Psychology motivates finish college Aspects health concerns

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Question description

For each questions, you need to write a short paragraphs (150-200 words) to answer each of the questions. I've posted the slides that might help you to understand better on questions. Since questions are mostly asking for subjective answers, you don't have to read all the slides. Thank you.

1.What motivates you to complete college and why? (chapter 9)

2.Why do you think American society is so concerned with gender identity?(chapter 10)

3.What aspect of your health and well-being concerns you the most and why?(chapter 11)

4.How do other people influence your attitude?(chapter 12)

Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION Chapter 10 Sex, Gender, and Sexuality © 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1 10.1 How Does Biology Make Us Male or Female? • Gender Does Not Equal Biological Sex • Biological sex, the physical aspects of being male or female, is different from gender, the social differences between being male or female. – Most people feel that their gender matches their biological sex. – But approximately 1 percent to 3 percent of the population reports being transgender, meaning they feel their gender is different from their biological sex. 2 Gender Does Not Equal Biological Sex • In addition, gender can extend beyond the two traditional choices of male and female. – Some people don’t feel especially male or female. – Other people may feel more male in some situations and more female in others. • We simply do not know how many people experience gender nonconformity. 3 Biological Sex Refers to the Physical Factors That Determine the Sex of a Person 4 The Sex Chromosomes • The 23rd chromosome from each parent determines the zygote’s biological sex. • The mother’s egg cell always contributes an X chromosome as the 23rd chromosome of the zygote. • In about half of conceptions, the father’s sperm cell also contributes an X chromosome, so the zygote has XX sex chromosomes. This means that the zygote is female (Figure 10.2a). • And in about half of conceptions, the father’s sperm cell contributes a Y chromosome instead, so the zygote has XY sex chromosomes. In this case, the zygote is male (Figure 10.2b). 5 Sex Glands (1) • Once the sex chromosomes of a zygote are determined, they further influence biological sex by affecting what sex glands, or gonads, the zygote will eventually develop. – Until about the sixth week of development, male and female embryos are the same, except at the genetic level. • Around six to seven weeks, embryos with XY sex chromosomes start to develop the male sex glands, called testes; and embryos with XX chromosomes start to develop the female sex glands, called ovaries. • The Y chromosome contains a special gene that affects how the gonads develop. This gene is called SRY, which stands for “sex determining region on the Y chromosome.” • Female-ness is the default human biological state: the embryo will develop a female reproductive system unless it is masculinized by hormonal action. 6 Sex Glands (2) • These sex glands are part of the endocrine system, and they release chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream. – During puberty, the ovaries begin to release more of one class of sex hormones, called estrogens. – In males, the testes release greater amounts of another class of hormones, called androgens. – However, all people have estrogens and androgens, and both are crucial to proper development. • As the developing human undergoes puberty, the hormones released by the sex glands cause physical changes to occur that are referred to as secondary sex characteristics. 7 Secondary Sex Characteristics (1) 8 Secondary Sex Characteristics (2) • Because they are not directly related to sexual reproduction, these characteristics are called “secondary.” – These changes start to appear in girls at about 8 years of age and in boys at about 9 or 10. • For both sexes, this includes the development of darker and thicker body hair on the legs, in the armpits, and in the pubic area. In addition, both sexes experience a growth spurt. – Females gain more fat, their waists become more defined, and their breasts develop. – Males gain more muscle mass and develop facial hair; their voices deepen, and their jaws become more angular. 9 Primary Sex Characteristics (1) • Because they are directly related to sexual reproduction, these characteristics are called “primary.” – The genitals do not reach full maturity until about two years after the adolescent growth spurt. – In females, increases in estrogens cause primary sex characteristics such as the maturation of the uterus, the vagina, and the two ovaries, including the egg cells contained in the ovaries. – In males, increases in androgens cause primary sex characteristics that include the maturation of the penis and the two testes and the beginning of sperm cell production in the testes. • The clearest sign of primary sex characteristics in a female occurs when she experiences menarche, the first menstrual period. 10 Primary Sex Characteristics (2) 11 Menarche and Spermarche • The clearest sign of primary sex characteristics in a female occurs when she experiences menarche, the first menstrual period. – Menarche usually occurs at about 12 and a half years of age, but is beginning earlier than it did 50 years ago. • In males, outward signs like muscle development and voice changes are more obvious, but the most important aspect of physical development is not outwardly visible. – This important change, the beginning of sperm cell production in the testes, is called spermarche, and usually occurs at about age 12. 12 Is Biological Sex Reflected in Our Brains? • There are very small differences between the brains of males and females. – However, these differences are not necessarily caused by sex difference: the social environment also shapes how our brain develops, and males and females experience different environments in our society. – Across most measures, male and female brains are remarkably similar. • According to the gender similarities hypothesis, males and females are similar in most psychological processes. 13 Why Are Males More Physically Aggressive Than Females? • Some research has linked physical aggression with levels of testosterone, and males typically have more testosterone than females – However, research on human subjects does not confirm a clear cause-and-effect relationship between hormone levels and aggressive behaviors. – The effect of testosterone on aggression appears to be mediated by social and cultural factors. 14 Are You Male or Female? How Do You Know? • Are your sex chromosomes XX or XY? • What makes someone male or female? • Should athletes have their chromosomes, internal genitals, and hormone levels tested? • What rights to bodily privacy should we have? 15 Intersexuality • When people do not clearly fall into the binary of being biologically male or biologically female, they are experiencing intersexuality. – About 1 or 2 of every 100 people experience some ambiguity in their biological sex. – One cause of intersexuality is when the merging sperm cell and egg cell do not provide the usual combination of XX or XY sex chromosomes to the new zygote (e.g., Kleinfelter syndrome—XXY). 16 Sex Is Not Binary 17 Section 10.2 Why Do We Act Masculine or Feminine? • Gender is different from biological sex. It refers to the social, cultural, and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity. • We learn what is masculine and feminine by observing others and organizing the information we see into mental categories. • These categories are called gender schemas. • A gender schema is a knowledge structure that contains information about aspects of gender, including social expectations, traits, interests, thoughts, and feelings. 