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UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE Human Resources and Organizational Behavior Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 6. Evaluate effective work organization and time management. 6.1 Elaborate on how legislature impacts work organization and time management in Emergency Medical Services. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes 6.1 Learning Activity Unit Lesson Chapter 4 Chapter 12 Unit IV Essay Reading Assignment Chapter 4: Organizational Behavior and Management Thinking Chapter 12: The Strategic Management of Human Resources Aeon, B., & Aguinis, H. (2017). It’s about time: New perspectives and insights on time management. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 31(4), 309-330. Retrieved from direct=true&db=bth&AN=126836858&site=ehost-live&scope=site Unit Lesson Organizational Behavior Organizations are not (currently) staffed by clones—duplicate beings who think, feel, and act as one homogenous unit. Instead, just as families and social groups are made up of all of types of people, so too are organizations, and emergency medical services (EMS) is no different. One aspect of the research done on management is the study of organizational behavior, in which those differences particularly in the social sciences such as psychology and sociology, and more recently neuroscience, take on an understanding of how people in an organization interact. For the manager, probably the easiest, yet one of the most important, aspects to utilize is the study of how humans think called cognitive psychology. By looking at both the attitudes and cognition of employees, a manager can get a feel for the social and thinking patterns of the employees, and by looking at one’s own thinking process, the manager can see how positively or negatively his or her own patterns could be affecting the organization. Our longstanding ideas of humans as rational thinking beings are incorrect; instead, we tend to be emotional thinkers, or empty minds, rather than working out the logic and reason of things. Most of the time, our brains are engaged in non-rational thinking or deliberately not thinking. This means we need to train our brains to be more engaged. Our textbook has identified four areas in which this engagement is necessary for managers.    Mental representations: These are templates we use mentally to organize information and experiences. Information perceptions and processing: This is how we organize the incoming information based on our personal perceptions and bias. Decision-making: This includes making good or effective decisions by looking at benefits and drawbacks of all alternatives. EMS 4302, Leadership in EMS Systems 1  UNIT xofSTUDY GUIDEand Social cognition and emotions: This is the study of how people make sense other people themselves (Buchbinder & Shanks, 2017). Title All effective managers will understand and use these four processes everyday as they go about their jobs. (Food for thought: Imagine if a decision to dispatch an ambulance to a heart attack/code arrest was made by a traffic engineer. The four aspects would look more like a traffic pattern or a traffic light timing issue rather than a medical one. Sometimes perception is really everything.) Managers Roles The Facebook company has been highlighted as an organization that is completely transparent to its employees, providing a culture of freedom of expression and collaboration that is open to all who work there but kept secure from those who do not. To visit Facebook requires the signing of a non-disclosure agreement and a security check. Can you imagine an EMS organization with that same culture? Because of the control that must be exerted over all aspects of the provision of health care, from the medical to the regulatory environment, many organizations could never imagine having an open environment, but a manager/leader with a good understanding of the culture of that particular company might be able to provide something close. Our textbook identifies three aspects of a manager’s role where the style of thinking can affect the organization as a whole (Buchbinder & Shanks, 2017). The first, the informational role, is where a manager acts as a spokesperson or a disseminator of information. An EMS manager might fill this role when he or she holds meetings, sets up trainings, or passes on new rules and regulations that affect the delivery of health care by the employees. If this information is delivered in a manner that implies the management feels threatened or unhappy, then it will filter to the field personnel as a bad thing as well. The second, the decision role, lists entrepreneurial, disturbance handler, and resource allocator as the skillset. An EMS manager here may be the one who makes the call on whether to shut down an ambulance after a bad call or chooses which truck to move up into a busy area. He or she may also be the one to come up with a plan for that odd call that no one quite knows how to handle. A leader often shines while in this role as he or she can make or break those they supervise with how they present themselves and the field personnel perception of the information being delivered. The third role is that of interpersonal. Here is where understanding the culture or behavioral patterns of the organization and its employees becomes critically important. Acting as a negotiator, a liaison, or a leader/figurehead is clearly dependent on the understanding of the group individually and dynamically. An EMS manager may find himself or herself calming down an issue between a registered nurse (RN) and a medic, or between two partners on a truck, or even having to act as the leader in a mass casualty call. Having the skills to recognize that not everyone hears and understands in the same manner and being able to communicate to the organization as a whole is critically important for a manager to be able to provide smooth operations and the health care expected of that organization. Human Resources Management The definition of human resources management from our textbook is “management practices to ensure that an adequate number of qualified and motivated personnel are available to staff the business units operated by the HSO [health service organization]” (Buchbinder & Shanks, 2017, p. 624). Just as in management and leadership, human resources management has had its fair share of research done, particularly as to how to reach the goal of having qualified and motivated personnel. There are four areas identified by our textbook as best practices for the optimal performance within a company. Staff engagement is when information is shared from all levels of employment. This includes staff involvement in decision-making and staff performance that includes recognition of jobs well