No specific question, please respond to the 4 Discussion posts as directed (100 words each)

timer Asked: Jan 4th, 2019
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Provide responses to each post using a minimum of 100 words. In your peer replies, you are encouraged to challenge responses to promote critical thinking on all sides of a discussion.

HS305: Research Methods for Health Sciences


Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes (Responsible Conduct in Data Management, nd). Every organization has different needs and goals so conducting their own data collection, and making decisions based off of that data seems ideal. Having a data collection system in place is definitely better than not having one. The organization has to decide how it will collect the data and why they are collecting it. This can help them come up with solutions to specific issues. The downside to this is it can be time consuming and expensive. However, once data is collected, leaders can make better informed decisions for their organizations. This can lead to an issue. If the leaders or the decision makers of that organization do not know how to interpret that data, or even know what they are collecting data on, how effective is it really. They could be making bad decisions based off the data received.

Evidence based information is data for which scientific evidence consistently shows that the practice improves outcomes. Evidence based practice relies on the classifications of research studies and findings according to a variety of evidence (McKay, 2017). So, evidence-based decisions are those that have been essentially tested, peer reviewed, and compared to ensure its effectiveness. That in my opinion is a more effective way of making a decision. A pro of evidence-based decision making is: the most effective decisions are identified, decisions have been researched and tried. Cons are evidence-based systems are poorly funded, limited evidence, and downplays a person’s experience and knowledge.

I believe the most effective type of decision making will be a combination of both data driven and evidence based. A data driven approach can identify specific issues and provide factual information. However also looking at evidence can help decision makers come up with the most effective, proven, and up to date solution.



I think that evidence-based information would be best to use when making decisions about organizations. I looked up the meaning of both and found two articles that help explain each. For evidence-based decision making it is explained as basing your decision making on all contextual, available, and experiential evidence found on the subject you are deciding on. ( Organization-based decision making is when the people in charge of the organization make the decision for all involved. (Papamichail, 2011) These both have their pros and cons.

Organizational decision making can be one sides, and you might not trust those in charge to choose the best option that is available for your organization. Organization if you trust that those who are deciding are willing to look for the best when it comes to the matter at hand you will feel more confident about their decision and that it is best for the organization.

Evidence-based decision making you might not find accurate, or real studies done on the matter and therefore cannot make a safe decision about the matter. Evidence-based decisions can be good because information will be collected on the matter and you know it will be a good decision based on the studies done in the past.

I would choose evidence-based decision making because it means you are willing to put in the work to find the best route for the organization. When you are willing to put in the work you are more invested in the thing you are doing meaning you have its best interest at heart.


HS415: Environmental Health


When most people think of air pollution, they think of the polluted air from the outdoors. What most of us are not concerned about is the air quality within our homes. Indoor air quality can be jeopardized just like the air quality outdoors. Some examples of indoor air pollutants are lead, pesticides, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, fireplace and tobacco smoke, formaldehyde/pressed wood products, and biological pollutants such as mold (Indoor Air Pollutants and Sources , 2017). These pollutants can have a tremendous effect on our indoor air quality, in turn, our health. Since we spend most of our days indoors, our indoor air quality is probably even more important than our outdoor air quality. Indoor air pollutants can have both immediate and long term affects on our health. Dizziness, headache, fatigue, and eye, nose, and throat irritation are all immediate health concerns due to poor indoor air quality. Some long-term health effects are respiratory diseases, heart disease, and cancer just to name a few. Evidently, our indoor air quality is very important (Introduction to Indoor Air Quality , 2018).



Indoor environments can be dangerous to human health if occupants are not educated on indoor air pollution. This discussion reminds me of the assignment we did in the beginning of the course where we did research on indoor air pollution. A huge factor that can impact human health if the indoor air quality is poor, along with the building structure, plumbing, paint, ventilation systems, etc. If the ventilation system within a housing unit is poor, mold, dust, and other bacteria can easily grow and affect the health of those living in the unit. If the buildings plumbing is poor, the quality of water that is being used in the unit can be contaminated and cause issues with the residents. Although lead paint is no longer used, there are still older buildings that have lead paint and this can cause lead exposure to those living in the unit. Human activity such as smoking, using toxic cleaning products, and using aerosol products such as hairspray, is also a contributing factor to indoor air pollution. Long term and short term exposure to indoor air pollutants can cause health issues. “Some health effects may show up shortly after a single exposure or repeated exposures to a pollutant. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Other health effects may show up either years after exposure has occurred or only after long or repeated periods of exposure. These effects, which include some respiratory diseases, heart disease and cancer, can be severely debilitating or fatal” (EPA, 2018).


Students are expected to: Participate with the required number of relevant postings of required length Post initial response by Saturday; all additional comments posted by Tuesday Support ideas with information from course materials and/or outside sources when appropriate, using APA format Instructors: Enter correct total available points in H5 and scores into ce Introductory Initial post timeliness 0-1 No initial post (0). Provides initial post after Sunday (1). Emergent Practiced 2 3 Provides initial post by Sunday N/A No additional Additional comments (0). Posts Posts one comment Posts 2 comments comments and comments unrelated to related to the discussion related to the engagement the Discussion topic topic. discussion topic. (1). Submission does not Initial relate to the topic Response and/or incomplete Content Quality responses to most topics. Spelling/ Grammar/ Formatting/ Mechanics Significant errors in spelling and/or grammar. Major flaws in writing mechanics and formatting. Length* (applies to Submission does not Discussion meet length Boards with requirements. posted length requirements) Feedback: Answers some question/topics with some clearly stated opinions. Answers all questions with opinions and ideas that are stated clearly. Uses Standard American English with Poor spelling and rare errors and grammar are apparent. misspellings. Minor Does not use APA in-text errors in APA in-text style formatting when style formatting when needed. needed. Includes list of references when citations are used. Only one post meets length requirements and/or initial post does not meet length requirements Initial post and one reply post meet length requirements n appropriate, using APA format for in-text citation and references. e points in H5 and scores into cells in column F. Total available points = Proficient/Mastered Score 4 0-4 Provides an initial post by Saturday. Posts 2 or more comments in response to others that provide thoughtful insight to the topic and frequently attempts to motivate the group discussion. Answers all questions with opinions/ideas creatively and clearly. Supports post using outside sources when appropriate. Consistently uses Standard American English with rare misspellings. Appropriate mechanics and APA intext style formatting when needed. Includes a properly formatted list of references when citations are used. All submissions meet posted length requirements. Weight Final Score 15% 0,00 30% 0,00 40% 0,00 10% 0,00 5% 0,00 100% 0,00 Final Score 0 Percentage #DIV/0!

Tutor Answer

School: Carnegie Mellon University



Research Methods and Environmental Health
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation


Research Methods and Environmental Health
Responding to Luis
During the decision-making process, decision makers use data which means that they
must use models. All models are incorrect and hold predisposition but some are useful. The
useful ones enhance the accuracy of anticipation and lessen the flaws and wastage. Decisionmakers use data to guiding instead of driving their decisions. For clients to have knowledge of
what is best for their businesses, researchers should focus on making testable hypotheses.
When making decisions, it is the duty of the decision-makers to understand the factors
that will affect those decisions. T...

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