18 Gender Stereotypes (1) • When we use gender schemas as mental shortcuts for processing information, we are using gender stereotypes. – Gender stereotypes reflect commonly held assumptions about the qualities of men and women. – However, it is important to note that we can update our schemas with new information so they schemas do not become stuck on rigid stereotypes. 19 Gender Stereotypes (2) 20 Gender Roles • Gender roles are all the positions, characteristics, and interests considered normal and appropriate for males or for females in a particular culture. • Gender role socialization is the idea that we develop culture-specific expectations about gender roles by being exposed to social information in the environment around us. 21 Three Forces of Gender Role Socialization Cause Us to Act in a Gender-Conforming Manner 1. Observational Learning: we watch what other people do. 2. Modeling: we imitate people’s actions 3. Operant Conditioning: our behavior has either positive or negative consequences, which make us either repeat or avoid the same behavior in the future. 22 Observational Learning 23 Gender Role Socialization (1) • The positions, characteristics, and interests considered normal and appropriate for males or for females may seem natural, but they are learned. – Gender roles differ across time and place. – Think of other historical periods and other geographic locations: how are gender roles different from those in our society today? 24 Gender Role Socialization (2) 25 Gender Identity • The story of David Reimer’s life shows how an individual’s desire to express an inner gender identity may conflict with their gender role socialization. • An individual’s gender identity is not dependent upon genitals, chromosomes, or hormones. 26 Cognitive Development of Gender Identity • As children develop, they begin to categorize themselves and others in terms of gender. – By about age 4, children think of themselves and others in a stable way as boys or girls. – Between ages 5 and 7, children recognize that their gender identity does not change even if they dress or act in ways associated with the other gender. 27 Gender Expression (1) • Gender expression is the way people communicate their gender through clothes, interests, and language. – Gender expression is completely unrelated to their gender identity. – Even when a person has a clear gender identity, a particular situation can alter the person’s gender expression in a variety of ways. 28 Gender Expression (2) 29 Variation in Gender Identity (1) • Most people identify with the sex they were defined as at birth. – Others don’t feel or think they are particularly male or female, or their gender identity may change. The term genderqueer is sometimes used to describe this gender identity. – Additionally, some people think and feel that they have aspects of being male and aspects of being female. This gender identity is androgynous. 30 Variation in Gender Identity (2) 31 Transgender (1) • Someone whose gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth is considered transgender. – Transgender individuals often change their behavior and appearance to fit with the identity they feel with. – Some may also use surgeries or hormones to transform their bodies, though others may not. 32 Transgender (2) 33 Gender Dysphoria • Being transgender is not a psychological disorder. – However, feelings of discontent with one’s assigned gender can become dysfunctional if they are present for 6 months or more and also cause significant distress. – The distress, anxiety, and depression that transgender people may face as a result of living in a discriminatory society may result in gender dysphoria. 34 Transgender Rights • The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) prohibits inappropriate treatment of people who are transgender and gender nonconforming. – In addition, 19 states and Washington, D.C., have adopted employment laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity. – Communities in California, Philadelphia, Texas, Oregon, and Washington, D.C., have passed legislation requiring gender-neutral bathrooms. 35 Section 10.3 How Do We Vary in Sexual Orientation? • Sexual orientation is a person’s enduring sexual, emotional, and/or romantic attraction to other people. – Like biological sex and gender identity, sexual orientation can be viewed as a continuum. 36 The Four Main Types of Sexual Orientation 37 The Four Main Types of Sexual Orientation 1. Heterosexual: A sexual orientation whereby a person is sexually, emotionally, and/or romantically attracted to people of another sex. 2. Homosexual: A sexual orientation whereby a person is sexually, emotionally, and/or romantically attracted to people of the same sex. 3. Bisexual: A sexual orientation whereby a person is sexually, emotionally, and/or romantically attracted to people of the same sex and people of another sex. 4. Asexual: A sexual orientation whereby a person does not experience sexual attraction but may experience emotional and/or romantic attraction. 38 Queering Sexual Orientation • One difficulty in describing sexual orientation is based on the terminology itself. – The terms homosexual and heterosexual mean that a person has a specific biological sex or gender and is attracted to people of either the same sex or gender or another sex or gender. But as you have learned, some people experience variations in biological sex or gender. – In addition, some people who experience fluidity in sexual orientation may prefer the term queer. 39 What Causes a Certain Sexual Orientation? • Environment may play a role. – Early psychoanalytic theories suggested that parenting influences sexual orientation. – However, the overwhelming majority of studies have found little or no evidence that parents affect sexual orientation of their children. – Almost no psychologists or physicians believe that sexual orientation is a choice or that it can be changed. – If environment does influence sexual orientation, research has not revealed what these environmental factors are. 40 What Causes a Certain Sexual Orientation? (1) • Biology may play a role. 41 What Causes a Certain Sexual Orientation? (2) • Why does the cause of a homosexual orientation matter? – Why are biological theories of sexual orientation more popular today? – Why does it matter if people chose their sexual orientation, or could change it? 42 Section 10.4 What Motivates Us to Have Sexual Relations (or Not to)? • Desire is a person’s psychological experience of wanting to engage in sexual activity. – The desire to engage in sexual relations is one of the most durable and powerful motivators that we humans experience. – What motivates us to have sex varies considerably among individuals and across circumstances. – Our sexual motivation is generally influenced by three factors: biology, our environment and culture, and individual differences. 43 The Sexual Response Cycle (1) • Masters and Johnson’s research proposed a four-stage pattern of physiological and psychological responses during sex. 1. 2. 3. 4. Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution 44 The Sexual Response Cycle (2) 45 Hormones and Sexual Behavior (1) • Hormones affect sexual behavior by influencing the physical development of the brain and body during puberty. – But hormones also help motivate sexual behavior. – Some research suggests that testosterone, in particular, can play a role in promoting sexual behavior. 