stereotypes uneven distribution house chores feminine elderly

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For each questions, you need to write a short paragraphs (150-200 words) to answer. I post the slides that might help you to understand more about questions. But you do not have to read all the slides. Thank you.

1.How do gender roles and stereotypes contribute to the uneven distribution of housework in most families? How is it in your family? Do you think your family could improve the distribution to be more fair? (chapter 9)

2. In what ways do we, as Americans, practice conspicuous consumption? Do you practice it? Can we help it? What social factors encourage us to do so? (chapter 11)

3.Let's be frank. The information about female circumcision makes us nauseous. But how many of you had EVER even heard of such a procedure before? Why would a culture (including the women) promote such a procedure? (chapter 12)

4. Much of our focus on the elderly is on how to be healthier (exercise and food) and how to figure out how to live longer. Students in this class are quite young.

How do you approach it?

Give it your best estimate, how long do you think you'll live?

Do you know many older people? Are you an older person? (I'm not too far).

How are your relationships with older folks?

Do you see a benefit in these relationships? (chapter 12)

10 Race and Ethnicity Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Describe how and explain why U.S. racial and ethnic diversity has changed 2 Define and give examples of race, ethnicity, and racial-ethnic group 3 Show how immigration patterns have changed, and describe Americans’ reactions to legal and undocumented immigrants 4 Distinguish between dominant and minority groups, and describe the most common patterns of dominant-minority group relations Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 5 Describe and illustrate the most common sources of racial-ethnic friction 6 Compare the five major minority groups in terms of origins, social class, and achievements 7 Compare and evaluate the theoretical explanations of race and ethnicity 8 Describe how and explain why interracial and interethnic relationships are changing Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 3 U.S. Racial and Ethnic Diversity LO - 1 Henryk T. Kaiser/Getty Images • 14% of Americans are foreign born • 150 distinct ethnic or racial groups are present in the United States • Proportion of the white population is declining • Number of Americans who identify themselves as multiracial is increasing Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 4 LO - 1 Figure 10.1 Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Population, 1950–2025 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 5 LO - 2 Race • Racial group: People who share visible physical characteristics that members of a society consider socially important • Social construction - Societal invention that labels people • Based on physical appearance, social class, or other characteristics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 6 Ethnicity and Racial-Ethnic Group LO - 2 • Ethnic group: People who identify with a common national origin or cultural heritage • Chinese, Serbs, Arabs, Hungarians, Jews Jupiterimages/Stockbyte/Getty Images • Racial-ethnic group: People who have distinctive physical and cultural characteristics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 7 LO - 3 Immigration • U.S. has one of the highest foreign-born rates in the world • Admits more than 1 million immigrants every year • Undocumented immigration • Increased from 180,000 in early 1980S to 11.3 million in 2014 due to more freedom and opportunities • Makes up 27% of all foreign born residents and 4% of the nation’s population Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 8 LO - 3 Figure 10.2 Origins of U.S. Foreign-Born Population: 1900 and 2014 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 9 LO - 3 Reaction to Immigration • Residents believe legal and illegal immigrants are vital for economic growth • Unauthorized immigrants contribute to state and local taxes • Disparity still exists Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 10 Dominant Group LO - 4 • Any physically or culturally distinctive group • Holds most economic and political power • Enjoys greatest privileges and highest social status • Need not be largest in number Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 11 LO - 4 Minority Group iStockphoto.com/Glenn Frank • Any group that may be treated differently and unequally because of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics • Latinos, African Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans • Has less power, privilege, and social status Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 12 LO - 4 Table 10.1 Am I Privileged? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 13 LO - 4 Figure 10.3 Continuum of Some Dominant-Minority Group Relations Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 14 Dominant and Minority Groups: Application LO - 4 • Identify the dominant or minority pattern • Massacres of minority Tutsis by dominant Hutu group in Rwanda • African Americans living in racially separate, economically deprived neighborhoods • French and German speakers coexisting peacefully in Switzerland Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 15 LO - 5 Sources of Racial-Ethnic Friction • Racism: Set of beliefs that one’s own racial group is inherently superior to other groups • Prejudice: Attitude that prejudges people, usually in a negative way • Discrimination: Treating people unequally or unfairly due of their group membership pedalist/Shutterstock.com • Evident in stereotypes and scapegoating Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 16 LO - 5 Sources of Racial-Ethnic Friction: Discrimination • Individual discrimination: Harmful action on a one-to-one basis • By a dominant group member against someone in a minority group • Institutional discrimination: Unequal treatment and fewer opportunities experienced by minority group members • Occurs due to everyday operations of society Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 17 LO - 5 Table 10.2 Relationship Between Prejudice and Discrimination Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 