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Biology
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   Define and describe the principles of intensity, frequency, duration, overload, progression, and specificity.

Jun 25th, 2015

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Overload is necessary in order to develop fitness in all exercise-related fitness components: cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance and flexibility. According to the principle of overload, a person must work (load) the body in a higher manner than normal in order to improve fitness. For improved cardiorespiratory endurance via walking, for example, this means walking faster or farther or more times a week than usual. Muscular strength and muscular endurance overload means contracting the body’s muscles for a longer period of time, or more frequently during the week, or adding weight to the number of repetitions performed. Flexibility improvements require stretching more often or holding individual stretches for longer periods of time, or stretching beyond the usual point of flexion or extension. 

Specificity The principle of specificity means only those body parts, muscles or systems involved in a workout will be the ones to experience training. For example, weight training the upper body will lead to improvements in arm, shoulder and back strength, but will probably not allow improvements in the body’s ability to perform squats or lunges—activities associated with lower body strength. Similarly, if a person swims four times a week to improve fitness, he or she will experience gains in cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance, but will not necessarily experience great flexibility benefits, needed to improve performance in yoga class.

 Progression As a person’s fitness level improves, he or she will need to make adjustments to the exercise program if continued improvements are desired. That is, what used to be overload may no longer be sufficient. Frequency, intensity or amount of time (“FIT Principle”) dedicated toward the individual’s exercise program may need to be changed for continued fitness enhancement.

Frequency. Following any form of fitness training, the body goes through a process of rebuild and repair to replenish its energy reserves consumed by the exercise.The frequency of exercise is a fine balance between providing just enough stress for the body to adapt to and allowing enough time for healing and adaptation to occur.

Duration. The final component in the FITT principle of training is time - or how long you should be exercising for. Is longer better?

Cardio respiratory training  

Individuals with lower fitness levels should aim to maintain their heart rate within the target heart rate zone for a minimum of 20-30 minutes. This can increase to as much as 45-60 minutes as fitness levels increase

Beyond the 45-60 minute mark there are diminished returns. For all that extra effort, the associated benefits are minimal.

intensity is the power transferred per unit area, which is transmitted through an imagined surface perpendicular to the propagation direction.It defines the amount of effort that should be invested in a training program or any one session.In the SI system, it has units watts per square metre (W/m2). It is used most frequently with waves (e.g. sound or light), in which case the average power transfer over one period of the wave is used. Intensity can be applied to other circumstances where energy is transferred. For example, one could calculate the intensity of the kinetic energy carried by drops of water from a garden sprinkler.


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Jun 25th, 2015

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