46 Hormones and Sexual Behavior (2) 47 Hormones and Sexual Behavior (3) • While males generally have more testosterone than females, and males are more likely to engage in sexually risky behavior, there are many possible confounding variables. – For example, going home with a stranger carries a much different level of risk for men and women in our society. – Women are much more likely to experience sexual assault or rape or to be socially sanctioned for engaging in promiscuous behavior. 48 Hormones, or Violence and Sexual Double Standards? 49 Environmental Context Influences Our Motivation for Sexual Activity (1) • Social and cultural norms exert a strong influence on when and how people engage in sexual behavior. – For example, the frequency with which we have sex varies by cultures. People in Greece and Croatia report having the most sex, between 134 and 138 times per year, whereas people in Japan have the least amount of sex at 45 times per year. Americans reported that they have sex about twice per week, or 113 times per year. 50 Environmental Context Influences Our Motivation for Sexual Activity (2) • Even within the United States, there are cultural differences in sexual behavior. For example, adult males view casual sex before marriage as being more acceptable than do adult females. – By contrast, young adult males and young adult females tend to have similar views about the acceptability of casual sex before marriage. – Beliefs about the acceptability and risk of engaging in particular behaviors thus vary by age and gender. 51 Mate Preferences Affect Our Motivation for Sex (1) • Culturally constructed ideas about what traits are attractive or desirable shape our willingness to engage in sexual behavior with potential sexual partners. – For example, in our culture, men are taught to value physical attractiveness and youth while women are taught to value commitment, emotional stability, and financial stability. 52 Mate Preferences Affect Our Motivation for Sex (2) • Evolutionary accounts of human mating are not widely accepted because they fail to account for the complexity of human desire and choice, as well as the influence of culture. – For example, humans today often prolong reproducing until later in life, and many choose partners who are not “evolutionarily advantageous” – It also normalizes and focuses on heterosexual relations to the detriment of queer sexualities and gender identities. 53 Inner Thoughts and Environmental Stimuli Affect Our Motivation for Sex • People have inner fantasies about sex, and those fantasies vary widely. – In addition, environmental stimuli such as pornographic video, erotic books, or sexting influence sexual arousal. – Perhaps unsurprisingly, research shows that pornography that focuses on male pleasure and male perspectives are not as popular with women. 54 Individual Differences Influence Our Motivation for Sexual Activity (1) • As you have learned, biological and environmental factors motivate people to have sex or not. – Inner thoughts also play a role, as people experience sexual fantasies and particular desires. • A paraphilia is an unchanging sexual interest, arousal, and/or behavior associated with an object, type of person, and/or situation not usually associated with sex. – Paraphilias may increase motivation for specific sexual experiences. 55 Individual Differences Influence Our Motivation for Sexual Activity (2) • Sexual sadism and sexual masochism, and some of the other paraphilias, are not inherently psychologically unhealthy. – They can be practiced in psychologically healthy ways by consenting adults. – However, healthy participation requires each person’s consent as well as a great deal of communication, emotional maturity, and honesty between the adults engaging in these sexual practices. 56 Individual Differences Influence Our Motivation for Sexual Activity (3) • The Fifty Shades book trilogy and movie adaptation have received lots of attention for portraying two people, Christian and Ana, engaging in bondage, domination, sadism, and masochism (BDSM). – However, some critics have suggested that Fifty Shades does not depict psychologically healthy sexual activities, in part because Ana does not seem truly comfortable with their sexual activities. If Ana is not fully consenting, Fifty Shades may be depicting sexual sadism disorder and sexual masochism disorder. 57 Sexual Dysfunction Can Reduce Motivation for Sex (1) • A sexual dysfunction is a significant and enduring problem in sexual functioning or pleasure (specifically related to desire, arousal, orgasm, and/or sexual pain). – According to a large survey, approximately 43 percent of women and 31 percent of men report experiencing some kind of sexual problem at some point in their lives. – These statistics have been criticized by researchers as misrepresenting sexual problems. Some argue that reduced sexual desire can be a completely healthy and functional response for people who are tired, face high levels of stress, or experience psychological or physical threats from their partners. 58 Sexual Dysfunction Can Reduce Motivation for Sex (2) 59 Sexual Dysfunction Can Reduce Motivation for Sex (3) • Many psychological factors are associated with sexual dysfunction. – Changes in finances are associated with increased risk for certain dysfunctions, perhaps due to the stress associated with such changes. – Feeling less physical and emotional satisfaction and happiness is associated with all types of sexual dysfunction except premature ejaculation. • And a traumatic sexual experience can decrease sexual functioning, even years after the event. – Research that focuses solely on the genital-function aspects of sexual dysfunction may fail to identify how thoughts, feelings, and actions may contribute to the 60 issue.
Section 9.4 How Do Emotions Help Us Adapt? 9.4 How Do Emotions Help Us Adapt? Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • In his 1872 book, Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin argued that expressive aspects of emotion are adaptive because they communicate how we are feeling Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Eyes and mouth • We convey emotional information by means of our eyes and mouth • See figure 9.25 next slide Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Facial expression across cultures • Research has found general support for cross-cultural identification of some facial expressions • Support is strongest for happiness and weakest for fear and disgust Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Facial expression of pride • Researchers found that isolated populations with minimal Western contact accurately identify the physical signs of pride. These signs include a smiling face, raised arms, an expanded chest, and a pushed-out torso • See figures 9.26a, 26b next slide Display Rules Differ Across Cultures and Between the Sexes • Display rules • Rules that are learned through socialization and that dictate what emotions are suitable in certain situations • From culture to culture, display rules tend to be different for women and men Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Affect-as-information theory • People use their current moods to make decisions, judgments, and appraisals, even if they do not know the sources of their moods Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Decision making • Emotions influence our decision making in different ways. For example, anticipating how different choices might make us feel can serve