What are the assumptions underlying the analysis of variance?
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• Measurement scale
• Method of sampling and/or assigning subjects to treatments
• Selection of factor levels
Assumptions in analysis of variance:
1. The normality assumption
2. The homogeneity of
3. The independence assumption
What can be done?
• In general: –
Analysis of variance
• Nominal α level ≈
actual α level – No normality – Heterogeneous variances (cell frequencies large
and equal) – But: small violations of the independence assumption can have
• This is a
requirement of the design
variances and homogeneity:
• Normality of variances – The distribution is skewed – The
dependent variable is not an interval variable – Kolmogorov-Smirnov and
Shapiro-Wilk normality tests
• Homogeneity of variances – Levine’s test => Welch’s
• Communicative Developmental Inventory
• Closed-class words
• 17m, 23m & 29m
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