applying french ravens bases social power development companies

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Applying French and Raven’s Bases of Social Power: A Powerful Solution

There have been many stories throughout history of leaders who have been corrupted by their power. The very definition of leadership as “a process by which an individual influences the group to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, 2016, p. 6) implies the power to exert influence. Leaders must exert power in order to lead, but they must also strive to understand the complexities of power. Research by French and Raven (1959) and by others (Burns, 1976; Neck & Manz, 1994) provides insight on the types, or bases, of power available to a leader, the process of choosing among those bases, and the motivations for leaders’ choices (Northouse, 2016, p. 379). Recent researchers (Barbuto & Warneke, 2014; Vevere, 2014) also explore the effectiveness of using individual bases of power in particular situations and the effects certain bases of powers have on leaders and those they lead. Armed with this information, leaders can avoid utilizing certain bases of power when the choice may lead to negative consequences. They can instead choose to wield power in ways that will foster organizational success. Understanding the bases also gives both leaders and followers insight into situations they observe and difficult interpersonal interactions they negotiate.

To prepare for this Assignment, consider Case Study 7.1, “His Team Gets the Best Assignments” on pages 150–151 of Northouse (2016).

By Day 7

Submit a 3-page analysis of the case study. In your analysis, do the following:

  • Identify two of French and Raven’s bases of power in the case study, and explain how leaders can use these bases of power to exert influence.
  • Explain how you might use your knowledge of French and Raven’s theory to resolve one of the problems presented in the case study. Justify your response.
Note: Be sure to use the APA Course Paper Template (6th ed.) to complete this Assignment. Also, refer to the Week 4 Assignment Rubric for specific grading elements and criteria. Your Instructor will use this rubric to assess your work. Please Note: For each page of your paper, you must include a minimum of two APA-formatted scholarly citations.

