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Discuss Principles of Resistance Training.

Jun 29th, 2015

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  1. Stress/Rest
    To gain muscle strength, the muscles need to be stressed, then they must be given sufficient time to recover and adapt. Between 48-72 hours rest between workouts (of the same muscle group) is recommended.
  2. Progressive Overload
    Once the body adapts to a particular training stress (by getting stronger), a new stress must be introduced.
    There are 2 general methods for overloading a muscle:
    • increase the resistance used for a certain # of reps
    • increase the volume of training (sets, reps, exercises)
  3. Specificity
    Muscles will adapt to a particular training strategy. For example to specifically train for maximal strength, heavy loads (85-100% of 1RM) with fewer reps (1-6) will be needed. To train for muscular endurance, lighter loads (30-70% of 1RM) with higher reps (15+) will be employed. Using moderate loads (75-85% of 1RM) with reps ranging from 6-12 per set will increase both the strength and size of the trained muscles.
  4. F.I.T.T.
    The F.I.T.T. principle includes the following 4 variables:
    • Frequency; 3-4 times per week; one day rest b/t workouts
    • Intensity: determined by # of sets, reps, exercises, and rest b/t sets
    • Time: duration of the workout is dependent upon the amount of rest b/t sets and exercises and the # of sets, reps, and exercises performed.
      • Training for general strength gains: 1-2 min. rest b/t sets & exercises
      • Training for maximal strength gains: 3-5 min. rest b/t sets & exercises
      • Training for muscular endurance: 0-60 sec. rest b/t sets & exercises
    • Type: machine or free weights
  5. Symmetry
    This principle refers to the balanced development of the body. The most important consideration in applying this principle is balance b/t agonist and antagonist muscle groups (push vs. pull muscle groups). For example, if the muscles on one side of the joint are overdeveloped, there is an increased risk for injury.
  6. Ceiling Principle
    As a person increases their strength and endurance, and approaches their genetic potential, their rate of improvement will tend to get smaller. It is also common to see plateaus in training due to physical staleness (i.e. following the same program for a long period of time). Strategies one can use to minimize the ceiling effect include:
    • vary the intensity of the program throughout the year
    • change up your routine frequently (exercises, # of sets, reps, rest)
  7. Principle of Maintenance
    Once an individual's goals have been reached, it is possible to maintain the results gained through a reduction in training frequency (up to one third).However, the intensity and duration must remain the same.
  8. Principle of Reversibility
    In order to maintain a desired level of muscular fitness, an exercise stress must be present, otherwise the benefits will deteriorate. In other words, "if you don't use it, you lose it." The level of detraining will be dependent upon the gains made during training.

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Jun 29th, 2015

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