 Compare the theoretical explanations of social groups and organizations, including their contributions and limitations 4 Explain why social institutions are important and how they’re interconnected Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 2 LO - 1 Social Group Jdwfoto/Shutterstock.com • People who share attributes and interact with one another • Includes a sense of belonging • Primary group: People engaging in face-toface interaction over an extended period of time • Secondary group: Formal group temporarily formed to pursue a specific goal or activity Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 3 LO - 1 Table 6.1 Characteristics of Primary and Secondary Groups Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 4 Ideal Types, In-Groups, Out-Groups, and Reference Groups LO - 1 • Ideal types: General traits describe a social phenomenon • In-groups: People who share a sense of identity that excludes and devalues outsiders • Out-groups: People viewed and treated negatively as characteristics are seen different • Reference group: People who shape our behavior, values, and attitudes Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 5 LO - 1 Social Groups: Application • Identify each as a primary or secondary group • • • • A single mom and her child Your sociology class A married couple The McDonald’s Corporation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 6 LO - 1 Group Size and Structure • Dyads: Group with two members • Triads: Group with three members • Types of group leadership • Authoritarian: Giving orders, assigning tasks, and making all major decisions • Democratic: Encouraging group discussion and including group members in decision-making • Laissez-faire: Offering minimum or no guidance and allowing members to make their own decisions Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 7 LO - 1 Studies on Group Conformity • Solomon Asch’s research • Demonstrated the effect of groups over an individual • Stanley Milgram’s research • Showed that a majority of ordinary people obeyed an authority figure’s instructions to inflict pain on others © Rich Lindie/Shutterstock.com Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 8 LO - 1 Studies on Group Conformity (continued) • Zimbardo’s research • Emphasizes the influence of groups on behavior • Established the effect of group conformity • Janis’s research • Cautioned presidents and other heads of state to be wary of groupthink • Focused on high-level decision making Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 9 LO - 1 Social Network • Links individuals or groups to one another • Generated by the Internet • Unites individuals with similar interests Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 10 LO - 2 Formal Organizations • Secondary groups designed to achieve specific goals in an efficient manner • Characteristics • Statuses and roles are organized around shared expectations and goals • Norms governing social relationships specify rights, duties, and sanctions • Hierarchy includes leaders or individuals who are in charge Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 11 LO - 2 Types of Formal Organizations • Utilitarian - Provides an income or specific material reward • Normative - Joined by people with shared interests to pursue personally rewarding goals • Coercive - Characterized by involuntary membership • People are forced to join because of punishment or treatment Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 12 LO - 2 Bureaucracies • Accomplish goals and tasks in an efficient and rational method • Characteristics • • • • • • Division of labor and specialization Hierarchy of authority Explicit written rules and regulations Impersonality Qualification-based employment Separation of work and employment Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 13 LO - 2 Bureaucratic Dysfunctions PzAxe/Shutterstock.com • Weak reward systems affect motivation • Rigid rules discourage creativity and lead to goal displacement and alienation • Communication problems waste time and resources • Iron law of oligarchy: Tendency to become dominated by a small group of people • Lead to dehumanization Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 14 LO - 2 Hawthorne Studies • Found informal groups to be vital for organization’s functioning • Promote goals by collaborating, being cohesive, and motivating each other • Resist an organization’s goals and formal rules • Concluded that there is a key relationship between formal and informal organization Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 15 LO - 2 Self-Managing Work Teams Stockphoto.com/EllenMoran • Known as post-bureaucratic organizations • Gather, interpret, and act on the information • Take collective responsibility for their actions • Focus on their goals and are committed to the organization and its success Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 16 LO - 2 Performance Reviews • Calibration - Managers of various divisions ensure that their review processes are similar to each other in criteria and scoring • Based on facts and measurable tasks • Reduce the occurrence of a leader’s biases and inconsistent scoring Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 17 Sociological Perspectives on Social Groups and Organizations Functionalism Conflict theory Feminist theories Symbolic interaction Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. LO - 3 SOC5 | CH6 18 LO - 3 Functionalist Perspective • Organizations are composed of interrelated, mutually dependent parts • Effective leadership is key in