1 Title of the Paper in Full Goes Here Student Name Here Walden University 2 Abstract This is the abstract, which is typed in block format with no indentation. The abstract briefly summarizes your paper in 120 words or less. Through your abstract, your readers should be able to fully understand the content and the implications of the paper. Also, note that writing this section after the paper itself may be helpful. See section 2.04 APA for tips and more information on writing abstracts. This template was updated April 25, 2016. 3 Title of the Paper This template’s margins, page numbers, and page breaks are set for you, and you do not need to change them. Do not add any extra spaces between the heading and the text (you may want to check Spacing under Format, Paragraph in your word processor, and make sure that it is set to 0”). Instead, just double space as usual, indent a full ½ inch (preferably using the tab button), and start typing. The introduction should receive no specific heading because readers assume that the first section functions as your paper’s introduction. After considering these formatting issues, you will need to construct a thesis statement, which lets readers know how you synthesized the literature into a treatise that is capable of advancing a new point of view. This statement provides readers with a lens for understanding the forthcoming research presented in the body of your essay (after all, each piece of literature should support and apply to this thesis statement). Once you have established your thesis, begin constructing the introduction. An easy template for writing an introduction follows: 1. Start with what has been said or done regarding the topic. 2. Explain the problem with what has been said or done. 3. Offer a solution in a concise thesis statement that can be supported by the literature. 4. Explain how the thesis brings about social change. Level 1 Heading This text will be the beginning of the body of the essay. Even though this section has a new heading, make sure to connect this section to the previous one so readers can follow along with the ideas and research presented. The first sentence in each paragraph should transition from the previous paragraph and summarize the main point in the paragraph. Make sure each 4 paragraph contains only one topic, and when you see yourself drifting to another idea, make sure you break into a new paragraph. Also, avoid long paragraphs (more than three-fourths of a page) to help hold readers’ attention; many shorter paragraphs are better than a few long ones. In short, think this: new idea, new paragraph. Another Level 1 Heading Here is another Level 1 heading. Note that, when you add additional headings, you should use the APA levels available in the Styles area of your toolbar. If you enter them manually instead, you may need to delete the automatic indent that appears because Word thinks you are beginning a new paragraph. Again, the topic sentence of this section should explain how this paragraph is related or a result of what you discussed in the previous section. Consider using transitions between sentences to help readers see the connections between ideas. Below are a few examples of how to transition from one statement to another (or in some cases, one piece of literature to another): 1. Many music teachers at Olson Junior High are concerned about losing their jobs (J. Thompson, personal communication, July 3, 2013), largely due to the state’s recent financial cutbacks of fine arts programs (Babar, 2007). 2. Obesity affects as much as 17% of the total population of children, an increase which may lead to other chronic health problems (Hera, 2008; Sinatra, 2008). For more examples, see some of the transitions handouts on the Writing Center’s website. Level 2 Heading The Level 2 heading designates a subsection of the previous section. Using headings is a great way to organize a paper and increase its readability, so be sure to review heading rules on APA 3.02 and 3.03 in order to format them correctly. For shorter papers, using one or two levels 5 is all that is needed. You would use Level 1 (centered, bold font with both uppercase and lowercase) and Level 2 (left aligned, bold, both uppercase and lowercase). This template provides examples of APA’s four heading levels, but remember that at least two headings on the same level are needed before the next heading level. For example, a paper must have at least two level 3 headings before a level 4 heading. Level 3 heading. Note that you should write Level 3 and 4 headings in sentence case, meaning that only the first word and any proper nouns are capitalized. The number of headings needed in a particular paper is not set, but longer papers may benefit from another heading level, such as this Level 3 heading (which is an indented, bold, lowercase paragraph heading). Level 4 heading. One crucial area in APA is learning how to cite in academic work. Make sure to cite source information throughout your paper to avoid plagiarism. This practice is critical: you need to give credit to your sources and avoid copying others’ work at all costs. Look at APA starting at 6.01 for guidelines on citing source information in your text. Level 4 heading. You will want to include at least two of each kind of heading in your paper, hence this additional paragraph modeling effective heading usage. See below for further tips on using headings effectively. Level 3 heading. Again, if you choose to use Level 3 or 4 headings, at least two of each heading level should appear in the paper. Otherwise, if only one heading appears, your readers may question the need for a heading at all. If you find yourself questioning whether or how to use headings, consider consulting your instructor or committee chair for his or her input. Level 1 Heading APA can seem difficult to master, but following the general rules becomes easier with use. The Writing Center also offers numerous resources on its website and by email to help. 6 And so forth until the conclusion….. Level 1 Heading The conclusion section should recap the major points of your paper. However, perhaps more importantly, the conclusion should also interpret what you have written and what it means in the bigger picture. To help write your concluding remarks, consider asking yourself these questions: What do you want to happen with the information you have provided? What do you want to change? What is your ultimate goal in using this information? What would it mean if the suggestions in your paper were taken and used? 7 