properties liquid Methods characteristics DENSITY GRAVITY

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Paraphrasing an essay for civil engineering regarding hydraulic fluids which is needed urgently

Hydraulics 1 Session-B Lab report Experiment used in lab 1- Density and specific gravity of a liquid 2- Capillary effect 3- Verification of capillary effect Done by : Yousif Haider Al Abedi (13f10412) Submitted to: Dr. Mohammed Aboushamala Fall 2018 1 Table of contents Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Methods used …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Result and calculation ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 Conclusion …………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………….. 11 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 Tables Table 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Table 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Figures Fig 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Fig 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Fig 3 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Fig 4 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Fig 5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Fig 5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 2 Summary In this report I will talk about the general properties of a liquid and its different characteristics. I want to with-take the significant traits that define the properties of these liquids. In this lap report three experiments are contained out in a liquid. These experiments to be done using any liquid but the one that I chose here is water, since it is the most common liquid on earth and very easy to find and to deal with. First lab test is an answer to how we calculate the specific gravity and the density of a liquid. Secondly, to determine the specific capillary can affect. Finally, verifying the Archimedes principle. Those are very important basic tests that can be carried out easily. The density of the water was founded out to be 0.99 kg/m3 that can be rounded off in to 1 kglm3. In addition to that, one of the most important things that must should keep in the mind when performing these experiments is cleanliness; if the apparatus which are used to in this experiment aren’t clean it will lead to wrongful readings. 3 1. Introduction One of the most important attributes of any liquid, or any material for that matter, is density. It is easy to define density: ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume. The standard unit of measure of density is kg m/m3. Density helps us to recognise if a subject (a material) will sink or float (in another material), which in return plays a role in the building process of boats and other marine objects. A substance would sink if it is denser than the one its immersed in (plastic and water for instance) and vice versa. While a specific gravity can be defined as the ratio of the waters, there are four ways to measure the density vs gravity. Firstly, measuring the beaker, secondly, with the eureka, thirdly, with the shown density bottle, finally, with the hydrometer. Eureka can is an instrument that is used for showing the determination of the volume of a solid object by just placing the can that is filled with water that should be displaced from a can that is the similar to it showing volume of an object. To measure the density any of kind liquid we can use the hydrometer since it’s considered the best instrument to discover the specific gravity of a liquid. Mercury is placed in the hydrometer glass is the bulb tube that which sinks keeper for a liquid with the less of density and in other way that is around. The rises and the falls of a fluid in tis capillaries can be defined by capillary effect these capillaries tubes hare small diameters with narrow channels. When the water attempts to join with the help of wall container of the capillary effect is caused than in the upward of the force in generated edge that is liquid that which lead to making in meniscus and pointing upward. When the convex curve is meniscus in created way that shows that there is a stronger bond with in each other that is rather than the pot material, liquid and for concave cure must be meniscus its vice versa. The liquid tends to be raised more in comparison to that is the liquid in the tubes which is larger diameter as the diameter of the tube decreases. A test is done to prove this effect. This was done with tubes having different diameters which will help in identifying the meaning clearly. This can be achieved through capillary effect where plants can take water that is from ground and then trough their stems of till reaching the leaves. This final lab test mainly concentres of this Archimedes principal that shows that a buoyant force in the upward direction is exerted when an object is particularly or folly submerged according to liquid and its equal to the liquid displaced that the object should submerged. All people follow this principal in building all marine vehicles’ so that they can’t sink in water. This buoyant usually is in the opposite of direction of gravity (for instance). All of these trials were done in a good atmosphere so the risk of error will be minimized, this first one should contain the determining of specific gravity and the density. Then second deal in the capillary effect that is fluid with the narrow tube should be the last of test that focuses on delivering Archimedes principle. 4 2. Methods and Principles used 2-1 DETERMINATION OFATION THE DENSITY AND SEPCIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUID The material that used in this trial is water, beaker weighing machine, density bottle, eureka can and hydrometer. In this trial there are three methods which are different from each other that measured specific gravity and the density of liquid. - In the first method the beaker is used for measuring the water density. - First the clan and unfilled beaker will be weighed in the weighting machine. - Second the beaker will fill water with the given volume. - Third and last thing take the reading while the beaker filled with given value and on the weighting machine. - According to subtraction of the mass in unfilled beaker and filled one it will give the density of the water. Figure 1- beaker filled water - In the second method the eureka can must use. The water must be filled in it the until of the water stop flow from the spout. Then these weights must take off the empty shown beaker and put it under this spout. After that a cube is put in eureka separately. Then wait for it to immerse completely at the water and let the water collect in the beaker. Lastly, the weight of the beaker that is along displaced in the water then to get the mass of the displaced subtract water it’s from the total weight and from unfilled beaker weight. 