job satisfaction • Organizations may be dysfunctional • Critical evaluation • Helps understand how organizations fulfill certain functions • Neglects worker dissatisfaction and alienation • Benefit of social networks is questionable Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 19 LO - 3 Conflict Theory • Organizations • Promote inequality that benefits people at the top of the hierarchy • Serve the elite and ignore workers’ needs and interests • Critical evaluation • Assumes that equality leads to organizational success and productivity • Rarely credits firms’ supporting gender equality • Overemphasizes on organizational deficiencies Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 20 LO - 3 Feminist Perspective • Emphasizes that across all social classes, women lag behind men in leadership roles • Women experience a glass ceiling • Glass ceiling: Workplace biases that prevent women from advancing to leadership positions • Critical evaluation AP Images/John Bazemore • Emphasizes on women in managerial and professional positions • Fails to offer data on how organizational stereotypes affect men Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 21 LO - 3 Symbolic Interaction • Individual’s perception of situations shapes group dynamics and organizations • Individuals make choices, change rules, and mold their identities • People’s outcomes rest on coworkers and bosses interpretation of the same behavior • Critical evaluation • Ignores macro-level factors that exploit workers and consumers Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 22 LO - 3 Sociological Perspectives: Application • Which theoretical perspective is most helpful in understanding this situation? • Denise tries to make work fun for her employees by hosting birthday parties • On average women who work full-time earn less than men who work full-time • Corporation Z brought in recent Somali immigrants to work in the factory when the predominantly Mexican workers went on strike Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 23 LO - 4 Social Institutions • System that meets society’s basic needs • Ensure a society’s survival and affect its members • Family • Economy • Government • Education • Religion Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 24 LO - 4 Importance of Social Institutions Address basic needs or problems Guide behavior through norms and values Contribute to functioning and stability of society Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 25 LO - 4 Social Institutions are Interconnected • Medical researchers - State that obesity causes disease, disability, and death • Media - Broadcasts results of obesity and their negative health outcomes • Educational institutions - Offer healthier lunches Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 26 LO - 4 Social Institutions are Interconnected (continued) Caspar Benson/Getty Images • Families - Shape children’s eating habits and preferences • Political system - Has mixed effects on weight issues • Economy - Depends on consumers to survive Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 27 LO - 4 Social Institutions: Application • What needs of a society are met by each of these institutions? • • • • The family Sports Education Science Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 28 Chapter Review • What is a social group? • How does the size and leadership affect groups? • What are the different types of social groups? • Discuss the importance of group conformity. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 29 Chapter Review (continued) • What is a formal organization? • How do the different perspectives on groups and organizations differ? • What are the social institutions? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 30 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • Social group Primary group Secondary group Ideal types In-group Out-group Reference group Dyad Triad Authoritarian leader Democratic leader • • • • • • • • • • • Laissez-faire leader Groupthink Social network Formal organization Bureaucracy Goal displacement Alienation Iron law of oligarchy Glass ceiling Glass escalator Social institution Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 31 SUMMARY • Social groups have a sense of belonging • Formal organizations are designed to achieve specific goals in an efficient manner • Functionalism, conflict theory, feminist theory, and symbolic interaction provide: • Sociological explanation of groups and organizations • Social institution is an organized and established social system Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 32 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH6 33
7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Differentiate between deviance and crime, and describe the key characteristics of deviance 2 After evaluating the two major crime measures, identify and illustrate the different types of crime 3 Describe, illustrate, and evaluate functionalist perspectives on deviance Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 4 Describe, illustrate, and evaluate conflict perspectives on deviance 5 Describe, illustrate, and evaluate feminist perspectives on deviance 6 Describe, illustrate, and evaluate symbolic interaction perspectives on deviance 7 Identify and evaluate the criminal justice system’s social control methods Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 3 LO - 1 Deviance and Crime • Deviance: Violation of social norms • Characteristics - Can be a trait, a belief, or a behavior - Accompanied by social stigmas - Varies across