done or needing improvement. Staff acquisition includes training, development, succession planning, mentoring, and career development as the points used in hiring practices rather than the more traditional methods of mass hiring then weeding out. The third point is employee empowerment, or providing job security by way of redeployments, team use, and involvement in decision-making. The final best practice of leadership alignment involves succession planning and leadership training. In EMS, it is easy to see how these concepts have not been applied as well as they have in the fire service, which has traditionally supported at least some of these best practices through their promotional system and hiring practices. As an organization that is providing EMS 4302, Leadership in EMS Systems 2 needed and specialized services to a community, it is important to recognize that anxEMS agency is UNIT STUDY GUIDE employee-driven, as they are the ones providing the services. Title An EMS manager may not be involved in all the key functions of human resources management. Workforce planning and recruitment often fall under the control of higher-level management or even the board of directors. If the organization is hospital based then hiring may actually fall under the hospital human resources department, but employee retention and the day-to-day operations most certainly do fall to midlevel or division level management. Employee retention and engagement, training and development, payroll, benefits, and performance assessment are all functions of human resources management that also fall to the EMS manager. Of all these listed, perhaps the most difficult is performance appraisal as it often pits the manager against the employee before it even begins. Punitive appraisals have been the norm for many years and even when it is no longer a method used, the fear of negative evaluations continues. Today’s human resources manager must be willing to work with his or her employees to change that mindset. Performance Appraisal There are several methods of performance appraisal in use today; many are simple to use but may be considered unfair, while others are completely fair but quite complicated. The method used by each manager will depend on his or her own level of comfort as well as the culture of the organization. We will look at four of the most commonly used methods. Numerical rating is a system where chosen traits or actions are assigned a number between 1-5 or 1-10 denoting a range from poor to excellent. We are all familiar with these and often fill them out as part of surveys from companies looking to rate their performance with you—the customer. Accusations of unfair evaluation or bias often arise when the evaluator chooses a number at the high or low end. Equally, taking the middle road and choosing a number in the middle gives an equally unfair evaluation. Objective-based evaluation is used to measure goals met or goals and deadlines met. This measurement of performance is simple and can be a yes or no response, but it is not appropriate for a companywide personnel evaluation as it is used for specific functions only. However, something like this could be utilized in a performance of the company overall, such as response time goals met or budgets turned in on time. Critical incident appraisals are used to evaluate a one-time incident. These are what might be seen as an after-action report from a mass casualty or wildland fire incident. Lastly, we look at the 360 performance review. As its name implies, a 360 review is a multidimensional appraisal that takes input from everyone around the employee. Managers, coworkers, customers, and selfassessment are all taken in account in this appraisal, making it an unbiased form that can give an accurate accounting of an employee’s performance. There are drawbacks, however, and if done poorly, the morale of the employees can drop as quickly as with one of the older types of appraisals. Using a numerical scale as an example could be seen as a negative, but one author suggests changing to the choices do more, do less, or continue just as you are (Grote, 2011). Another drawback to look for in EMS is the idea that not everyone in the organization understands what the individual’s job is, especially if it is a specialized one such as a RN who does neonatal transports. This misunderstanding can lead to lower scores (Taylor, 2011). Regardless of which performance review is used, it is the manager and the company’s best interests to find the positive in their employees—and promote that, while building a path for career advancement and succession planning. (Food for thought: How could the supply manager in an ambulance company honestly assess the performance of a paramedic? What aspects of their interaction could he or she use to assess that employee?) References Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (Eds.). (2017). Introduction to health care management (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. Grote, D. (2011). How to be good at performance appraisals. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School. EMS 4302, Leadership in EMS Systems 3 Taylor, S. (2011). Assess pros and cons of 360-degree performance appraisal. Retrieved fromGUIDE UNIT x STUDY relations/pages/360degreeperformance.aspx EMS 4302, Leadership in EMS Systems 4 Essay In Chapter 12, Figure 12-4 on page 329 of our textbook, it lists key federal legislation affecting human resources management. Choose three that you feel had the most significant effect on EMS work organization efficiency and EMS time management factors. Your essay should include information describing the legislation you chose, as well as your thoughts on the reasons you feel it is important and its effects on work organization efficiency and EMS time management. Your essay should be at least two pages in length. You are required to use at least two references; one must be from the CSU Online Library. The second reference may be the textbook, a government publication, or an article from a reputable website. You are expected to use correct APA style formatting for references and citations. The title and reference pages do not count toward the minimum page length requirement. I do not have access to the textbook currently. Here is the Inf. For it. Buchbinder, S. B., & Shanks, N. H. (Eds.). (2017). Introduction to health care management (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. I also attached a resource from the CSU Online Library. Ann Oper Res (2016) 236:131–148 DOI 10.1007/s10479-013-1487-0 Supporting decision making to improve the performance of an Italian Emergency Medical Service Roberto Aringhieri · Giuliana Carello · Daniela Morale Published online: 5 November 2013 © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract An Emergency Medical