as a guide in decision making Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Emotion affects judgments • In a study, people in good moods rated their lives as satisfactory, whereas people in bad moods gave lower overall ratings Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Twentieth-century psychologists paid little attention to interpersonal emotions. Guilt, embarrassment, and similar phenomena were associated with Freudian thinking and therefore not studied in mainstream psychological science Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Guilt strengthens social bonds • Guilt: A negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation • Excessive feelings of guilt may have negative consequences • There is evidence that socialization is more important than biology in determining specifically how children experience guilt Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Embarrassment and blushing • People feel embarrassed after violating a cultural norm, doing something clumsy, being teased, or experiencing a threat to their self-image • Blushing occurs most often when people believe others might view them negatively and communicates an understanding that some type of social awkwardness has occurred • See figure 9.28 next slide
Section 9.3 How Do We Experience Emotions? 9.3 How Do We Experience Emotions? • Emotion • Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs • Primary emotions • Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that are shared across cultures and associated with specific physical states; they include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, and possibly surprise and contempt 9.3 How Do We Experience Emotions? • Secondary emotions • Blends of primary emotions; they include remorse, guilt, shame, submission, and anticipation There Are Three Major Theories of Emotion • James-Lange theory • James-Lange theory: Emotions result from the experience of physiological reactions in the body • Facial feedback hypothesis • See figures 9.18, 9.18a, 9.18b next slide There Are Three Major Theories of Emotion • Cannon-Bard theory • Cannon-Bard theory: Emotions and bodily responses both occur simultaneously due to the ways that parts of the brain process information • See figure 9.20 next slide There Are Three Major Theories of Emotion • Schachter-Singer two-factor theory • Two-factor theory: How we experience an emotion is influenced by the cognitive label we apply to explain the physiological changes we have experienced • Emotion label • Misattribution of arousal • Excitation transfer • See figure 9.21 next slide Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • Emotions from bodily responses • A polygraph—popularly known as a lie detector • People who are lying are more likely to be emotional. Because of their emotions, they will have physical reactions that show up on the polygraph Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • THE AMYGDALA • THE AMYGDALA PROCESSES THE EMOTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STIMULI, AND IT GENERATES IMMEDIATE EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • The amygdala • Information reaches the amygdala along two separate pathways: • The first path is a “quick and dirty” system that processes sensory information nearly instantaneously • The second path is somewhat slower, but it leads to more deliberate and more thorough evaluations Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • The amygdala • It is involved in the perception of social stimuli • We “read” someone’s facial expressions; the amygdala helps us interpret them • See figures 9.23a, 9.23b next slide Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • The prefrontal cortex • There is evidence that the left and right frontal lobes are affected by different emotions • Injury to the frontal lobes often impairs emotional experience We Regulate Our Emotional States • Gross outlined several strategies people use to regulate their emotions • • • • Reappraisal Humor Thought suppression and rumination Distraction • Reappraisal • We directly alter our emotional reactions to events by thinking about those events in more neutral terms We Regulate Our Emotional States • Humor • Humor has many mental and physical health benefits • Laughter improves the immune system and stimulates the release of hormones, dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins • When we laugh, we experience rises in circulation, blood pressure, skin temperature, and heart rate, along with a decrease in pain perception We Regulate Our Emotional States • Thought suppression and rumination • When we suppress negative thoughts, we are trying not to feel or respond to the emotion at all • Rebound effect • Rumination involves thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings We Regulate Our Emotional States • Distraction • Distraction involves doing or thinking about something other than the troubling activity or thought Section 9.4 How Do Emotions Help Us Adapt? 9.4 How Do Emotions Help Us Adapt? Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • In his 1872 book, Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin argued that expressive aspects of emotion are adaptive because they communicate how we are feeling Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Eyes and mouth • We convey emotional information by means of our eyes and mouth • See figure 9.25 next slide Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Facial expression across cultures • Research has found general support for cross-cultural identification of some facial expressions • Support is strongest for happiness and weakest for fear and disgust Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Facial expression of pride • Researchers found that isolated populations with minimal Western contact accurately identify the physical signs of pride. These signs include a smiling face, raised arms, an expanded chest, and a pushed-out torso • See figures 9.26a, 26b next slide Display Rules Differ Across Cultures and Between the Sexes • Display rules • Rules that are learned through socialization and that dictate what emotions are suitable in certain situations • From culture to culture, display rules tend to be different for women and men Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Affect-as-information theory • People use their current moods to make decisions, judgments, and appraisals, even if they do not know the sources of their moods Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Decision making • Emotions influence our decision making in different ways. For example, anticipating how different choices might make us feel can serve as a guide in decision making Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Emotion affects judgments • In a study, people in good moods rated their lives as satisfactory, whereas people in bad moods gave lower overall ratings Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Twentieth-century psychologists paid little attention to interpersonal emotions. Guilt, embarrassment, and similar phenomena were associated with Freudian thinking and therefore not studied in mainstream psychological science Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Guilt strengthens social bonds • Guilt: A negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation • Excessive feelings of guilt may have negative consequences • There is evidence that socialization is more important than biology in determining specifically how children experience guilt Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Embarrassment and blushing • People feel embarrassed after violating a cultural norm, doing something clumsy, being teased, or experiencing a threat to their self-image • Blushing occurs most often when people believe others might view them negatively and communicates an understanding that some type of social awkwardness has occurred • See figure 9.28 next slide
Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. SECTION 9.1 WHAT MOTIVATES OUR BEHAVIOR? 9.1 WHAT MOTIVATES OUR BEHAVIOR? • THE WORDS EMOTION AND MOTIVATION COME FROM THE SAME LATIN WORD, MOVERE, “TO MOVE.” MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE MOTIVATION • MOTIVATION • FACTORS OF DIFFERING STRENGTH THAT ENERGIZE, DIRECT, AND SUSTAIN BEHAVIOR • SEE FIGURES 9.2A, 9.2B, 9.2C, 9.2D, AND TABLE 9.1 NEXT SLIDE MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE MOTIVATION • SATISFACTION OF NEEDS • NEED: A STATE OF BIOLOGICAL OR SOCIAL DEFICIENCY • NEED HIERARCHY: AN ARRANGEMENT OF NEEDS, IN WHICH BASIC SURVIVAL NEEDS MUST BE MET BEFORE PEOPLE CAN SATISFY HIGHER NEEDS • MASLOW’S THEORY IS AN EXAMPLE OF HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY • SELF-ACTUALIZATION • SEE FIGURE 9.3 NEXT SLIDE MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE MOTIVATION • DRIVE REDUCTION AND INCENTIVES • DRIVE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE THAT, BY CREATING AROUSAL, MOTIVATES AN ORGANISM TO ENGAGE IN A BEHAVIOR TO SATISFY A NEED • BASIC BIOLOGICAL DRIVES, SUCH AS THIRST OR HUNGER, HELP ANIMALS MAINTAIN A STABLE CONDITION. A STABLE CONDITION IS ALSO CALLED EQUILIBRIUM • SEE FIGURE 9.4 NEXT SLIDE MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE MOTIVATION • DRIVE REDUCTION AND INCENTIVES • HOMEOSTASIS: TENDENCY FOR BODILY FUNCTIONS TO REMAIN IN EQUILIBRIUM • AROUSAL: PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVATION (SUCH AS INCREASED BRAIN ACTIVITY) OR INCREASED AUTONOMIC RESPONSES (SUCH AS INCREASED HEART RATE, SWEATING, OR MUSCLE TENSION) • INCENTIVES: EXTERNAL OBJECTS OR EXTERNAL GOALS, RATHER THAN INTERNAL DRIVES, THAT MOTIVATE BEHAVIORS • SEE FIGURE 9.5 NEXT SLIDE MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE MOTIVATION • AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE • THE YERKES-DODSON LAW DESCRIBES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL, MOTIVATION, AND PERFORMANCE • THIS LAW STATES THAT PERFORMANCE INCREASES WITH AROUSAL UP TO AN OPTIMAL POINT. AFTER THAT POINT, MORE AROUSAL WILL RESULT IN DECREASING PERFORMANCE. A GRAPH OF THIS RELATIONSHIP IS SHAPED LIKE AN UPSIDE-DOWN U • SEE FIGURE 9.6 NEXT SLIDE MANY FACTORS INFLUENCE MOTIVATION • AROUSAL AND PERFORMANCE • EVERYONE IS MOTIVATED TO ENGAGE IN BEHAVIORS BASED ON THEIR OWN OPTIMAL LEVEL OF AROUSAL • PLEASURE • SIGMUND FREUD PROPOSED THAT NEEDS ARE SATISFIED BASED ON THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE. ACCORDING TO FREUD, THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE MOTIVATES PEOPLE TO SEEK PLEASURE AND AVOID PAIN • SEE FIGURES 9.7A, 9.7B NEXT SLIDE SOME BEHAVIORS ARE MOTIVATED FOR THEIR OWN SAKE • EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION • A DESIRE TO PERFORM AN ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE EXTERNAL GOALS TOWARD WHICH THAT ACTIVITY IS DIRECTED • SEE SLIDE 9.8A NEXT SLIDE SOME BEHAVIORS ARE MOTIVATED FOR THEIR OWN SAKE • INTRINSIC MOTIVATION • INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: A DESIRE TO PERFORM AN ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE VALUE OR PLEASURE ASSOCIATED WITH THAT ACTIVITY, RATHER THAN FOR AN APPARENT EXTERNAL GOAL OR PURPOSE • SEE FIGURE 9.8B NEXT SLIDE SOME BEHAVIORS ARE MOTIVATED FOR THEIR OWN SAKE • SELF-DETERMINATION AND SELF-PERCEPTION • IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY, EXTRINSIC REWARDS MAY REDUCE THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF AN ACTIVITY BECAUSE SUCH REWARDS UNDERMINE OUR FEELING THAT WE ARE CHOOSING TO DO SOMETHING FOR OURSELVES • IN SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY, WE ARE SELDOM AWARE OF OUR SPECIFIC MOTIVES. INSTEAD, WE MAKE INFERENCES ABOUT OUR MOTIVES ACCORDING TO WHAT SEEMS TO MAKE THE MOST SENSE WE SET LONG-TERM GOALS • HENRY MURRAY PROPOSED A NUMBER OF BASIC PSYCHOSOCIAL NEEDS, INCLUDING THE NEEDS FOR POWER, AUTONOMY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND PLAY • CHALLENGING GOALS ENCOURAGE EFFORT, PERSISTENCE, AND CONCENTRATION WE SET LONG-TERM GOALS • SELF-EFFICACY AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION • SELF-EFFICACY IS THE EXPECTATION THAT YOUR EFFORTS WILL LEAD TO SUCCESS • ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION: THE NEED, OR DESIRE, TO ATTAIN A CERTAIN STANDARD OF EXCELLENCE WE SET LONG-TERM GOALS • DELAYED GRATIFICATION • THE ABILITY TO DELAY GRATIFICATION IS AN INDICATOR OF SUCCESS IN LIFE • MARSHMALLOW STUDY • SEE FIGURE 9.9 NEXT SLIDE WE HAVE A NEED TO BELONG • NEED TO BELONG THEORY • THE NEED FOR INTERPERSONAL ATTACHMENTS IS A FUNDAMENTAL MOTIVE THAT HAS EVOLVED FOR ADAPTIVE PURPOSES • SEE FIGURE 9.10 NEXT SLIDE SECTION 9.2 WHAT MOTIVATES EATING AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR? 9.2 WHAT MOTIVATES EATING AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR? MANY BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MOTIVATE EATING • STOMACH AND BLOODSTREAM • PEOPLE WHO HAVE HAD THEIR STOMACHS SURGICALLY REMOVED DUE TO ILLNESS CONTINUE TO REPORT FEELING HUNGRY EVEN THOUGH THEY NO LONGER HAVE A STOMACH • THE EXISTENCE OF RECEPTORS IN THE BLOODSTREAM THAT MONITOR LEVELS OF VITAL NUTRIENTS MANY BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MOTIVATE EATING • HORMONES • LEPTIN: A HORMONE THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASING EATING BEHAVIOR BASED ON LONG-TERM BODY FAT REGULATION. • GHRELIN: A HORMONE THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASING EATING BEHAVIOR BASED ON SHORT-TERM SIGNALS IN THE BLOODSTREAM MANY BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MOTIVATE EATING • THE BRAIN • THE HYPOTHALAMUS IS THE BRAIN STRUCTURE THAT MOST INFLUENCES EATING • SEEING TASTY FOOD MAKES A PERSON CRAVE IT, AND THIS RESPONSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVITY IN THE LIMBIC SYSTEM EATING IS INFLUENCED BY LEARNING • CONDITIONED TO EAT • THE INTERNAL CLOCK LEADS TO VARIOUS ANTICIPATORY RESPONSES THAT MOTIVATE EATING BEHAVIOR AND PREPARE THE BODY FOR DIGESTION EATING IS INFLUENCED BY LEARNING • FAMILIARITY AND EATING PREFERENCES • PEOPLE’S AVOIDANCE OF UNFAMILIAR FOODS, WHICH MAY BE DANGEROUS OR POISONOUS, MAKES EVOLUTIONARY SENSE AND IS ADAPTIVE • WHAT WE PREFER TO EAT IS ALSO DETERMINED BY THE ETHNIC, CULTURAL, AND RELIGIOUS VALUES OF OUR OWN UPBRINGING AND EXPERIENCES • SEE FIGURES 9.11A, 9.11B NEXT SLIDE EATING IS INFLUENCED BY LEARNING • CULTURAL INFLUENCES • EVEN WHEN PEOPLE ARE STARVING TO DEATH, THEY MAY REFUSE TO EAT PERFECTLY NUTRITIOUS SUBSTANCES BECAUSE THEY ARE CULTURALLY UNFAMILIAR • SEE FIGURE 9.12 NEXT SLIDE WE HAVE A DRIVE FOR SEXUAL RELATIONS • ALFRED KINSEY AND HIS COLLEAGUES PROVIDED SHOCKING—AT THE TIME (1940S)—EVIDENCE THAT WOMEN’S SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS WERE IN MANY WAYS SIMILAR TO THOSE OF MEN WE HAVE A DRIVE FOR SEXUAL RELATIONS • SEXUAL BEHAVIOR • WILLIAM MASTERS AND VIRGINIA JOHNSON • SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE: A FOUR-STAGE PATTERN OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING SEXUAL ACTIVITY • EXCITEMENT PHASE • PLATEAU PHASE • ORGASM PHASE • RESOLUTION PHASE SEE FIGURES 9.13A, 9.13B NEXT SLIDE WE HAVE A DRIVE FOR SEXUAL RELATIONS • HORMONES • HORMONES INFLUENCE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN AND BODY DURING PUBERTY. THEY ALSO INFLUENCE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR THROUGH MOTIVATION WE HAVE A DRIVE FOR SEXUAL RELATIONS • HORMONES • ANDROGENS: A CLASS OF HORMONES THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND ARE MORE PREVALENT IN MALES; TESTOSTERONE IS ONE EXAMPLE • ESTROGENS: A CLASS OF HORMONES THAT ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND ARE MORE PREVALENT IN FEMALES; ESTRADIOL IS ONE EXAMPLE • SEE FIGURE 9.14 NEXT SLIDE