and within societies - Varies across situations - Formal or informal - Perceptions of deviance change over time • Crime: Violation of society’s formal laws Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 4 LO - 1 Determinants of Deviance Groups with authority or power Public attitudes and behavior Laws Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 5 LO - 2 Measuring Crime • Sources of crime statistics ESLINE/Shutterstock.com • FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR) - Consists of crimes reported to the police and arrests made each year • The Department of Justice’s National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) - Victimization survey: Interviews people about being crime victims - Includes both reported and unreported crimes Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 6 LO - 2 Types of Deviance: Noncriminal Suicide Alcoholism Mental illness Lying Adult pornography Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 7 LO - 2 Types of Deviance: Criminal Street crimes • Includes violent and property crimes Hate crimes • Caused by the bias against race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, or disability White-collar crimes • Committed by high-status people as part of their occupations Corporate (organizational) crimes • Committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 8 LO - 2 Types of Deviance: Criminal (continued) Cybercrimes (computer crimes) • Illegal activities that are conducted online Organized crimes • Acts of people and groups that supply illegal goods and services for profit Victimless (public order) crimes • Acts that violate laws but those involved do not consider themselves as victims Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 9 LO - 2 Figure 7.1 U.S Crime Rates have Decreased Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 10 LO - 3 Functionalist Perspective on Deviance • Normal part of society • Dysfunctional deviance • Creates tension and insecurity, and is expensive • Erodes trust in personal and formal relationships • Decreases confidence in institutions • Functional deviance • Affirms cultural norms and values • Provides temporary safety valves and creates social unity • Bolsters the economy and triggers social change Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 11 Functionalist Perspective on Deviance LO - 3 (continued 1) • Durkheim’s concept of anomie • Anomie: Condition in which people are unsure how to behave because of absent, conflicting, or confusing social norms • Strain theory - Proposes that deviant behavior is exhibited when goals and the means of achieving those goals are in conflict John Lund/Blend Images/Getty Images • Merton’s strain theory Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 12 LO - 3 Table 7.3 Merton’s Strain Theory of Deviance Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 13 LO - 3 Functionalist Perspective on Deviance (continued 2) • Critical evaluation • Anomie and strain theory are limited • Fails to explain why: - Women’s crime rates are lower than men’s - Crime rates have declined despite poverty and unemployment - People commit crimes that have no connection with being successful • Focuses on lower-class deviance and crime Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 14 LO - 3 Functionalism: Application • What form of adaptation is it? • A young woman uses someone else’s credit card to go on vacation • An adult walks off his job and leaves town without his family • A man uses his employer’s equipment and supplies when starting his own business Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 15 LO - 4 Conflict Perspective on Deviance • Capitalism • Encourages crime - Greed and self-interest perpetuate deviance • Creates social inequality Sun Sentinel/Getty Images • Criminal laws serve the Interests of the capitalist ruling class Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 16 LO - 4 Conflict Perspective on Deviance (continued) • Critical evaluation • Exaggerates the importance of capitalism in explaining white collar and corporate crime • Deemphasizes crimes committed by low-income groups • Ignores the fact that some affluent people, don’t get away with their crimes • Ignores the ways that crime is functional for the society • Focuses on men as victims and offenders Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 17 LO - 4 Conflict Perspective: Application • What kind of crime is it? • Amanda overcharges clients and keeps the extra money • Ken obtains and uses others’ credit card numbers • A manufacturing firm knowingly installs dangerous equipment in order to save money Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 18 LO - 5 Feminist Perspective on Deviance • Women as offenders AP Images/David Longstreath • Commit fewer violent, property, and other crimes • Take less risks and possess an ethic of care • Have fewer opportunities to commit crimes • Offenses are highest in places where there are increased economic oppression and poverty Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 19 LO - 5 Feminist Perspective on Deviance (continued 1) • Explanations for female victimization • Patriarchy: Hierarchical system in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men • Cultural effect on gender roles - Internalization of the belief that female victimization is normal • Rape culture: Environment in which sexual violence is prevalent, pervasive, and perpetuated by the media and popular culture Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 20 LO - 5 Feminist Perspective on Deviance (continued 2) • Critical evaluation • Fails to explain specifically how patriarchy victimizes women • Emphasizes on men’s crimes and violence • Fails to address the simultaneous effects of gender, social class, and ethnicity Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 21 Symbolic Interaction Perspectives on Deviance LO - 6 • Differential associations theory • People learn deviance through interaction, specifically with significant others - Engage in crime when exposed to deviant values • Labeling theory: Society’s reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining oneself or others as deviant • Howard Becker’s view - People’s reaction determine if a behavior is deviant or not Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 22 Symbolic Interaction Perspectives on Deviance (continued 1) LO - 6 iStockphoto.com/Darren Mower • Edwin Lemert’s view - Primary deviance: Initial act of breaking a rule - Secondary deviance: Rule-breaking behavior adopted in response to other’s reactions • Medicalization of deviance: Diagnosing and treating a violation of social norms as a medical disorder Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 23 LO - 6 Symbolic Interaction Perspectives on Deviance (continued 2) • Critical evaluation • Differential association theory - Fails to explain why: ▸ Impulsive crimes are committed by people from law-abiding families ▸ Children from disadvantaged communities join gangs and/or commit crimes - Ignores the possibility that deviant values can be unlearned Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 24 Symbolic Interaction Perspectives on Deviance (continued 3) LO - 6 • Labeling theory - Exaggerates the importance of judgements in changing a person’s self-concept - Does not explain why: ▸ Crime rates are higher in the Southern parts of the United States or at particular times of the year ▸ People commit crimes • Ignore structural factors that create or reinforce deviance and crime Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 25 LO - 7 Social Control • Techniques and strategies that regulate people’s behavior in society • Control theory • Proposes that deviant behavior declines when people have social bonds with others • Forms of social control • Formal and informal Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 26 LO - 7 Criminal Justice System • Group of government agencies that: • Enforce laws and judge offenders • Change criminal behavior • Strategies used to control crime Andrey Burmakin/Shutterstock.com • Prevention and intervention - Undertaken by the police, social service agencies, and community outreach programs Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 27 LO - 7 Criminal Justice System (continued) • Punishments - Provided in the form of sentencing, imprisonment, and capital punishment • Rehabilitation - Maintains that appropriate treatment can change offenders into productive, law-abiding citizens - Effective if employment is provided after release Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 28 Chapter Review • What is deviance? • What is crime? • Describe the functionalist perspective on deviance and crime. • Describe the conflict perspective on deviance and crime. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 29 Chapter Review (continued) • Describe the feminist perspective on deviance and crime. • Describe the symbolic interaction perspective on deviance and crime. • How do we attempt to control crime? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 30 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • • Deviance Crime Stigma Victimization survey Hate crime White-collar crime Corporate crimes Cybercrime Organized crime Victimless crimes Anomie Strain theory • • • • • • • • • • • Patriarchy Rape culture Differential association theory Labeling theory Primary deviance Secondary deviance Medicalization of deviance Social control Control theory Criminal justice system Crime control model Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 31 SUMMARY • Deviance becomes crime when it breaks rules that have been written into law • Crime is classified based on its characteristics • Deviance can be viewed in functionalist, conflict, feminist, symbolic interactionist perspectives • Criminal justice system consists of social control techniques that help curb crime Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 32 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH7 33
8 Social Stratification: United States and Global Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Explain and illustrate social stratification systems and bases 2 Describe the U.S. class structure and explain how and why social classes differ 3 Describe poverty and explain why people are poor 4 Compare the different types of social mobility, describe recent trends, and explain what factors affect mobility 5 Describe global stratification, its variations and consequences and the theoretical models that explain why inequality is universal 6 Compare and evaluate the theoretical explanations of social stratification Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 2 LO - 1 Social Stratification • Society’s ranking of people based on valued resources GMB Akash/Panos • Wealth • Power • Prestige Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 3 LO - 1 Closed Stratification Systems • Movement from one social position to another is limited by ascribed statuses • Slavery system: Owning people as property and having total control over their lives • Caste system: People’s positions are ascribed at birth and fixed • People’s places in the hierarchy are determined by inherited characteristics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 4 LO - 1 Open Stratification Systems • Allows movement up or down as mobility is influenced by people’s achievement • Class system: People’s positions are based on birth and achievement - Social class: Rank in a society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 5 LO - 1 Bases of Stratification: Wealth • Economic assets that a person or family owns • Income: Money a person receives • Cumulative • Passed on to the next generation • Preserves privilege iStockphoto.com/Jeremy Richards • Characteristics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 6 LO - 1 Figure 8.1 Wealth and Income Distribution Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 7 LO - 1 Bases of Stratification: Prestige and Power • Prestige: Respect, recognition, or regard attached to social position • Characteristics of prestigious occupations - Require formal education, abstract thought, and are nonmanual - Paid efficiently - Socially important and involve self-expression, autonomy, and freedom from supervision • Power: Ability to influence the behavior of others despite opposition Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 8 LO - 2 Social Class • Socioeconomic status (SES): Overall ranking of a person’s position in a society • Depends on income, education, and occupation • Differs in values, power, prestige, social networks, and lifestyles Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 9 LO - 2 Figure 8.3 The American Class Structure Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 10 LO - 2 Social Class: Application • Identify the class illustrated by each example • Maria is a dental technician working in a large clinic • Kevin dropped out of high school, works in agriculture only in the summer, has trouble making ends meet • William inherited family wealth, attended private schools, and became a politician Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 11 LO - 2 Effects of Social Class Life chances Extent to which people have positive experiences and secure efficient things in life due to economic resources Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 12 LO - 3 Poverty Absolute • Lacking money to afford the basic necessities of life Relative • Failing to maintain an average standard of living Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 13 LO - 3 Poverty Line • Minimal income level necessary for basic subsistence as per the federal government • Estimated based on annual cost of food that meets nutritional guidelines • Criticism - Does not include: Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com • Value of noncash benefits, child care, or the cost-of-living expenses • Several people above the poverty line Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 14 LO - 3 Common Characteristics Shared by the Poor • Age - Poverty rate of older people is lower than any other age group • Gender and family structure • Women’s poverty rates are prevalent • Feminization of poverty: Disproportionate number of poor who are women • Race and ethnicity • Education Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 15 LO - 3 Explanations for Poverty • Individual failings • Culture of poverty - Poor do not succeed because they are deficient - Have values, beliefs, and attitudes about life that differ from others Stockphoto.com/AvailableLight • Structural characteristics - Create and sustain poverty Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 16 LO - 4 Social Mobility • Movement from one social class to another • Types • Intragenerational: Movement up or down the social class over one’s lifetime • Intergenerational: Movement up or down the social class over two or more generations Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 17 LO - 4 Figure 8.5 The Middle Class has Been Shrinking Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 18 LO - 4 Social Mobility: Application • Identify the type of mobility for the examples • Cameron graduated from college, left welfare, and secured a semiprofessional position • Cecelia grew up with a mother who worked cleaning motels, but Cecelia is a doctor Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 19 LO - 4 Factors Affecting Social Mobility • Structural • Changes in the economy • Government policies and programs • Immigration • • • • Education Gender Race and ethnicity Geography MCT/Tribune News Service/Getty Images • Demographic Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 20 LO - 4 Factors Affecting Social Mobility (Continued) • Family background • Family status • Parent’s income level • Socialization - Affects the habits of speech and lifestyle • Social connections Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 21 LO - 5 Global Stratification • Worldwide inequality patterns • Result from differences in wealth, power, and prestige • Varies across regions and is pervasive • Women and children face maximum inequality across all nations • Infant mortality rate: Number of babies under age 1 who die per 1,000 live births in a year - Linked with women’s low education level Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 22 LO - 5 Other Consequences of Global Stratification • Evasion of environmental and tax laws • Reduce opportunities for upward mobility which harms democracy REUTERS/Aly Song/Landov • People suffer from hunger and malnutrition • Increased levels of sorrow, health problems, and less chances to avoid poverty • Facilitates rich people to get political