Evaluations and Studies
In Chapter One of Policing America: Challenges
and Best Practices, you read that there were developments for the
police during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Foot patrols became more popular,
and many larger jurisdictions (such as Newark, New Jersey; Boston,
Massachusetts; and Flint, Michigan) even began to require this form of patrol.
In Newark, an evaluation led to the conclusions that officers on foot patrol
were easily seen by residents, produced a significant increase in the level of
satisfaction with police service, led to a significant reduction of perceived
crime problems, and resulted in a significant increase in the perceived level
of neighborhood safety.
Newark, New Jersey is not the only location in the United States where an
evaluation was completed to measure citizen satisfaction with the police. Visit
Archive of Criminal Justice Data. In the search box, click on the Related
Literature radial and type “citizen satisfaction” or “evaluations” in the
search field. Information related to other studies involving citizen
satisfaction with the police will populate. Choose two additional
studies/evaluations which have been conducted in the United States as a means
to measure the citizen satisfaction with the police from the list.).
For your discussion, analyze the results of the two studies you selected from
the search result. How can this information be used to further the
effectiveness of policing in today’s world? What are the advantages and
disadvantages of being concerned with citizen satisfaction?
Our dicusssion first, individuals response, bad
and good list reference
(Wi) For your discussion, analyze the results of the two studies
you selected from the search result.
In order to evaluate or implement any effective community
policing program, law enforcement agencies should conduct “citizen surveys”
prior to the implementation of a program, and several times after the program
has been instituted in order to guage there effectivenss. These “pre” surveys promote community
oriented policing because it allows for agencies to understand the fears within
their communities and to hear what the communities expectations for the
In Madison, Wisconsin, the police department decided they
needed to restructure the departments organizational design from top to bottom
in order to better align with the philosophy of community-oriented
policing. Before implementing change,
the police department conducted employee surveys and citizen surveys to gauge
what changes were needed and how those changes should be implemented. The surveys were conducted in four different
phases in order to measure the effectiveness of the changes over a period of
Phase 1 consisted of personal interviews/surveys from a
random sample of 1,166 Madison residents and inter-departmental surveys that
were completed by the majority of department officers. The surveys conducted in phase 1, were used
by administrators to identify community issues and department issues. In subsequent phases, plans were
implementated for increased departmental training and community enhancement
This case study was instrumental to the success of the
Madison Police Departments restructuring efforts. Police personnel provided their assessments
on how successful quality leadership had been implemented, the amount of their
interaction with detectives, the amount of time available for problem-solving,
ease of arranging schedules, safety of working conditions, attitudes toward
change, and attitudes toward decentralization. Residents provided their
perceptions of police presence, frequency of police-citizen contacts, quality
of police-citizen contacts, evaluation of problem-solving efforts by police,
levels of fear of crime, and demographic information (Wycoff, M. Skogan, &
W. Skogan, 1987-1990).
In 2008 and 2009, the police departments in Dallas, Texas;
Knoxville, Tennessee; Kettering, Ohio; and the Broward County, Florida
Sheriff's Office, conducted citizen surveys to examine the feasibility and
costs of implementing performance measures as a new way of gauging police
performance and as a method of improving accountability of police
services. In a four part process,
research teams gathered data from 458 members of the community (Part 1), 312
police officers (Part 2), and 804 individuals who had voluntary contact (Part
3), and 761 individuals who had involuntary contact (Part 4) with police
departments (Cordner, Davis, Hartley, Newell, & Ortiz, 2008-2009).
The study revealed the effectiveness and the innefenciencies
of department wide police delivery services; issues with police officer ethics
and values; job satisfaction; organizational competence and commitment to high
standards; and reducing crime. The
community surverys made Administrators aware of police effectiveness, police
professionalism during contacts, neighborhood problems, and feelings of victimization.
How can this information be used to further the
effectiveness of policing in today’s world?
Without the valuable information obtained from citizen
surveys, law enforcement agencies would have a difficult time with gauging how
effective their community policing programs are. This information allows for
Administrators to come up with solutions
that value the input of police officers and the residence within the community,
in order to effectively solve problems.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of being concerned
with citizen satisfaction?
The advantages of citizen satisfaction is that community
problems are effectively handled due to the partnership between law enforcement
and the community, which allows for long term success. The disadvantages of citizen satisfaction is
that politicans and special interest groups might use the opinions collected
within surveys, as evidence of social problems, without seeking data from law
enforcement agencies that back up the claims mentioned. This would result in handling the surface of
the problem without getting to the root of the problem, and if that happens,
the issue will never be resolved.
Cordner, G., Davis, R., Hartley, C., Newell, R., &
Ortiz, C. (2008-2009). Developing Uniform
Performance Measures for Policing in the United States: A Pilot Project in Four
Agencies, 2008-2009. ICPSR29742-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium
for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-04-24.
Skogan, M., Skogan,
W., & Wycoff (1987-1990). National Acrchive of Criminal Justice Data. Community Policing in Madison, Wisconsin:
Evaluation of Implementation and Impact, 1987-1990. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university
Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1996. Retreived