Two Way Contingency Table Analysis Statistics Hypotheses

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Week 3 • • • • o o o o o o • Submit a synthesis of statistical findings derived from independent-samples t-tests that follows the Week 3 Assignment Template. Your synthesis must include the following: A description and justification for using the independent-samples t-test A properly formatted research question A properly formatted H0(null) and H1 (alternate) hypothesis An APA-formatted Results section for the independent-samples t-test, to include the following: Identification of the statistical test Identification of independent and dependent variables, including identification of the number of levels for the independent variable Identification of data assumptions and assessment outcome Inferential results in correct APA statistical notation format A properly formatted box plot APA-formatted references An Appendix including the SPSS output (Group Statistics and Independent Samples Test parameters; see Week 3 Assignment Exemplar) Note: You will cut and paste the appropriate SPSS output into the Appendix. The SPSS output is not in APA format, so you will need to type the information from the SPSS output to the appropriate sections of the APA table. Y Week 4 • • • • o o o o o • • • Submit a synthesis of statistical findings derived from ANOVA that follows the Week 4 Assignment Template. Your paper must include the following: A description and justification for using the one-way ANOVA A properly formatted research question A properly formatted H0(null) and H1 (alternate) hypothesis An APA-formatted “Results” section for the one-way ANOVA Identification of the statistical test Identification of independent and dependent variables, including the identification of the number of levels for the independent variable Identification of data assumptions and assessment outcome Inferential results in correct APA statistical notation format A properly formatted box plot A discussion on how you would extend the one-way ANOVA to a two-way ANOVA using the variables in the Week 4 Data File for One-way ANOVA.sav dataset. Properly APA-formatted references Appendix containing SPSS output (see Week 4 Assignment Exemplar) Note: You will cut and paste the appropriate SPSS output into the Appendix. The SPSS output is not in APA format, so you will need to type the information from the SPSS output to the appropriate sections of the APA table. Week 5 • • • • o o o o o • • • Submit a synthesis of statistical findings derived from correlational analysis that follows the Week 5 Assignment Template. Your synthesis must include the following: A description and justification for using the Pearson Product-Moment correlation test A properly formatted research question A properly formatted H0(null) and H1 (alternate) hypothesis An APA-formatted “Results” section for the Pearson Product-Moment test Identification of the statistical test Identification of variables (there is no distinction between independent and dependent variables for the Pearson Product-Moment correlation test) Identification of data assumptions and assessment outcome Inferential results in correct APA statistical notation format A properly formatted scatter plot An explanation of the differences and similarities of correlation analysis and bivariate regression analysis Properly APA-formatted references An Appendix containing SPSS output (see Week 5 Assignment Exemplar) Note: You will cut and paste the appropriate SPSS output into the Appendix. The SPSS output is not in APA format, so you will need to type the information from the SPSS output to the appropriate sections of the APA table. Week 6 • • o o o o o o • Submit a synthesis of statistical findings derived from multiple regression analysis that follows the Week 6 Assignment Template. Your synthesis must include the following: An APA Results section for the multiple regression test [see an example in Lesson 34 of the Green and Salkind (2017) text]. Only the critical elements of your SPSS output: A properly formatted research question A properly formatted H10 (null) and H1a (alternate) hypothesis A descriptive statistics narrative and properly formatted descriptive statistics table A properly formatted scatterplot graph A properly formatted inferential APA Results Section to include a properly formatted Normal Probability Plot (P-P) of the Regression Standardized Residual and the scatterplot of the standardized residuals An Appendix including the SPSS output generated for descriptive and inferential statistics An explanation of the differences and similarities of bivariate regression analysis and multiple regression analyses Note: You will cut and paste the appropriate SPSS output into the Appendix. The SPSS output is not in APA format, so you will need to type the information from the SPSS output to the appropriate sections of the APA table. Week 7 • • o o o o o o Submit a synthesis of statistical findings derived from Two-Way Contingency Table Analysis Using Crosstabs test that follows the Week 7 Assignment Template. Your synthesis must include the following: An APA Results section for the “Two-Way Contingency Table Analysis Using Crosstabs” Only the critical elements of your SPSS output: A properly formatted research question A properly formatted H10(null) and H1a (alternate) hypothesis A descriptive statistics narrative and properly formatted descriptive statistics table A properly formatted cluster bar A properly formatted inferential APA Results section An Appendix that includes the SPSS output generated for descriptive and inferential statistics [Examples of SPSS output are found on pp. 268–269 of Green and Salkind (2017).] Note: You will cut and paste the appropriate SPSS output into the Appendix. The SPSS output is not in APA format so you will need to type the information from the SPSS output to the appropriate sections of the APA table. You must use the Week 7 Assignment Template to complete this Assignment.