18 Racial-Ethnic Friction: Application LO - 5 • Decide what type of racial-ethnic friction is illustrated by each example • Pam believes that all Mexicans are lazy • Banks are less likely to give home loans to Latinos • Bobby refuses to work with Martin Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 19 LO - 6 European Americans: A Declining Majority • First immigrants were the English followed by the white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) from Wales and Scotland • About 58 percent of the U.S. population has a European heritage • Founded churches, schools, and recreational activities • Fare better financially than other groups Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 20 LO - 6 Latinos: The Largest Minority • Education, occupation, English language proficiency, and recency of immigration Jeffrey Macmillan for U.S News & World Report • Spanish and Mexican settlers • Median household income is lower than the national median • Have low education levels • Socioeconomic status reflects a number of interrelated factors Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 21 • Second largest minority group • Brought to the U.S. involuntarily and legally enslaved • Lowest median income among all racialethnic groups • Have lower education levels than Asians or whites Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 Michael Ochs Archives/Stringer/Getty Images African Americans: A Changing Minority LO - 6 22 Asian Americans: A Model Minority LO - 6 • Diverse origins with differences in language, dialects, religions, cuisines, and customs • Highest median income and high education levels among minority groups • Labeled as model minority Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 23 American Indians: A Growing Nation LO - 6 • 5.2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) account for 2 percent of the U.S. population • Heterogeneous group with 566 federally recognized tribes • Unique minority group as they are not immigrants • Experienced centuries of subjugation, exploitation, and political exclusion • Economic progress in recent years Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 24 LO - 6 Middle Eastern Americans: An Emerging Minority Justin Sullivan/Getty Images • Heterogeneous population • Tend to be better educated and wealthier than other Americans • Lebanese and Syrians have the lowest poverty rates Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 25 LO - 7 Table 10.3 Sociological Explanations of RacialEthnic Inequality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 26 Functionalism LO - 7 • Newcomers must adopt the dominant group’s values, goals, and language • Immigration is functional if it gains needed workers • Racial-ethnic inequality is dysfunctional • Overlooks the negative outcomes of acculturation and assimilation • Ignores racial-ethnic inequalities Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 27 Conflict Theory LO - 7 • Dominant groups try to protect their power and privilege • Minority groups struggle to gain a larger share of societal resources • Capitalism creates racial-ethnic inequality • Believes social conflict is due to racism and not immigration and income • Assumes racial inequality is conscious and deliberate Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 28 Feminist Theories LO - 7 • Gendered racism: Cumulative effects of inequality due to racism and sexism • Minority women undergo triple oppression when social class is involved Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. Jason LaVeris/FilmMagic/Getty Images • Have internalized institutional discriminations • Women’s participation in gendered racism is seldom explored • Not addressed by minorities themselves SOC5 | CH10 29 Symbolic Interaction LO - 7 • Labeling and selective perception can increase prejudice and discrimination • Negative images create and reinforce stereotypes • Contact hypothesis: Increased familiarity with a minority group lessens prejudice • Has no clear idea on why individual differences exist in racial bias • Has limited information on social structures that maintain racial-ethnic inequality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 30 LO - 8 Interracial Relationships • Multiracial diversity is increasing • Miscegenation: Marriage or sexual relations between a man and a woman of different races • Change in attitude about intermarriage • Colleges, workplaces, and neighborhoods are more racially mixed than in the past • Shortage of spouses within a group • Intermarriage is common among secondgeneration immigrants Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 31 Chapter Review • What is the difference between race and ethnicity? • What are the arguments for and against immigration? • What are minority groups? • Describe the different patterns of group relations and friction. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 32 Chapter Review (Continued) • Describe each of the major racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. • Distinguish among the sociological explanations of racial and ethnic inequality. • How are interracial and ethnic relations changing? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 33 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • Racial group Ethnic group Racial-ethnic group Dominant group Minority Genocide Segregation Acculturation Assimilation Pluralism Racism • • • • • • • • • Prejudice Stereotype Scapegoats Discrimination Individual discrimination Institutional discrimination Gendered racism Contact hypothesis Miscegenation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 34 SUMMARY • The U.S. is the most multicultural country in the world • Sources of self-identification are race and ethnicity • American attitude toward immigrants have grown positive since mid 1990s • Racism, prejudice, and discrimination are a few sources of racial-ethnic friction • Attitudes about interracial relationships are changing and intermarriages have increased Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 35 Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH10 36