References (Please note that the following references are intended as examples only. Also, these illustrate different types of references but are not all cited in the text. In your paper, be sure every reference entry matches a citation, and every citation refers to an item in the reference list.) Alexander, G., & Bonaparte, N. (2008). My way or the highway that I built. Ancient Dictators, 25(7), 14–31. doi:10.8220/CTCE.52.1.23-91 Babar, E. (2007). The art of being a French elephant. Adventurous Cartoon Animals, 19, 4319– 4392. Retrieved from Bumstead, D. (2009). The essentials: Sandwiches and sleep. Journals of Famous Loafers, 5, 565–582. doi:12.2847/CEDG.39.2.51-71 Hansel, G., & Gretel, D. (1973). Candied houses and unfriendly occupants. Thousand Oaks, CA: Fairy Tale Publishing. Hera, J. (2008). Why Paris was wrong. Journal of Greek Goddess Sore Spots, 20(4), 19-21. doi: 15.555/GGE.64.1.76-82 Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2007). How to cite a video: The city is always Baltimore [DVD]. Baltimore, MD: Author. Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2010). Name of program [Video webcast]. Retrieved from Sinatra, F. (2008). Zing! Went the strings of my heart. Making Good Songs Great, 18(3), 31–22. Retrieved from http://articlesextollingrecordingsofyore.192/ Smasfaldi, H., Wareumph, I., Aeoli, Q., Rickies, F., Furoush, P., Aaegrade, V., … Fiiel, B. (2005). The art of correcting surname mispronunciation. New York, NY: Supportive 8 Publisher Press. Retrieved from White, S., & Red, R. (2001). Stop and smell the what now? Floral arranging for beginners (Research Report No. 40-921). Retrieved from University of Wooded Glen, Center for Aesthetic Improvements in Fairy Tales website: http://www.uwg.caift/~40_921.pdf
Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments Carly Peters directs the creative department of the advertising agency of Mills, Smith, & Peters. The agency has about 100 employees, 20 of whom work for Carly in the creative department. Typically, the agency maintains 10 major accounts and a number of smaller accounts. It has a reputation for being one of the best advertising and public relations agencies in the country. In the creative department, there are four major account teams. Each is led by an associate creative director, who reports directly to Carly. In addition, each team has a copywriter, an art director, and a production artist. These four account teams are headed by Jack, Terri, Julie, and Sarah. Jack and his team get along really well with Carly, and they have done excellent work for their clients at the agency. Of all the teams, Jack’s team is the most creative and talented and the most willing to go the extra mile for Carly. As a result, when Carly has to showcase accounts to upper management, she often uses the work of Jack’s team. Jack and his team members are comfortable confiding in Carly and she in them. Carly is not afraid to allocate extra resources to Jack’s team or to give them free rein on their accounts because they always come through for her. Terri’s team also performs well for the agency, but Terri is unhappy with how Carly treats her team. She feels that Carly is not fair because she favors Jack’s team. For example, Terri’s team was counseled out of pursuing an ad campaign because the campaign was too risky, whereas Jack’s group was praised for developing a very provocative campaign. Terri feels that Jack’s team is Carly’s pet: His team gets the best assignments, accounts, and budgets. Terri finds it hard to hold back the animosity she feels toward Carly. Like Terri, Julie is concerned that her team is not in the inner circle, close to Carly. She has noticed repeatedly that Carly favors the other teams. For example, whenever additional people are assigned to team projects, it is always the other teams who get the best writers and art directors. Julie is mystified as to why Carly doesn’t notice her team or try to help it with its work. She feels Carly undervalues her team because Julie knows the quality of her team’s work is indisputable. Although Sarah agrees with some of Terri’s and Julie’s observations about Carly, she does not feel any antagonism about Carly’s leadership. Sarah has worked for the agency for nearly 10 years, and nothing seems to bother her. Her account teams have never been earthshaking, but they have never been problematic either. Sarah views her team and its work more as a nuts-and-bolts operation in which the team is given an assignment and carries it out. Being in Carly’s inner circle would entail putting in extra time in the evening or on weekends and would create more headaches for Sarah. Therefore, Sarah is happy with her role as it is, and she has little interest in trying to change the way the department works. Questions 1. Based on the principles of LMX theory, what observations would you make about Carly’s leadership at Mills, Smith, & Peters? 2. I s there an in-group and out-group, and if so, which are they? 3. I n what way is Carly’s relationship with the four groups productive or counterproductive to the overall goals of the agency? 4. D o you think Carly should change her approach toward the associate directors? If so, what should she do differently?

Tutor Answer

School: Purdue University



Student Name Here
Walden University

In history, leaders have been corrupted by power while others have used power to promote
growth and development in companies. To understand the complexities of power, French and
Raven developed an insight on the various types and bases of power available to leaders. Many
leaders such as Carly have misused these powers in a bid to meet their daily objectives. This
paper is a brief analysis of the bases of power concerning the provided case study.

Applying French and Raven’s Bases of Social Power
French and Raven conducted a research in 1959 that determined the factors that make an
individual powerful in a particular setting. Together, they classified the bases of power into
reward, legitimate, expert, and coercive and referent power. According to French and Raven,
legitimate power comes from the belief that an individual has the right to issue demands with an
expectation that other people will be compliant an obedient. Reward power results from an
individual's ability to compensate another one, and expert power is based on one's levels of skill
and knowledge. Referent power is construed on an individual's perceived worthiness and
attractiveness while coercive power comes from ...

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