5 Figure2 –eureka can - figure 3- under beaker In the third lab test the density of bottle is used . Take the showing weight of these empty bottle with that stopper. Then the bottle will filled and replace the stopper. The outside water from the bottle will cleaned and the bottle made dry , slowly and carefully put water in hole that was level in top with the stopper. At end the weight of the bottle that along the water in which giving the showed mass of water. Figure 4- empty bottle density - In the fourth lab test hydrometer is completed the lab test A huge glass cylinder fills with water to reach the top. After that the hydrometer is inserted in cylinder and must allow the hydrometer to be in centre of container. Must be making sure that don’t touch the wall in the cylinder as the tension surface my lead an error. Then when it settled the show reading taken from bottom meniscus. figure 5- hydrometer in the water 6 2- 2 DETERMINATION OFE THE CAPILLARY EFFECT This lab experiment is effect in capillary as seen by tube that used in different thickness and the two plates also used in it. The effect on it defined as fall and rise of the fluid in tube narrowing. The capillary effect is also in the civil engineer for designs the channels and pipes. - Capillary is effect in determined of 3 tubes with different thickness 1.6 ,0.8 and 0.4 mm. These 3 tubes is placed in a solution that is blue colour, moreover the plates having yellow shim that its thickness is 0.5mm its also on top surface. The two plates that clamped in each of other with the help of the clips. According to that help of each scale of the liquid highly is must measure then the capillarity will take place in the both tubes and in the plates. When the smaller of thickness is greater it’s the height of liquid. Figure 6- capillary effect 2.3 VERIFICATION OF ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE In this experiment the principle of a body that is fully or its partially filled in the water it will experiences as upward buoyant as force that acting in the opposite side direction of the gravity. Hence to prove that the principle of this following experiment it was carried out of different object. - First of all fill the eureka can to rich the water through the spout stops that flowing and then placed an measuring jar under spout. - The object must be measured in spring of balance in the air then put the object in eureka should wait for it until the water flowing stops from the spout into jar. - The reading also noted from the spring balance when the object is in the water suspended. - The weight and volume measured also of water that collected the measuring jar. - Make the same that do for this experiment for the following object then write all the readings in a table. 7 3. Calculation and results 3.1. DETERMINATION OF THE DENSITY AND SEPCIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUID Method 1 Weight of unfilled beaker = 209.7 g The unfilled beaker and water = 491.05 g The volume of water = 300.0 ml The mass of water = 491.05 -209.7 = 281.31g Density = mass/volume = 281.31/300 x 10^6/10^2 = 940 kg /m^3 The specific of gravity = density(s)/density(w)= 940/1000 = 0.94 Method 2 The weight of beaker empty= 46g The weight of water and empty beaker=53.05 g Volume of water = volume of cube = 6.859 cm^3 Water mass is= 53.05 – 46 =7.05 g Density= mass/volume= 7.05/6.86=1.27g/cm3 = 1027kg/m3 S.G.=density(s)/density(w)= 1027/1000 =1.027 Method 3 The beaker weight = 31.35 g The weight unfilled beaker with the water =81.8 g Water volume = 50 ml Water Mass= 81.8 – 31.35 = 50.45 g Density=mass/volume= 50.45/50 = 1.00g/cm3 S.G.=density(s)/density(w)= 1000/1000= 1 Method 4 Density of the water= 1000 kg/m^3 S.G. =density(s)/density(w)= 1000/1000 =1 3.2 DETERMINATION OF THE CAPILLARY EFFECT Diameter of tube d(mm) Plates 0.5mm apart 0.4mm tube 0.8mm tube 1.6mm tube Capillary rise (h) 6mm 16mm 14mm 9mm Table 1 8 Surface tension 14.7mm 15.68mm 27.44mm 35.28mm 3.3 VERIFICATION OF ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE # Object Type Object weight Object weight Loss of weight in Weight of the in the air in the Water the water displaced water (A-gm) (B-gm) (A-B= C gm) (D-gm) 1 Stone 55g 35g 20g 19g 2 Cone 298g 253g 45g 43g 3 Metal 88g 74g 14g 14g Table 2 9 Discussion 4.1- The aim of this lab test is how to examine that the density of this liquid which that the water by means of different 4 processes then it determines the main specific if gravity. As stated by that first process that is used these beakers, a rounded 1kg/m3 that the density of the water it should be founded out. According to these wrong cleaning one these misuse during this equipment the staging of these experiments it should have some mistakes will happened in these all 4 processes is most exact method of the measuring that specific gravity of an any type of liquid. there also another use for hydrometer where is helps the finding of these sizes of a soil grains that will be somehow not possible to have a measured by a sieve foe any categorizing.in addition it is feasible to realize somehow the object is not bad for flying or drifting regardless of the shape, for knowing that theses density that which is characteristic property of any object 4.2- In these experiments it was to applied the indicate of the capillary importance of a water with the help of three tubes that having dissimilar diameter of a dish it will used. These tubes areas it can major due to the increasing or decreasing of an any liquid relays rather to the height of these liquid. Moreover, main function capillary consequence it can played in the tension of the surface since it be the area that is reduced out the tension of the surface that will raised so that this capillary increase will should be more and versa vies. Since that the goal of highest capillary consequence should have been in tube of a diameter 0.4 mm as the area that should lesser others any tube. 4.3 Last lab test showed that its implements to proof the Archimedes principle verification. It’s obviously can be showed that the water volume is similar in the weight of a steeper object, so we can know that the upward force buoyant that is on body act it’s the same of the weight that is displaced in water. because of some missing mistakes like: if they use a dirty beaker, its less in sensitive weight that is not balanced and release out the water from the beaker it caused little wrong in the readings. In this lap experiment Archimedes principle applied the forming of the submarines that the vehicles can have ballast the tank that which the water is filled up and the bigger weight is the submarine gets. in other hand the buoyant it can be submerging in the water then when that water must in the tank gets it will be reduced of the submarine that will be come on the surface of water also it can be used for another modes the tools and the transport. 10 4. Conclusion 4.1 in conclusion we can concluded that the definition of a substance that can be as "the amount of masses of these substance to the volumes of these substances". While this qualitative of gravity as "the relative’s density of the substance”, and it’s the called density of these substances to the density of the water. from this conclusion the density is an important element in the material, the density of Water is 1kg/m3. 4.2 on the other hand, the area of these pipes (tube) that is low then it should the surfaces tension of these liquids will be increase, and that will increase of capillary effect, while the capillary consequence in the pipe (tube) having large diameter should be in the less surface of tension because to be increased in the area. 4-3 In the end we can verify the principle of "Archimedes" that the excess force from the body that flooded by the water that is equals to these weight that if falling water through the submerged body. 11 5. Reference • Density Can {Prep room} (2008) http://www.preproom.org/equipment/eq.aspx?eqID=5006 • Application of Archimedes Principle {O’Deen} (2008) http://fiziknota.blogspot.com/2008/05/application-of-archimedes-principle.html • Uses of Hydrometer {Robison A.} (2017) https://sciencing.com/uses-hydrometer-5273333.html • Archimedes Principle {Encyclopaedia Britannica} (2018) https://www.britannica.com/science/Archimedes-principle • Capillary Action {Lumen} (2018) https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/capillary-action/ 12