1 Week 2 Assignment Exemplar John Doe1 Dr. Jane Doe2 1 2 Type your name here Enter faculty name here. 2 Scales of Measurement Type text here. Discuss the implications of “scales of measurement” in quantitative research. Be sure to use a minimum of two citations to support your position(s). Be sure to review the “Scales of Measurement” media from Week 1. This section should be no more than two paragraphs. Research Question What are the means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages of the Lesson 21 Exercise File variables? Presentation of Findings I analyzed data from Lesson 21 Exercise File 3. In this section, I present descriptive statistics for the study quantitative and qualitative variables. Appropriate APA tables and figures accompany the analysis4. Descriptive Statistics5 Descriptive statistics were run for the quantitative and qualitative variables in the Week 1 Assignment data set. Table 1 depicts the means and standard deviations for the quantitative data. Figure 1 depicts a histogram for the GPA variable. Table 2 depicts the frequencies and percentages for the qualitative (categorical) data. Figure 2 depicts a pie chart for the ethnic variable. Appendix 1 depicts the SPSS output. 3 Insert the appropriate file name. The tables and figures from your SPSS output will need to be copied and pasted in the appropriate location. 5 Detailed information can be found in Lesson 20, “Univariate Descriptive Statistics for Qualitative Variables,” and Lesson 21, “Univariate Descriptive Statistics for Quantitative Variables,” in the Green and Salkind text. 4 3 Table 16 Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) for Study Quantitative Variables (N = 105) Variable7 M SD GPA 2.78 .76 Final 61.48 7.94 Percent 80.34 12.12 Figure 1. Histogram of GPA distribution. 6 This is an example of an APA-formatted descriptive statistics table. Refer to Sections 5.01-5.19, in the APA Manual for detailed information on APA tables. The descriptive statistics table here includes the appropriate information derived from the SPSS output that is to be pasted as an appendix. Do not split tables across pages. Note: The numbers in the SPSS output presented here are fictitious numbers and do not represent correct numbers in the data set you will use for this application. 7 You would simply add rows to the table to accommodate the variables you have used in the analysis (i.e., variable 3, variable 4, etc.). Hint: Use the Microsoft Word Table feature. 4 Table 28 Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) for Study Qualitative Variables (N = 105) Variable Frequency Percent Native 5 4.8 Asian 20 19.0 Black 24 22.9 White 45 42.9 Hispanic 11 10.4 105 100.0 1 33 31.4 2 39 37.2 3 33 31.4 105 100.0 A 23 21.9 B 32 30.5 C 35 33.3 D 9 8.6 F 6 5.7 105 100.0 Ethnic Total Section Total Grade Total 8 Recall from Lesson 20, “Univariate Descriptive Statistics for Qualitative Variables” (Green & Salkind, 2017), frequencies and percentages are reported for qualitative (nominal) variables. Note: Frequency and percentages are the only columns to be included. 5 Figure 2. Pie chart of ethnicity by percentages.9 9 The pie chart is an appropriate graph for nominal (categorical) data. 6 References Type in references using appropriate APA format. Remember, use a minimum of two references. 7 Appendix – Pearson Product-Moment SPSS Output10 Frequency Table Ethnic Valid Native Asian Black Frequency 5 20 24 Percent 4.8 19.0 22.9 Valid Percent 4.8 19.0 22.9 Cumulative Percent 4.8 23.8 46.7 45 11 42.9 10.5 42.9 10.5 89.5 100.0 105 100.0 100.0 White Hispanic Total Section Valid 1 2 3 Total Frequency 33 39 33 105 Percent Valid Percent 31.4 31.4 37.1 37.1 31.4 100.0 31.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 31.4 68.6 100.0 Grade Valid A B C D F Total 10 Frequency 23 32 35 9 6 105 Percent Valid Percent 21.9 21.9 30.5 30.5 33.3 8.6 5.7 100.0 33.3 8.6 5.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 21.9 52.4 85.7 94.3 100.0 You will copy-and-paste the appropriate SPSS output into the application assignment. See the document titled “Copying and Pasting SPSS Output into Word” located in this week’s Resources 8 Descriptive Statistics gpa final percent Valid N (listwise) N 105 105 105 105 Mean 2.7789 61.48 80.34 Std. Deviation .76380 7.943 12.135
1 Week 2 Assignment Template John Doe Dr. Jane Doe 2 Scales of Measurement Type text here. Discuss the implications of “scales of measurement” in quantitative research. Be sure to use a minimum of two citations to support your position(s). Be sure to review the “Scales of Measurement” media from Week 1. This section should be no more than two paragraphs. Research Question Type the research question here. See the Week 2 Assignment Exemplar document provided in the Week 2 Resources, and follow the format to the letter! Presentation of Findings Type text here. See the Week 2 Assignment Exemplar document provided in the week’s Resources and follow the format to the letter! Descriptive Statistics Type the introductory paragraph here. Then present appropriate statistics (see Week 2 Assignment Exemplar document provided in the week’s Resources and follow the format to the letter)! 3 References Type in references using appropriate APA format. Remember, use a minimum of two references. 4 Appendix – SPSS Output