Cultural Rules Shape Sexual Interactions • Cultures may seek to restrain and control sex for a variety of reasons, including maintaining control over the birthrate, helping to establish paternity, and reducing conflicts Cultural Rules Shape Sexual Interactions • Gender differences in sexual behavior • Double standard: premarital sex is morally and socially acceptable for men, not women • Sexual strategies theory: Women and men have evolved distinct mating strategies because they have faced different adaptive problems over the course of human history. The strategies used by each sex maximize the probability of passing along their genes to future generations • See figure 9.15 next slide Cultural Rules Shape Sexual Interactions • Mate preferences • In seeking mates, both sexes avoid certain characteristics, such as insensitivity, bad manners, loudness or shrillness, and the tendency to brag about sexual conquests Cultural Rules Shape Sexual Interactions • Mate preferences • In a study of 92 married couples in 37 cultures, women were observed generally to prefer men who were considerate, honest, dependable, kind, understanding, fond of children, well liked by others, good earners, ambitious, career oriented, from a good family, and fairly tall. • Men tended to value good looks, cooking skills, and sexual faithfulness We Differ in Our Sexual Orientations • Biological factors • The best available evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to hormones might play some role in sexual orientation • Some research suggests the hypothalamus may be related to sexual orientation • Although these findings are thought-provoking, there is currently not enough evidence to establish a causal connection between brain regions and sexual orientation We Differ in Our Sexual Orientations • Stability of sexual orientation • There is no good evidence that sexual orientation can be changed through therapy • Bisexual people are sexually attracted to people of both sexes and sometimes have sexual relationships with people of both sexes Section 9.3 How Do We Experience Emotions? 9.3 How Do We Experience Emotions? • Emotion • Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs • Primary emotions • Evolutionarily adaptive emotions that are shared across cultures and associated with specific physical states; they include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, and possibly surprise and contempt 9.3 How Do We Experience Emotions? • Secondary emotions • Blends of primary emotions; they include remorse, guilt, shame, submission, and anticipation There Are Three Major Theories of Emotion • James-Lange theory • James-Lange theory: Emotions result from the experience of physiological reactions in the body • Facial feedback hypothesis • See figures 9.18, 9.18a, 9.18b next slide There Are Three Major Theories of Emotion • Cannon-Bard theory • Cannon-Bard theory: Emotions and bodily responses both occur simultaneously due to the ways that parts of the brain process information • See figure 9.20 next slide There Are Three Major Theories of Emotion • Schachter-Singer two-factor theory • Two-factor theory: How we experience an emotion is influenced by the cognitive label we apply to explain the physiological changes we have experienced • Emotion label • Misattribution of arousal • Excitation transfer • See figure 9.21 next slide Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • Emotions from bodily responses • A polygraph—popularly known as a lie detector • People who are lying are more likely to be emotional. Because of their emotions, they will have physical reactions that show up on the polygraph Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • THE AMYGDALA • THE AMYGDALA PROCESSES THE EMOTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STIMULI, AND IT GENERATES IMMEDIATE EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • The amygdala • Information reaches the amygdala along two separate pathways: • The first path is a “quick and dirty” system that processes sensory information nearly instantaneously • The second path is somewhat slower, but it leads to more deliberate and more thorough evaluations Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • The amygdala • It is involved in the perception of social stimuli • We “read” someone’s facial expressions; the amygdala helps us interpret them • See figures 9.23a, 9.23b next slide Both Body and Brain Are Important for Emotion • The prefrontal cortex • There is evidence that the left and right frontal lobes are affected by different emotions • Injury to the frontal lobes often impairs emotional experience We Regulate Our Emotional States • Gross outlined several strategies people use to regulate their emotions • • • • Reappraisal Humor Thought suppression and rumination Distraction • Reappraisal • We directly alter our emotional reactions to events by thinking about those events in more neutral terms We Regulate Our Emotional States • Humor • Humor has many mental and physical health benefits • Laughter improves the immune system and stimulates the release of hormones, dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins • When we laugh, we experience rises in circulation, blood pressure, skin temperature, and heart rate, along with a decrease in pain perception We Regulate Our Emotional States • Thought suppression and rumination • When we suppress negative thoughts, we are trying not to feel or respond to the emotion at all • Rebound effect • Rumination involves thinking about, elaborating, and focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings We Regulate Our Emotional States • Distraction • Distraction involves doing or thinking about something other than the troubling activity or thought Section 9.4 How Do Emotions Help Us Adapt? 9.4 How Do Emotions Help Us Adapt? Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • In his 1872 book, Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin argued that expressive aspects of emotion are adaptive because they communicate how we are feeling Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Eyes and mouth • We convey emotional information by means of our eyes and mouth • See figure 9.25 next slide Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Facial expression across cultures • Research has found general support for cross-cultural identification of some facial expressions • Support is strongest for happiness and weakest for fear and disgust Facial Expressions Communicate Emotion • Facial expression of pride • Researchers found that isolated populations with minimal Western contact accurately identify the physical signs of pride. These signs include a smiling face, raised arms, an expanded chest, and a pushed-out torso • See figures 9.26a, 26b next slide Display Rules Differ Across Cultures and Between the Sexes • Display rules • Rules that are learned through socialization and that dictate what emotions are suitable in certain situations • From culture to culture, display rules tend to be different for women and men Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Affect-as-information