Service (EMS) plays a fundamental role in providing good quality health care services to citizens, as it provides the first answer in distressing situations. Early response, one of the key factors in a successful treatment of an injury, is strongly influenced by the performance of ambulances, which are sent to rescue the patient. Here we report the research carried on by the authors on the ambulance location and management in the Milano area (Italy), as a part of a wider research project in collaboration with the EMS of Milano and funded by Regione Lombardia. The question posed by the EMS managers was clear and, at the same time, tricky: could decision making tools be applied, based on the currently available data, to provide suggestions for decision makers? To answer such a question, three different studies have been carried on: first the evaluation of the current EMS system performance through statistical analysis; then the study of operational policies which can improve the system performance through a simulation model; and finally the definition of an alternative set of posts through an optimization model. This paper describes the methodologies underlying such studies and reports on how their main findings were crucial to help the EMS in changing its organization model. Keywords Emergency Medical Services · Ambulance · Simulation · Optimization · Decision making B R. Aringhieri ( ) Dipartimento di Informatica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy e-mail: G. Carello Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy e-mail: D. Morale Dipartimento di Matematica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy e-mail: 132 Ann Oper Res (2016) 236:131–148 1 Introduction An Emergency Medical Service (EMS) is in charge of providing pre-hospital (or out-ofhospital) acute care to patients with illnesses and injuries. EMSs play a fundamental role in providing good quality health care services to citizens, as they provide the first answer in distressing situations. Besides, their importance is increasing due to the ageing of population. The key factors in a successful treatment of an injury are: early detection, early reporting, early response, good on scene care, care in transit, transfer to definitive care. Each factor has to be carefully managed in order to guarantee a suitable and quick response to citizens needs. In particular, the early response is strongly influenced by the performance of ambulances, which are sent to rescue the patients. The resources of an EMS, such as ambulances, are usually limited and therefore their management has a considerable impact on the overall system performance. Ambulances are usually deployed in order to provide a suitable coverage of the considered area, namely in order to reach each demand point within a limited time. Although different policies may be applied, according to a quite common policy the ambulances wait in a set of locations called ambulance posts or posts, a post being essentially a reserved parking. Such policy is applied by the EMS operating in the urban area of Milano, Italy, which is the subject of our study. Posts have been identified over the years without a clear coverage plan and without any decision support, except that of personnel experience. In the past years the EMS of Milano has collected a huge amount of data about its every day activity, which however were never used to evaluate the possibility of improving the system performance and the management of the limited resources. Therefore the question arose if such huge amount of data could be exploited and decision making tools could be applied so as to provide suggestions for decision makers. This topic has been the subject of a research project in collaboration with the Emergency Medical Service of Milano and funded by Regione Lombardia.1 Within the project, the authors carried on a research on the ambulance location and management in the Milano area, which is described in this paper. Three steps were developed: first the current EMS system performance was evaluated through statistical analysis based on the collected data; then a simulation model was developed in order to study operational policies which can improve the system performance; and finally an optimization model was studied with the purpose of defining alternative sets of posts. This paper describes the methodologies underlying such studies and reports on how their main findings were crucial to help the EMS in changing its organization model. The paper is organized as follows. Sections 2, 3 and 4 illustrate the three studies, respectively. The findings which support the EMS management in reorganizing its process, leading to a new organizational model, are reported in Sect. 5. Section 6 closes the paper discussing some general insights regarding the EMS management in Italy and some new methodological aspects inspired by our collaboration with the EMS of Milano. 2 The performance of the actual EMS As mentioned, the EMS of Milano collects, via the Operations Centre (OC), a huge amount of data describing the ambulance services or missions, from the instant in which a call is received by the operator to the instant in which the ambulance leaves the hospital and comes 1 Regione Lombardia is the regional administrative district to which Milano belongs, and it is in charge of organizing emergency services. Ann Oper Res (2016) 236:131–148 133 Table 1 Frequencies of the ambulance requests. The first column lists the total requests of ambulances, which may or may not be served by prepaid ambulances; the second column shows the services covered by prepaid ambulances during the whole day; the last column the number of service requests covered by prepaid ambulances in the time period 7 a.m.–11 p.m Ambulance requests Prepaid ambulances 7 a.m.–11 p.m. Urgent calls 51413 41647 34663 Nonurgent calls 44681 36368 29808 96094 78015 64471 back to an ambulance post. The operators at the OC are in charge of answering the ...
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Emergency Medical Services
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Human Resources Federal Legislation in EMS
Human resources management is essential in ensuring the EMS system is in a healthy
state and is able to provide EMS service continuously. The development of EMS plans is
dependent on how the human resources have been managed. Human resources professionals
need to have an understanding of the federal laws that come with the hiring and management of
employees. There is certain federal legislation that has effects on human resources management
and is significant to EMS factors. The laws include: Fair Labor Standards Act, Family and
Medical Leave Act, and Americans with Disabilities Act (Buchbinder, 2017).
The Fair Labor Standards ...

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