11 The Economy and Politics Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Compare and illustrate the different types of global economic systems 2 Describe corporations and explain how corporate and political power are interwoven 3 Explain how and why macro-level variables have changed the U.S. economy and jobs 4 Compare and illustrate the different types of global political systems Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 5 Explain the relationship between power, authority, and politics 6 Describe the U.S. political system, and explain who votes, who doesn't, and why 7 Compare and evaluate the theoretical explanations of the economy and politics Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 3 LO - 1 Economy and Politics Economy • Determines how a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods and services Politics • Individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority, and make decisions Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 4 LO - 1 Global Economic Systems: Capitalism • Based on private ownership of property and competition in producing and selling goods and services • Characteristics • • • • Private ownership of the means of production Market competition Profit Investment • Results in monopoly and oligopoly AP Images/Paul Sancya Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 5 LO - 1 Global Economic Systems: Socialism • Based on the public ownership of the production of goods and services • Characteristics • • • • Collective ownership of property Cooperation No profit motive Collective goals Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 6 LO - 1 Global Economic Systems: Communism • Political and economic system in which property is communally owned • Production is owned by the public • People receive resources based on their needs • Practiced in China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea and Vietnam Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 7 LO - 1 Global Economic Systems: Mixed Economies • Welfare (state) capitalism • Combination of private ownership of property, market competition, and government regulation of programs and services • Crony capitalism - Based on the close relationships between businesses and the government Reuters/Landov • Government provides tax breaks, subsidies, and grants to wealthy people and large corporations Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 8 LO - 1 Global Economic Systems: Application • Identify the type of economy • In China, many state-owned enterprises are becoming private • In the United States, companies compete in producing goods and services • In the Soviet Union, competition and individual profit were frowned upon Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 9 LO - 2 Corporation • Organization that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members • Conglomerate: Corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries • Grows by acquiring companies through mergers • Diversifies business risk by participating in different markets Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 10 LO - 2 Corporations (continued) • Interlocking directorate: The same people serve on the boards of several companies or corporations • Develop similar economic perspectives • Transnational corporation: Large company based in one country that operates across international boundaries • Transnational conglomerate: Owns a collection of different companies in various industries in a number of countries Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 11 LO - 2 Corporations: Application • Identify the type of corporation • Kraft Foods owns Maxwell House, Oscar Meyer, Life Savers, and Ritz Crackers • Board members of General Electric also sit on the boards of Johnson & Johnson, Home Depot, and Kellogg • General Electric owns subsidiaries in 27 countries Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 12 LO - 3 Work in Today’s U.S. Society: Variables • Deindustrialization • Reasons - Replacement of low skill level workers with automation, requirement of skilled candidates, and globalization • Offshoring • Labor unions • Weakened by off-shoring, deindustrialization, and globalization • Memberships have dropped in the past decade Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 13 LO - 3 Working Conditions in the United States • Automation and globalization have diminished the number of middle-income jobs • Fast-growing low paying jobs - Home health and personal care aides, sales jobs, office clerks, and nurses’ aides • Employees are paid lower than federal minimum wage iStockphoto.com/P_Wei • Part-time employment has spread to white-collar and professional sectors • Helps employers save costs Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 14 Working Conditions in the United States LO - 3 (continued) • Unemployment rates have dropped • Many long-term unemployed become discouraged workers • Number of underemployed workers have increased • Most Americans report being not engaged or actively disengaged in their jobs • Work more hours and weeks per year than people in other industrialized countries • Not legally guaranteed a paid vacation Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 15 Factors that Contribute to the Increase in Women’s Employment LO - 3 • Increase in the number of: • College-educated women • Working single mothers • Higher costs of homeownership Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 16 LO - 3 Women and Minorities in the Workplace Gender and race-ethnicity affect earnings Women earn lower than men across all occupations African-Americans women and Latinas earn the lowest Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 17 Sociological Explanations of Work and the Economy LO - 4 Theoretical perspective Level of analysis Key points Functionalist Macro Capitalism benefits society; work provides an income, structures people’s lives, and gives them a sense of accomplishment Conflict Macro Capitalism enables the rich to exploit other groups; most jobs are low-paying, monotonous, and alienating; productivity isn’t always rewarded Feminist Macro and micro Gender roles structure women’s and men’s work experiences differently and inequitably Symbolic interactionist Micro How people define and experience work in their everyday lives affects their workplace behavior and relationships with coworkers and employers Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 18 LO - 4 Sociological Explanations: Application • Identify the theoretical perspective • Analysis of the experience of being unemployed • Study of gender inequality in health benefits • Study of the benefits of work Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 19 LO - 5 Global Political Systems • Government: Formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws • Democracy: Citizens control the state and its actions • Principles - Individuals participate in government decisions and government recognizes individual rights - Suffrage is universal - Rule of law requires people to obey the law and be accountable for violations of the law Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 20 LO - 5 Global Political Systems (continued) • Totalitarianism: Government controls every aspect of people’s lives • Authoritarianism: State controls the lives of its citizens but permits some degree of individual freedom • Monarchy: Power is allocated solely on the basis of heredity Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 ALEXEY DRUZHININ/AFP/Getty Images • Secret police and the military intimidate people into conformity 21 LO - 5 Political Systems: Application • Identify the type of political system • Oyo Nyimba Kabamba-Iguru is the king of Uganda • North Korea is ruled by a dictator • President of the U.S. is elected by the people PETER BUSOMOKE/Getty Images Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 22 LO - 6 Politics, Power, and Authority • Power: Ability of a person or group to influence others despite resistance • Legitimate power - Derived from a role, position, or title • Coercive power - Relies on force or threat • Relational - Expressed downward and upward ChinaFotoPress/Getty Images • Authority: Legitimate use of power Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 23 LO - 6 Weber’s Types of Authority Type of authority Description Source of power Traditional Power is based on customs, traditions, and/or religious beliefs Personal Charismatic Power is based on exceptional personal abilities or a calling Personal Rational-legal Power is based on the rules and laws that Formal are inherent in an elected or appointed office Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 24 LO - 6 Power and Authority: Application • Identify the type of authority • Governor has power over the state because she was elected • Father has power in a family because of religious beliefs • Politician has power because of his exceptional personality Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 25 Components of the Political System: Political Parties LO - 7 • Organizations that influence and control the government • Recruit, nominate, and elect members to public office • Functions • Organize elections • Run the government when elected • The United States follows a two-party system • Democrats and Republicans Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 26 Components of the Political System: Special-Interest Groups LO - 7 TIM SLOAN/AFP/Getty Images/Newscom • Seek or receive benefits or special treatment • Campaign contributions come from party committees and political action committees (PACs) • Lobbyist: Person hired by a special-interest group to influence legislation on the group’s behalf Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 27 LO - 7 Table 11.6 Voter Rates, by Selected Characteristics, 2012 Source: Based on U.S. Census Bureau, Voting and Registration, 2013, Tables 5 and 7. Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 28 LO - 7 Components of the Political System: Voters • Many Americans have low opinions of the government and Congress • Lead to low voter turnout • Situational and structural factors • Encourage or discourage voting • Compulsory voting in other countries results in high turnout rates Source: Word cloud graphic, created using http://wordle.net, from “ Congress in a Wordle”, Mar. 22, 2010, The Pew Research Center For the People & the Press, a project of the Pew Research Center. Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 29 LO - 8 Table 11.7 Sociological Explanations of Political Power Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 30 LO - 8 Sociological Perspectives: Application • Identify the theoretical perspective • U.S. is ruled by white males • U.S. is ruled by a powerful people like CEOs, military generals, and high ranking elected leaders • Political leaders speak for a majority of the people Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 31 Chapter Review • Describe the different economic systems. • What are the different types of corporate structures? • Describe the changes occurring in work in the United States. • Discuss the different sociological explanations of work and the economy. Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 32 Chapter Review (continued) • Describe the different types of political systems. • Discuss the types of power and authority. • Describe the structure of politics in the United States. • How do the different theoretical perspectives interpret politics? Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 33 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • Economy Politics Capitalism Monopoly Oligopoly Socialism Communism Welfare capitalism Corporation Conglomerate • • • • • • • • Interlocking directorate Transnational corporation Transnational conglomerate Work Deindustrialization Globalization Offshoring Discouraged workers Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 34 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • Underemployed Motherhood penalty Democracy Totalitarianism Authoritarianism Monarchy Power Authority Traditional authority Charismatic authority • • • • • • • Rational-legal authority Political party Special-interest group Political action committee (PAC) Lobbyist Pluralism Power elite Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 35 SUMMARY • Today, economies of the world are a mixture of both capitalism and socialism • Corporations are organizations that have legal rights, privileges, and liabilities • Macro-level variables of work • Deindustrialization, globalization, offshoring, and weakened labor unions • Politics plays a key role in people’s everyday lives • Different sociological perspectives help view politics, power, and authority Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 36 Copyright ©2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH11 37