theory • People use their current moods to make decisions, judgments, and appraisals, even if they do not know the sources of their moods Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Decision making • Emotions influence our decision making in different ways. For example, anticipating how different choices might make us feel can serve as a guide in decision making Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions • Emotion affects judgments • In a study, people in good moods rated their lives as satisfactory, whereas people in bad moods gave lower overall ratings Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Twentieth-century psychologists paid little attention to interpersonal emotions. Guilt, embarrassment, and similar phenomena were associated with Freudian thinking and therefore not studied in mainstream psychological science Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Guilt strengthens social bonds • Guilt: A negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation • Excessive feelings of guilt may have negative consequences • There is evidence that socialization is more important than biology in determining specifically how children experience guilt Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations • Embarrassment and blushing • People feel embarrassed after violating a cultural norm, doing something clumsy, being teased, or experiencing a threat to their self-image • Blushing occurs most often when people believe others might view them negatively and communicates an understanding that some type of social awkwardness has occurred • See figure 9.28 next slide
Sarah Grison • Todd Heatherton • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life FIRST EDITION Chapter 10 Health and Well-Being © 2014 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. SECTION 10.1 What Affects Our Health? 10.1 What Affects Our Health? Biology, Psychology, and Social Factors Influence Health • Health psychology • A field that integrates research on health and on psychology; it involves the application of psychological principles in promoting health and well-being • Well-being • A positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction Biology, Psychology, and Social Factors Influence Health • Biopsychosocial model • Biopsychosocial model: A model of health that integrates the effects of biological, behavioral, and social factors on health and illness • See figure 10.3 next slide Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Body mass index (BMI) A ratio of body weight to height, used to measure obesity • Fewer than 15 percent of the U.S. population met the criteria for obesity in 1980, but more than 35 percent met the criteria in 2010 • According to the World Health Organization, obesity has doubled around the globe since 1980 • • See figure 10.4 next slide Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Overeating Most individuals who lose weight through dieting eventually regain the weight. Often, these individuals gain back more than they lost • Overweight people show more activity in the reward regions of the brain when they look at good-tasting foods than do individuals who are at an optimal weight • See figures 10.5a, 10.5b next slide • Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Genetic influence • Researchers found that the BMI of adopted children was strongly related to the BMI of their biological parents and not at all to the BMI of their adoptive parents Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • The stigma of obesity Perceiving oneself as overweight is linked to depression, anxiety, and low selfesteem • Not all cultures stigmatize obesity. In some developing countries, being obese is a sign of being a member of the upper class • The upper classes in Western cultures have a clear preference for very thin body types, as exemplified in the fashion industry • Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Restrictive dieting Most diets fail primarily because of the body’s natural defense against weight loss. Body weight is regulated around a set point determined mainly by genetic influence • Although it is possible to alter body weight, the body responds to weight loss by slowing down metabolism and using less energy • Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Disordered eating Anorexia nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by excessive fear of becoming fat and therefore restricting energy intake to obtain a significantly low body weight • Fewer than 1 in 100 meet the clinical criteria of anorexia nervosa • Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Disordered eating Bulimia nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by dieting, binge eating, and purging • Approximately 1 to 2 percent of women in high school and college meet the criteria for bulimia nervosa • Obesity Has Many Health Consequences • Disordered eating Binge-eating disorder: An eating disorder characterized by binge eating that causes significant distress • Compared to bulimia, binge-eating disorder is more common among males and ethnic minorities • • See table 10.1 next slide Smoking Is a Leading Cause of Death • Despite overwhelming evidence that smoking cigarettes leads to premature death, millions around the globe continue to light up Thirty percent of all smokers worldwide are in China • Smoking causes numerous health problems. Examples include heart disease, respiratory ailments, and various cancers • Smoking Is a Leading Cause of Death In the 1990s every day, nearly 5,000 Americans aged 11 to 17 smoked their first cigarette • Most researchers point to powerful social influences as the leading cause of adolescent smoking • Adolescents might also be affected by media images of smokers • Smoking Is a Leading Cause of Death • By the 12th grade, 50 percent to 70 percent of adolescents in the United States have had some experience with tobacco products • See figures 10.9, 10.10 next slide Changing Habits Can Improve Health • Positive effects of exercise Exercise is an essential element of any weight control program • Research clearly shows the benefits of exercise in almost every aspect of our lives, including enhanced memory and improved cognition • It is never too late to start exercising and receiving its positive benefits • Changing Habits Can Improve Health • Quitting smoking • Just as people can improve their health by exercising, they can also improve their health by kicking a smoking habit SECTION 10.2 How Does Stress Affect Our Health? 