Tutor Answer

MariaTheBest
School: Boston College

Attached.

Hydraulics 1
Session-B
Lab report

The experiment used in lab
1- Density and specific gravity of a liquid
2- Capillary effect
3- Verification of capillary effect

Done by :
Yousif Haider Al Abedi (13f10412)
Submitted to:
Dr. Mohammed Aboushamala

Fall 2018
1

Table of contents
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4

Methods used ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5

Result and calculation …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9

Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

10

Conclusion …………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………..

11

References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12

Tables
Table 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8

Table 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9

Figures
Fig 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

5

Fig 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6

Fig 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6

Fig 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6

Fig 5 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6

Fig 5 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

7

2

Outline
Summary
Introduction
Methods and Principles Used
Determination Ovation the Density and Specific Gravity Of Liquid
Determination of the Capillary Effect
Verification of Archimedes Principle
Calculation and Results
Determination of the Density and Specific Gravity Of Liquid
Determination of the Capillary Effect
Discussion
Conclusion

3

Reference


Density Can{Prep
room}(2008)http://www.preproom.org/equipment/eq.aspx?eqID=5006



Application of Archimedes Principle
{O’Deen}(2008)http://fiziknota.blogspot.com/2008/05/application-of-archimedesprinciple.html



Uses of Hydrometer {Robison A.} (2017)

https://sciencing.com/uses-hydrometer-5273333.html


Archimedes Principle{Encyclopaedia Britannica} (2018)
https://www.britannica.com/science/Archimedes-principle



Capillary Action {Lumen} (2018)
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/introchem/chapter/capillary-action/

4


Hydraulics 1
Session-B
Lab report

The experiment used in lab
1- Density and specific gravity of a liquid
2- Capillary effect
3- Verification of capillary effect

Done by :
Yousif Haider Al Abedi (13f10412)
Submitted to:
Dr. Mohammed Aboushamala

Fall 2018
1

Table of contents
Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4

M...

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Review

Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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