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Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek). Some are responsible for color and other organoleptic properties, such as the deep purple of blueberries and the smell of garlic.
- 3 A vitamin that is soluble in fat solvents and oils (lipo-soluble). Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, K, F. Absorbed with ingested dietary fat, fat-soluble vitamins are stored in moderate amounts from the gastrointestinal tract. Present in minute amounts in various foods, these vitamins are essential to maintaining normal metabolism and biochemical functions; fat malabsorption may result in fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Fat-soluble vitamins are found in many types of foods and may be supplemented with pharmaceutical formulations.
5 trans-fatty acids is an unsaturated fatty acid of a type occurring in margarines and manufactured cooking oils as a result of the hydrogenation process, having a trans arrangement of the carbon atoms adjacent to its double bonds. Consumption of such acids is thought to increase the risk of atherosclerosis.
6 Insoluble fat, which does not dissolve in water, is metabolically inert and provides bulking, or it can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Bulking fibers absorb water as they move through the digestive system, easing defecation.
7 Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. It has two main components: Soluble fiber, which dissolves in water, is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and can be prebiotic and viscous.
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