Copy and Pasting SPSS Output to Word1 You will be required to include the appropriate SPSS output in several weekly Assignments. Follow these steps to copy and paste the required SPSS output into a Word document. 1. Right-click on the required SPSS output. The selection will be highlighted by the red arrow pointing to the selected SPSS output. 2. Select Copy. 3. Open the Word document and place your cursor in the Appendix for the appropriate Assignment. 4. Right-click and select Paste. The selected SPSS output will be pasted into the appendix of the Assignment. 1 Copying and pasting are basic computer functions. Please refer to your software manual, help features, etc., if you have any questions. © 2017 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 1 of 2 5. Continue this process for all required SPSS output. © 2017 Laureate Education, Inc. Page 2 of 2
1 Week 3 Assignment Exemplar: Independent Samples t-Test1 John Doe2 Dr. Jane Doe3 1 Footnotes within the narrative are depicted by bold yellow superscripts; the footnotes will not be in your final submission. 2 Type your name here. 3 Enter faculty name here. 2 Independent-samples t-test You will describe and defend using the independent samples t-test for your analysis. Use at least two outside resources—that is, resources not provided in the course resources, readings, etc. These citations will be presented in the References section. This exercise will give you practice for addressing Rubric Item 2.13b, which states, “Describes and defends, in detail, the statistical analyses that the student will conduct….” This section should be no more than two paragraphs. Research Question4 Is there a statistically significant gender self-esteem mean difference? Hypotheses5 H0: There is no statistically significant gender self-esteem mean difference. H1: There is a statistically significant gender self-esteem mean difference. Results6 An independent-samples t-test (two-tailed), a = .05, was conducted to assess whether males differed significantly from females in a self-reported self-esteem measure. The independent variable was gender, with two levels, male and female. The dependent variable was self-esteem. The assumptions of normality and equal variances (Levene’s 4 Quantitative research questions can be presented in a variety of formats; however, you will be safe using this format. 5 Two hypotheses, the null (H0) and alternative (H1), are to be stated for each research question. See p. 39 in the Research Handbook for more detailed examples. See more on hypotheses at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/hypothes.php 6 DBA Rubric Item 3.2d: Reports inferential statistical analyses results, organized by research question, in proper APA statistical notation/format. Includes the alpha level chosen for the test, test value, p (significance level) values, effect size, degrees of freedom, confidence intervals (when appropriate), etc. 3 test, p = .062)7 were evaluated with no violations noted. The results were not significant8, t(434) = 1.622, p = .1059. There were no significant differences in reported self esteem scores for males (M = 34.02, SD = 4.91) and females (M = 33.17, SD = 5.71)10. The 95% CI of the mean difference (.85) was -1.80 to 1.8711. Figure 1 is a box depicting selfesteem by gender. The SPSS output is provided in the Appendix. Figure 1. Boxplot depicting self-esteem scores by gender.12 7 The test value (Levene’s test) for the assumption assessment is > .05, and therefore not significant. Remember, your results might be significant; this would be evidenced by p < .05. If you have significant results, you will need to add the effect size [e.g. t(434) = 1.622, p = .062, d = .23]. 9 This is the correct format for reporting t-test results. However, it is important to understand the parameters. t indicates that a t-test was conducted; (434) = the degrees of freedom (df), which is an indication of the sample size. The df is the sample size minus 2. Therefore, in this case the sample is 436; 1.622 is the calculated t-statistic; p is the significance value where a value < .05 indicate significant findings. In this case, p is > .05; therefore, the results are not significant. The effect size (d) would be reported if the results were significant [see formula on p. 126 in the Green & Salkind (2017) text). 10 The mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) by gender are the only descriptive statistics; therefore, a descriptive statistics table is not needed. 11 Always report the 95% CI for the mean difference score. 12 The graph is also addressing Rubric Item 3.2e: Includes appropriate tables and figures to illustrate results, as per the current edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 8 4 References Type references here in proper APA format. 5 Appendix – Independent Samples t-Test SPSS 13 Output13 You will copy-and-paste the appropriate SPSS output into the Assignment. See the document titled “Copying and Pasting SPSS Output Into Word,” located in the Week 2 Resources.