12 Families and Aging Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Describe how families are similar and different in the United States and worldwide 2 Describe how and explain why U.S. families are changing 3 Describe, illustrate, and explain why intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and elder abuse occur 4 Describe, illustrate, and explain how the U.S. older population is changing, and its impact on our society 5 Compare and evaluate the theoretical explanations of families and aging Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 2 LO - 1 Family • Intimate group in which two or more people • Have a committed relationship • Care for one another and any children • Share close emotional ties and functions Masterfile • Family structures vary across cultures but share similarities Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 3 LO - 1 Universal Functions of Family Sexual activity Procreation and socialization Economic security Emotional support Social class placement Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 4 LO - 1 Similarities in Families Marriage • Socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring Endogamy • Cultural practice of marrying within one’s group Exogamy • Cultural practice of marrying outside one’s group Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 5 LO - 1 Family: Application • Is it endogamy or exogamy? • In the United States, 24 states prohibit marriages between first cousins • Orthodox Jews require that individuals marry within the faith • Some states require that individuals marry someone of the opposite sex • In India, people are encouraged to marry within their caste Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 6 LO - 1 Nuclear and Extended Families • Nuclear family: Composed of married parents and their biological or adopted children • Prevalent in Western societies • Extended family: Composed of parents, children, and other kin • Most common family form in the world Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 7 LO - 1 Residence Patterns • Newly married couples can be: • Patrilocal: Live with the husband’s family • Matrilocal: Reside with the wife’s family • Neolocal: Set up their own residence Michael S Yamashita/Documentary Value/Corbis • Boomerang generation: Young adults who never leave their parents’ home or move back later Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 8 LO - 1 Authority and Power Matriarchal family system • Oldest females control cultural, political, and economic resources, and have power over males Patriarchal family system • Oldest males control cultural, political, and economic resources, and have power over females Egalitarian family • Both partners share power and authority fairly equally Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 9 LO - 1 Courtship and Marriage Marriage market • Prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and select the best available mate Arranged marriage • Parents or relatives choose the children’s spouses Monogamy • One person is married exclusively to another person Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 10 LO - 1 Courtship and Marriage (Continued) • Serial monogamy: Individuals marry several people, but one at a time • Polygamy: Man or woman has two or more spouses Adnan Abidi/Reuters • Polygyny - One man married to two or more women • Polyandry - One woman is married to two or more men Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 11 LO - 2 Marriage and Divorce Macro-level reasons for divorce • Changing values • Economy • Demographic variables Micro-level reasons for divorce • • • • • Infidelity Communication and financial problems Substance and spousal abuse Premarital doubts Issues regarding raising children Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 12 LO - 2 Cohabitation • Couple lives together before getting married Tara Moore/Getty Images • Two unrelated unmarried people who live together and are in a sexual relationship • Women’s cohabitation rates have increased • Dating cohabitation: Couple that spends a great deal of time together decides to move in together • Premarital cohabitation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 13 LO - 2 Benefits of Cohabitation • Aids pooling of resources • Provides emotional security of an intimate relationship • Couples who postpone marriage are said to have a lower likelihood of divorce • Helps couples find out how much they really care about each other • Children in cohabiting households reap economic advantages Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 14 LO - 2 Costs of Cohabitation • U.S. laws do not specify a cohabitant’s rights and responsibilities • Poorer quality of relationship and lower levels of happiness and satisfaction • Dilutes intergenerational ties • Children’s academic, emotional, behavioral, and financial problems can increase when the parents break up Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 15 LO - 2 Nonmarital Childbearing • Vary across racial-ethnic groups, social class, and education level • Unmarried teenage births have declined • Reasons • • • • Incorrect use of contraceptives Demographic variables Changing attitudes Inadequate funding for sex education and family planning organizations Denise Hager/Catchlight Visual Services/Alamy Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 16 LO - 2 Single-Parent Households • Reasons for increase in female-headed households • Sex at an early age • No use of contraceptives • Demographic variables - Social class and education • Shift in values regarding single parenthood • Economic changes Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 17 LO - 2 Changes in Families: Application • Match the type of family with the description • These children are most likely to live in singleparent families • These children may face discrimination because of their parents’ lifestyle • These families stress extended kin ties • These families often rely on fictive kin Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 18 LO - 3 Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) • Abuse that occurs between people in a close relationship • Causes • Heavy alcohol and drug use • Financial