10.2 How Does Stress Affect Our Health? • The biological effects of stress result directly from the ways we think about events in our lives and the way social factors influence us Stressors Have a Negative Impact on Health • Stress • A group of behavioral, mental, and physical processes occurring when events match or exceed the organism’s ability to respond in a healthy way • Stressor • An environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism Stressors Have a Negative Impact on Health • Stress responses Physical, behavioral, and/or psychological responses to stressors • Mediating factors can increase or decrease the likelihood that a stressor will elicit a stress response • Stressors Have a Negative Impact on Health • Types of stressors Major life stressors: Large disruptions, especially unpredictable and uncontrollable catastrophic events, that affect central areas of people’s lives • Daily hassles: Everyday irritations that cause small disruptions, the effects of which can add up to a large impact on health • • See figures 10.12a, 10.12b next slide We Have Several Responses to Stress • General adaptation syndrome Immune system: The body’s mechanism for dealing with invading microorganisms, such as allergens, bacteria, and viruses • General adaptation syndrome (GAS): A consistent pattern of physical responses to stress that consists of three stages—alarm, resistance, and exhaustion • • See figure 10.13 next slide We Have Several Responses to Stress • Immune response • More than 300 studies have demonstrated that short-term stress boosts the immune system—such as occurs during the end of the fight-or-flight response— whereas chronic stress weakens it, leaving the body less able to deal with infection We Have Several Responses to Stress • Fight-or-flight response Fight-or-flight response: The physiological preparedness of animals to deal with danger • Within seconds or minutes, the fight-or-flight response enables the organism to direct its energy to dealing with the threat • We Have Several Responses to Stress • Tend-and-befriend response • Tend-and-befriend response: Females’ tendency to respond to stressors by protecting and caring for their offspring and forming social alliances We Have Several Responses to Stress • Negative stress responses • When people are stressed, they also eat junk food, smoke cigarettes, use drugs, and drink
Section 10.3 What Changes the Impact of Stressors? 10.3 What Changes the Impact of Stressors? • Genetics is one of the many factors that influence heart disease. However, another critical factor is how we respond to stressors • See figure 10.16 next slide Personality Influences How Stress Affects Us • Type A and B behavior pattern • Type A behavior pattern: Personality traits characterized by competitiveness, achievement orientation, aggressiveness, hostility, restlessness, impatience with others, and an inability to relax Personality Influences How Stress Affects Us • Type A and B behavior pattern • Type B behavior pattern: Personality traits characterized by being noncompetitive, relaxed, easygoing, and accommodating • See figures 10.17a, 10.17b next slide Personality Influences How Stress Affects Us • Hostile personalities and depression • Hot-tempered hostile people who are frequently angry, cynical, and combative are much more likely to die at an early age from heart disease • There is considerable evidence that negative emotional states not viewed as part of a Type A or B personality— especially depression— also predict heart disease Personality Influences How Stress Affects Us • Hostile personalities and depression • The evidence is clear: Hostile, angry people are at greater risk for serious diseases and earlier death than are those with more optimistic and happier personalities • See figure 10.17c next slide Coping Mediates the Effects of Stressors • Primary appraisals • The aspect of coping that involves deciding whether or not a stimulus is stressful • Secondary appraisals • The aspect of coping that involves deciding how to manage and respond to a stressful stimulus Coping Mediates the Effects of Stressors • Types of coping • Emotion-focused coping: A type of coping in which people try to prevent an emotional response to a stressor • Problem-focused coping: A type of coping in which people take direct steps to confront or minimize a stressor • Downward comparison • See figures 10.18a, 10.18b next slide Coping Mediates the Effects of Stressors • Individual differences in coping • Some people seem stress resistant because they are so capable of adapting to life changes by viewing events constructively. This trait is called hardiness • Hardiness has three components: commitment, challenge, and control • A related idea is resilience. Generally, some people are more resilient than others and better able to cope in the face of adversity • See figures 10.19a, 10.19b next slide Coping Mediates the Effects of Stressors • Involving the family • Including family members in a treatment plan for a chronically ill person might seem important. According to the research, however, such inclusion is often ineffective • Family interventions can be beneficial when family members promote the person’s feeling of being in control Section 10.4 Can a Positive Attitude Keep Us Healthy? 10.4 Can a Positive Attitude Keep Us Healthy? Positive Psychology Emphasizes Well-Being • Positive psychology • The study of the strengths and virtues that allow people and communities to thrive Positive Psychology Emphasizes Well-Being • A sense of well-being • The Well-Being Index investigates people’s sense of well-being across six areas: life evaluation, emotional health, work environment, physical health, healthy behavior, and basic access to housing, food, and water • See figure 10.20 next slide Positive Psychology Emphasizes Well-Being • Health benefits of positivity and well-being • Three broad types of diseases: hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory tract infections were affected by higher levels of hope associated with reduced risk of these diseases. Higher levels of curiosity were associated with reduced risk of hypertension and diabetes Social Support Is Associated With Good Health • Social support helps people cope and maintain good health in two basic ways • First, people with social support experience less stress overall • Second, social support enables us to better cope with stressful events Social Support Is Associated With Good Health • Marriage can be good for your health • Marriage is generally our most intimate and longlasting supportive relationship, and it has many health advantages • Men and women derived approximately equal benefits from marriage. Being single leads to greater mortality for both women and men Social Support Is Associated With Good Health • Marriage can be good for your health • Comparable data are not available for gays or lesbians who are married or in long-term, marriage-like relationships • See figure 10.22 next slide Social Support Is Associated With Good Health • Spirituality contributes to well-being • Religion or spirituality provides a sense of meaning or purpose in life • On a daily basis, religious beliefs can help people achieve and maintain well-being through the social support provided by faith communities Several Strategies Can Help Us Stay Healthy • Ways to enhance your health and well-being • • • • • • • • Eat natural foods Watch portion size Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all Keep active Do not smoke Practice safe sex Learn to relax Learn to cope Several Strategies Can Help Us Stay Healthy • Ways to enhance your health and well-being • Build a strong support network • Consider your spiritual life • Try some happiness exercises

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Running head: PSYCHOLOGY

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Psychology Questions
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1. What motivates me to finish college
When I started schooling, I would attend school mostly because of my friends and the fun
activities we had at school such as sports. With college, the motivation has been more of
external than external. I have come to realise what I need to do and how college can help me
achieve my goal. I want to achieve financial freedom and be independent in my life. College
equips me with the skills and knowledge I need to build my career and being a part of this
college has broadened my thinking. The change in perception of the world and responsibility
makes me feel like by the time I complete college I will be a better person than I already am.
Equipping myself with the right knowledge and sk...

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