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TutorAR
School: UC Berkeley

Hi, Find attached the paper for your review.Let me know if you need anything edited or changed.Looking forward to working with you again in future.Thank you.
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The paper has been completed as per the requirements.


1

Week 3 Assignment

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name
Date

2

Independent-samples t-test

The independent samples T-test is a parametric test that is used to compare the
means of two independent samples as the name suggests (Fagerland, 2012). This is to
find out if the two population means are significantly different based on the samples
used. The samples used must be random and must meet the normality, independence,
and variance homogeneity assumptions (Wonnacott & Wonnacott, 1990).
The independent variable for this case will be a categorical or nominal variable;
gender while dependent variable will be a continuous variable; Height. The independent
samples T-test will, therefore, be used to test whether there is a mean difference in the
height of males and females, which are the two categories in the categorical variable
selected; Gender.
Research Question
Is there a statistically significant gender height mean difference?
Hypotheses
H0: There is no statistically significant gender height mean difference.
H1: There is a statistically significant gender height mean difference.
Results
A two-tailed independent samples T-test was conducted at the 0.5 level of
significance to find out whether there is a statistically significant difference in the mean
height of males and females. The independent and dependent variables for the test were
gender and height consecutively. The test value (Levene’s test) for the assumption

3
assessment (p = 0.3, ˃.05) therefore not significant. The results were significant, t(103) =
0.067, p = .947. There is, therefore, a significant difference in the mean height of
individuals from the male (M = 169.982, SD = 17.5649) and female (M = 170.204, SD =
16.3171) genders at the 95% level of significance. Figure 1 is a box depicting height by
gender. The SPSS output is provided in the Appendix

Figure 1. Boxplot depicting height scores by gender

4
References
Fagerland, M. W. (2012). t-tests, non-parametric tests, and large studies—a paradox of
statistical practice?. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 12(1), 78
Wonnacott, T. H., & Wonnacott, R. J. (1990). Introductory statistics (Vol. 5). New York:
Wiley.

5

Appendix – Independent Samples t-Test SPSS Output

Gender
Height

Female
Male

Group Statistics
N
Mean
Std.
Deviation
49 170.204
16.3171
56 169.982
17.5649

Std. Error
Mean
2.3310
2.3472

Independent Samples Test
Levene's Test for Equality of
Variances
F
Sig.

t-test for Equality of Means
t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean
Difference

Std. Error
Difference

95%

L
Height

Equal variances assumed
Equal variances not
assumed

1.010

.317

.067

103

.947

.2219

3.3244

.067

102.616

.947

.2219

3.3080


1

Week 4 Assignment

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Date

2

One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
One way Analysis of Variance is used to evaluate for the statistical significance in
the difference of means of two or more unrelated independent groups. The one way
ANOVA statistic is termed an omnibus statistic given that it doesn’t specifically state the
groups that are statistically different from each other (Statistics, 2013). As a consequence,
post hoc tests are conducted to establish what specific independent groups are different
from the others in order to add more meaning to the generated ANOVA results
(Frankfort-Nachmias & Leon-Guerrero, 2015).
This research will seek to find out if a statistically significant difference exists in
the GPA scores of individuals by their ethnicity. As such, the one way ANOVA is the
most appropriate statistical test to be utilized. The independent variable (Ethnicity) is
measured at the nominal level while the dependent variable (GPA) is measured at the
scale level.
Research Question
Is there a statistically significant difference in the GPA scores among Hispanic,
African American, Caucasian, Native American, Asian American, and other individuals?
Hypotheses
Null Hypothesis (H0): There is not a statistically significant difference in the GPA
scores among Hispanic, African American, Caucasian, Native American, Asian
American and other individuals.

3
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant difference in the
GPA scores among Hispanic, African American, Caucasian, Native American, Asian
American and other individuals.
Results
In this subheading, I will present descriptive statistics, discuss testing of the
assumptions, present inferential statistic results, and conclude with a concise summary.
Descriptive Statistics
A total of 105 individuals participated in the study. The assumption of equality
variances (Levene’s test, p = .484) was evaluated with no violati...

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