problems • History of either parent being exposed to a violent household • Low self esteem Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 19 LO - 3 Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) (Continued) • Controlling personality • Demographic variables • Unemployment • Source of disagreements leading to abuse • • • • Gender role expectations Money Children Infidelity Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 20 LO - 3 Child Maltreatment (Child Abuse) • Broad range of behaviors that place a child at serious risk • Physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional mistreatment • Causes • Parental substance abuse and mental illness • Demographic variables • Economic hardship, unemployment, and poverty LEE DANIELS ENTERTAINMENT/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/Art Resource Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 21 LO - 3 Figure 12.6 Types of Child Maltreatment, 2012 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 22 LO - 3 Elder Abuse • Any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver that causes harm to people age 65 or older • • • • Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse Isolation from family and friends Deprivation of basic necessities Financial exploitation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 23 LO - 3 Causes of Elder Abuse • Alcohol and substance abuse • Offenders with history of: • Family violence • Poor relationships • Communication problems • Shared residence • Financial stress Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 24 LO - 4 Aging • Age is a social construction • Life expectancy: Average expected number of years of life remaining at a given age • Varies by sex, social class, and race-ethnicity Itsuo Inouye/AP Images • Women live longer than men • Latinas have the longest lifespans Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 25 LO - 4 Implications of the Aging Population • Increase in health care costs and services • Adult children will have to care for aging parents, grandparents and older relatives • Rise in disability rates among baby boomers • Number of older people increase with oldage dependency ratio • Old-age dependency ratio: Number of older people who are not in the labor force relative to the number of working-age adults Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 26 LO - 4 Sandwich Generation • Midlife women and men who care for their children and aging parents • Experiences considerable stress • Possible issues to deal with Ken Tannenbaum/Shutterstock.com • Rise of multigenerational households • Right-to-die • Competition for scarce resources Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 27 LO - 5 Table 12.3 Sociological Perspectives on Families and Aging Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 28 LO - 5 Explanations: Application • Identify the theoretical perspective • Relationships are stable when they result in more rewards than costs • Families exist to meet the needs of the society • Domestic violence is a reflection of a patriarchal society Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 29 Chapter Review • What is a family? Why are families important? • What are the different forms of relationships and families? • How are U.S. families changing? • Describe the diversity among American families. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 30 Chapter Review (Continued) • Describe the problem of family violence and abuse. • Explain our aging society. • Distinguish among the sociological explanations of family and aging. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 31 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • • • Family Incest taboo Marriage Endogamy Exogamy Nuclear family Extended family Patrilocal residence pattern Matrilocal residence pattern Neolocal residence pattern Boomerang generation • • • • • • • • • • • Matriarchal family system Patriarchal family system Egalitarian family Marriage market Arranged marriage Monogamy Serial monogamy Polygamy Cohabitation Dating cohabitation Premarital cohabitation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 32 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • Fictive kin Intimate partner violence (IPV) Child maltreatment Elder abuse Life expectancy Baby boomers Old-age dependency ratio • • • • Activity theory Exchange theory Ageism Continuity theory Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 33 SUMMARY • Family structures vary across cultures • American families have changed considerably since the 1950s • Intimate partner violence occurs between people in a close relationship • People are deemed old at age 65, 66, or 67 as they can retire • Sociological perspectives are useful in understanding families and aging Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 34 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH12 35
9 Gender and Sexuality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 Differentiate between sex and gender and describe societal reactions to LGBTs 2 Explain how gender stratification affects the family, education, workplace, and politics 3 Describe contemporary sexual attitudes and practices, including sexual scripts and double standards Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 4 Summarize abortion and same-sex marriage trends and explain why both issues are controversial 5 Describe and illustrate gender and sexual inequality across cultures 6 Compare and evaluate the theoretical explanations of gender and sexuality Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 3 LO - 1 Sex and Gender • Sex: Biological characteristics with which an individual is born • Includes physical and physiological attributes that influence one’s behavior • Gender: Learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize women and men • Based on social and cultural expectations Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 4 LO - 1 Sex • Sexual identity: Ways in which one expresses his/her sexual values, attitudes, and feelings • Incorporates sexual orientation - Sexual orientation: Preference for sexual partners Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 5 LO - 1 Sexual Orientation Homosexuals • Sexually attracted to people of the same sex Heterosexuals • Sexually attracted to people