favors Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 23 LO - 5 Theories that Explain Inequality Modernization theory • Leaders of low-income countries lack attitudes and values Dependency theory • Low-income countries are exploited and dominated by high-income countries World-systems theory • Economic systems of the world help rich countries to stay rich while poor countries stay poor Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 24 LO - 6 Table 8.1 Sociological Explanations of Social Stratification Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 25 LO - 6 Functionalist Perspectives • Davis–Moore thesis: Social stratification benefits a society • Stratification and inequality are necessary to motivate people to work hard and to succeed hinellatoPhoto/Shutterstock.com • Meritocracy: Belief that social stratification is based on people’s accomplishments Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 26 Critical Evaluation of Functionalist Perspectives LO - 6 • Tumin criticized Davis and Moore for: • Overlooking the ways that limit upward mobility • Ignoring the critical role of inheritance • Failure to explain why: • Intergenerational upward social mobility is limited in the United States • College graduates are finding low-paying jobs • Racial and ethnic income and wealth gap persists across all social classes Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 27 LO - 6 Conflict Perspectives • Social stratification is dysfunctional because it hurts individuals and societies • Capitalist societies are reduced to capitalist class and working class • Economic struggles are due to government policies that favor the rich • Corporate welfare: Subsidies, tax breaks, and government assistance created for businesses Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 28 LO - 6 Conflict Perspectives (Continued) • Inequality • Weakens people’s trust in political and economic bodies and erodes national solidarity • Critical evaluation • Exaggerate the existence and effects of economic inequality • Underrate people’s ability to be upwardly mobile • Ignore that government programs have reduced poverty Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 29 LO - 6 Sociological Explanations: Application • Identify the theory • Inequality ensures that important jobs are filled by the most talented • High-income countries set prices for raw materials and labor • Children learning habits and attitudes from their parents Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 30 Chapter Review • • • • What is social stratification? Describe the different stratification systems. Describe the dimensions of stratification. Describe the social class structure in America. • Describe poverty in the U.S. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 31 Chapter Review (Continued) • What is social mobility? • Describe inequality across societies. • What are the different sociological perspectives for poverty and inequality? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 32 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Social stratification Slavery system Caste system Class system Social class Wealth Income Prestige Power Socioeconomic status (SES) Working poor Underclass Life chances Absolute poverty • • • • • • • • • • • • • Relative poverty Poverty line Feminization of poverty Social mobility Intragenerational mobility Intergenerational mobility Global stratification Infant mortality rate Davis–Moore thesis Meritocracy Bourgeoisie Proletariat Corporate welfare Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 33 SUMMARY • All societies are stratified • Social class is divided into upper, middle, working, and lower class • Poverty is defined through absolute poverty and relative poverty • Social mobility is movement from one social class to another • Global stratification is the worldwide inequality patterns that result from differences in wealth, power, and prestige Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 34 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH8 35

Tutor Answer

ProfessorMarko
School: UT Austin

Here you go

Running head: DISCUSSION

1

Sociology Discussion
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

DISCUSSION

2
Sociology Discussion

1. How impressed are you by status symbols? How much are other people impressed by
your status symbols? Which ones get you 'fired up' and which ones do you most detest?
(chapter 5)
Although my interpretation of status symbol has changed over time, I still get impressed
to a significant degree. I have always marveled at status symbols that depict intellectual
capacities such as such uniforms, regalia, medals, and titles conferred on people for their
intellectual and academic specialties, experience, or ranking. I am particularly impressed by a
title such as that of Timothy John Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web. It did not
make him the world richest but I consider it a prestigious status symbol.
What I used to consider status symbols have gradually become my most detested ones.
Things such as expensive cars, watches, expensive dinners, and big houses in expensive
neighborhoods. I consider them a product of a high-consumption lifestyle aimed to creating a
false sense of wealth. It is a bubble created by marketers to keep more people in the rat race.
Most of the people caught up in it know they are not as wealthy as they present themselve...

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Anonymous
Good stuff. Would use again.

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