of the opposite sex Bisexuals • Sexually attracted to both sexes Asexuals • Lack any interest in or desire for sex Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 6 LO - 1 Sexual Orientation (continued) • About 3 percent of Americans identify themselves as lesbian, gay, and/or bisexual • Biological factors that can affect sexual orientation • Early influence of sex hormones after conception and around childbirth • Researchers speculate that genetic and cultural factors may impact sexual orientation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 7 LO - 1 Figure 9.1 Sexual Orientation Continuum Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 8 LO - 1 Gender • Gender identity: Perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine • Transgender: People whose gender identity and behavior differ from the sex to which they were assigned at birth - Categories - Transsexuals, crossdressers, and genderqueer • Gender expression: Way a person communicates gender identity to others Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 9 LO - 1 Gender (continued) • Fuel sexism - Sexism: Attitude that discriminates against one sex, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. Belinda Images/Superstock • Gender roles: Characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of females and males • Gender stereotypes: Expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex SOC5 | CH9 10 LO - 1 Sex and Gender: Application • Identify the concept - Sex, gender identity, gender role, and gender stereotyping • Emma believes that it is the mother’s responsibility to care for the children • Steven was born with a penis and testes • Three-year-old Valerie announces that she will be a cowboy when she grows up • John believes that all females are alike and not qualified to be president Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 11 LO - 1 Societal Reactions to LGBTs • Mixed attitudes Jonathan Daniel/Getty Images • Some countries include a third option under gender in documents • Legalization of same-sex marriages • Federal workers and Medicare recipients are eligible for sex-change operations • LGBT characters are appearing on prime time TV • Issues - Heterosexism and homophobia Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 12 LO - 2 Gender Stratification • People’s unequal access to valued resources because of their sex • Enabled by gendered institutions • In family life • Women do less housework than they used to • Fathers spend more time in paid work - Likely to join in with child care than to take over from mothers - More fathers are choosing to be stay-at-home dads Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 13 LO - 2 Table 9.1 As Rank Increases, the Number of Female Faculty Decreases Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 14 LO - 2 Gender Stratification (continued 1) • In the workplace Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. Monkey Business/Fotolia • Occupational sex segregation: Channeling women and men into different types of jobs - Male dominated occupations pay higher wages • Gender pay gap - Increases with higher education - Lower wages reduce women’s savings, purchasing power, and quality of life SOC5 | CH9 15 LO - 2 Gender Stratification (continued 2) • Sexual harassment: Unwanted sexual advances, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature in the workplace - Includes physical contact and verbal and nonverbal behavior • In politics • Few women exist as decision makers in elective offices • Women’s voting rates have increased in recent years Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 16 LO - 3 Sexuality • Product of one’s sexual identity, sexual orientation and sexual scripts • Includes desire, expression, and behavior • Reasons why people have sex • Reproduction and to experience pleasure • Range from physical to spiritual and altruistic to spiteful Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 17 LO - 3 Sexuality Throughout the Life Course • Adolescents have oral sex to: • Maintain one’s virginity • Avoid the risk of pregnancy and STDs • Marital sexual frequency decreases due to family obligations • Sexual desire and activities reduce with age • Linked to poor health and relationship problems rather than age Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 18 LO - 3 Sexual Scripts and Double Standards • Specify the formal and informal norms of acceptable or unacceptable sexual behavior • Hypersexualization of women • Sexualized social messages are reaching younger audiences • Girls are imitating their mothers who dress and act in highly sexualized ways Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. CB2/ZOB/WENN.com/Newscom • Sexual double standard: Code that permits greater sexual freedom for men than women SOC5 | CH9 19 LO - 4 Social Issues About Sexuality: Abortion • Abortion rates have decreased in recent years • Anti-abortion groups • Believe the embryo has a right to life • View abortion as immoral and endangering a woman’s health, leads to stress disorders Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 20 LO - 4 Figure 9.6 Who Has Abortions? Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 21 Social Issues About Sexuality: Same-Sex Marriage LO - 4 • Legalized by the U.S Supreme Court in 2015 • Opponents’ argument • Immoral and weakens the traditional idea of marriage • Supporters’ argument CREATISTA/Shutterstock.com • People should have the same legal rights regardless of sexual orientation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 22 LO - 5 Gender Inequality Across Cultures • Women’s progress toward equality has been mixed in many countries • Face discrimination in access to work, economic assets, and participation in private and public decision making • Higher rates of unemployment exist for women with advanced degrees • Few women occupy political leadership positions in the U.S Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 23 LO - 5 Sexual Inequality Across Cultures • Violence against females • Prevalent due to customs, laws, or nominal government protection • Issues - Physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, honor killing, dowry disputes, and female genital mutilation/cutting • Violence against males • Homosexuality is illegal in many nations - Gay men may be legally tortured, stoned, imprisoned, or killed Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 24 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Functionalism LO - 6 • Men and women have distinct roles that ensure a family’s and society’s survival • Gender roles are complementary • An individual’s earnings are based on the choices he/she makes and the accumulation of human capital • Sexuality is critical for reproduction • Sex outside of marriage is dysfunctional • Functionalists encourage marrying in one’s midto late twenties Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 25 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Functionalism (continued) LO - 6 • Critical evaluation • Women who played instrumental and expressive roles in the 1950s were ignored • Some people do not have the choice of playing only instrumental and expressive roles • Assumptions made in the human capital model is incorrect - Gender pay gap is prevalent across all occupations • Unintended pregnancies, within or outside marriage, is a cost to the government Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 26 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Conflict Theory LO - 6 • Sexuality is viewed as reflecting and perpetuating sexism and discrimination AP Images/Ben Curtis • Capitalism explains gender roles and supremacy of men over women • Gender inequality gives men economic, political, and/or interpersonal power to control women’s sexual lives - Leads women to internalize sexism Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 27 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Conflict Theory (continued) LO - 6 • Critical evaluation • Women are not weak - Negotiate with their employers for their demands to be met • Common goals, attitudes, and comparable power strategies between men and women are ignored • Women’s exploitation of other women is overlooked Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 28 LO - 6 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Feminist Theories • Emphasize on women’s daily vulnerability to male violence • Representation of women in media has decreased and sexism is highly prevalent • Gender, race, and social class intersect to form a hierarchical stratification system • Shapes men’s and women’s attitudes experiences, and behavior • Commercializing sex demeans both women and men Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 29 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Feminist Theories (continued) LO - 6 • Critical evaluation • Men are not universally violent or sexually exploitative • Analyses are inclusive • Women’s underrepresentation is overstated in some sectors Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 30 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Symbolic Interaction LO - 6 • Gender and sexuality are socially constructed AP Images/Altaf Qadri • Social interaction shapes gender inequality - Cultivates or stifles abilities and interests • Individuals learn to express sexuality differently over time and across cultures Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 31 Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality: Symbolic Interaction (continued) LO - 6 • Critical evaluation • Social structures that create and maintain gender inequality are ignored • Fails to explain why: - Identical twins can have separate sexual orientation - Women are subjected to sexual control and exploitation Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 32 LO - 6 Sociological Explanations: Application • Identify the following theories • Inequality results from the capitalist system • Inequality in society is the result of sexuality • People learn how to be male or female Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 33 Chapter Review • Distinguish among the terms referring to male and female differences. • What is gender stratification? • What evidence do we have of gender inequality? • What is sexual orientation? • Describe the current controversies about gender and sexuality. • How does sexuality vary across cultures? • Distinguish among the sociological explanations of gender and sexuality. Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 34 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • • • Sex Gender Intersexuals Sexual identity Sexual orientation Homosexuals Heterosexuals Bisexuals Asexuals • • • • • • • • • Gender identity Transgender Gender expression Gender roles Gender stereotypes Sexism Heterosexism Homophobia Gender stratification Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 35 KEY TERMS • • • • • • • Occupational sex segregation Gender pay gap Sexual harassment Sexual script Sexual double standard Abortion Same-sex marriage Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 36 SUMMARY • Sex and gender are used interchangeably, but they have different meanings • Gendered institutions enable gender stratification • Sexuality comprises one’s sexual identity, sexual orientation and sexual scripts • Abortion and same-sex marriages continue to be controversial • Considerable variations regarding gender inequality and sexual oppression exist Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 37 Copyright ©2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly acce ssible website, in whole or in part. SOC5 | CH9 38

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TutorLeal
School: Purdue University

Attached.

OUTLINE
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
Reference


Running head: SOCIOLOGY

1

Sociology Questions
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Date

SOCIOLOGY

2

1. How stereotypes contribute to the uneven distribution of house chores.
Stereotypes have shaped society's perception of different jobs and house chores. These
stereotypes have widely been held to the extent that men feel offended when they are asked to
do what they consider to be feminine. For women, they fail to learn some basic skills such as
changing a car tyre or engine oil since they consider it a masculine role. It is correct some
tasks require a lot more muscle to accomplish, but when it comes to house chores, there needs
to be corporation among family members because they are activities that help every...

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