Emergency Management Disaster

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I have 4 of my classmates posts. I need you to response to each one separately. Also, one source at least for each one of them. Do not write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. In the attached you will find all the classmates.

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# Student 1 Phases of Disaster Management Disaster management is a continuous process that represents the protection of human life, property and the environment from the effects of disasters. The disaster cycle is consist of four or five phases. However, the activities on each phase are not consistent, but rather transitional from one phase to the next. They include; Prevention stage that has the central role of protection of human life from the hazards of both natural and human nature. The activities in this stage aim at limiting the risks and vulnerabilities of human society in the loss of life, injury, property damage. Preparedness phase indicates the continuous process through which an organization, planning, training and equipping takes place. At this stage, the activities aimed at enhancing the readiness of the society towards disasters conditions or hazards presents. Response stage indicates the coordinated efforts through which resources are mobilized and managed accordingly to target disasters conditions (Coetzee, and Van Niekerk, 2012). The primary objective of this phase are activities directed toward the safety of life, property and the environment. Recovery phase involves the continued efforts after an emergency. The activities are aimed towards restoration efforts of community functions critical to human life. The stage is crucial to the stabilization of society. Mitigation phase is geared towards the reduction of vulnerabilities and risks to life and property. The stage’s effectiveness is within the development of structural and non-structural measures undertaken to reduce the impact of disasters. The variability of these phases of disaster management is generated within the understanding that all activities exist within a continuous cycle(Green III, 2002). Literature and scholars that employ the four phases have consolidated the prevention and preparedness phase as they contain preparatory activities towards an impending hazard or disaster. References Coetzee, C., & Van Niekerk, D. (2012). Tracking the evolution of the disaster management cycle: A general system theory approach. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 4(1), 1-9. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v4i1.54 Green III, W. G. (2002). Four phases of emergency management. Electronic Encyclopedia of Civil Defense and Emergency Management. # Student 2 Phases of disaster management Review the phases of disaster management and give a brief description (with a few examples of pertinent activities) of each. Discuss the "variability" about the actual number of phases discussed in the literature. What I mean by that is there are authors who believe that there are five phases (seethe URL from Bexar City, Texas), and others who consolidate down to four phases. The Phases of disaster management are mitigation, preparation, response and recovery (Alexander, 2015). A disaster in this case is any event that has negative effects such as injury or catastrophic loss of life, destruction of property or displacement of human settlement. Mitigation is usually the first step of disaster management initiated before the disaster happens (Herrmann, 2007). During the process of risk management, mitigation simply involves identifying the areas of risk and setting mechanisms to reduce the effects of its occurrence or prevent its occurrence. A good example of mitigation of risk is having insurance for a house in an area prone of forest fire. Mitigation is a process that occurs before and after the disaster has occurred (Restore your economy , n.d ). Preparation is another step of disaster management and it involves putting mechanisms in place to rescue and perform operations during and after the disaster. Preparation involves putting in place an incident command center and a disaster response team (Restore your economy , n.d ). Communicating the risk to the public and planning for the evacuation of those at risk is also part of the preparation process. For the local members of the community, preparation involves seeking safe shelter and boosting food stores at home to help them last through the storm. Response is a phase of disaster management that involves the disaster response teams putting the plans of preparation into action. It involves sending out the medical teams to treat and transfer the injured, the firefighting team to put out the fire and other forms of emergency to respond to those in distress. During the response phase, the incident command system is functional with the incident commander taking the lead (Herrmann, 2007). The last phase after response phase is the recovery phase. Recovery means that resources are dedicated to ensuring that the community resumes the normal way of life as soon as possible (Herrmann, 2007). After a disaster such as a hurricane destroys people’s homes and shelter, FEMA has a critical role to play in the resettlement compensation to ensure that they encourage community development. Recovery could also be in the form of strategies such as psychotherapy which will help reduce the risks of mental illness such as PTSD and anxiety disorders. There is a variability of sources when it comes to the actual number of phases with others choosing 4 and others 5. The contested phase is the mitigation phase that comes after the recovery (Restore your economy , n.d ). This classification puts the first phase as preventive and the last phase as one of mitigation. This 5th phase of mitigation aims to help the community to move away from the predisposing risks of disaster and be able to carry on with their lives. References Alexander, D. E. (2015). Disaster and emergency planning for preparedness, response, and recovery. Oxford University Press. Herrmann, J. (2007). Disaster Response Planning & Preparedness. Spiritual Care and Mental Health for Disaster Response and Recovery, 11. Restore your economy (n.d) Disaster Preparedness • Economic Recovery • Resilience. Retrieved from http://restoreyoureconomy.org/disaster-overview/phases-of-disaster/ # Student 3 1. Based on your readings and experience, compare and contrast how health care emergency management evolved before 9/11 to its evolution after 9/11. Healthcare emergency management has experienced tremendous revolution over the last decade since America suffered its worst terrorist attack in history. The government resolved to increase its funding to the local hospitals to enable them to be prepared for bioterrorism and terrorist attacks (Rosenfield, Morse & Yanda, 2002). During the year of 2002, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation reported that the federal government had released approximately 1 billion US dollars to about 300 local centres (Rosenfield et al., 2002). This money was meant to increase factors such as number of employees during disaster and resources that would enable these hospitals to expedite effective emergency management. The 9/11 commission report which was titled ‘the failure to imagine’ outlined the fact that healthcare risk management had failed to foresee this kind of scenario and were caught unprepared (Successes, 2011). The commission recommended to the homeland security to setup emergency management protocols for all hospitals to ensure that they are prepared for future events. Hospitals around New York received about 2100 patients who had suffered physical effects of the terrorist attack (Mattox, 2001). This was a very high number of people needing emergency care that the hospitals had a hard time managing. The new funding was meant to improve the capability of these care centres to accommodate and provide care to the injured in the near future. 1. Why has the scope of healthcare emergency management grown so dramatically? Will the growth continue? The scope of healthcare emergency management has grown drastically due to the need to have emergency preparedness even in healthcare. Results of any form of disaster or terrorist attack are that the hospitals receive a high influx of patients (Mattox, 2001). The United States had not experienced any form of bioterrorism or terrorist attack prior to the 9/11 threat (Mattox, 2001). After this threat, and the 9/11 report of ‘failure to imagination’ risk management teams have focused on predicting threats and ensuring the care centres are always prepared. This area will continue to grow into the future as new threats emerge and the threat of disaster, terrorism and bioterrorism remains References Rosenfield, A., Morse, S. S., & Yanda, K. (2002). September 11: the response and role of public health. American journal of public health, 92(1), 10-1. Mattox K. (2001). The World Trade Center attack. Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?. Critical care (London, England), 5(6), 323-5. Successes, K. (2011). The Public Health System a Decade After 9/11. # Student 4 COLLAPSE The 9/11 emergency was a series of attacks against the US that resulted in mass casualties and morbidities. The attack found Americans not prepared to handle emergencies of such magnitude thus overwhelming the capacity to respond and recovery actions. However, the attack brought lessons to emergency management and led to continuous advancements in the health care emergency management. This paper elucidates on how health care management has transformed by gathering information on its nature before and after 9/11 attack, as well as the reasons for dramatic growth. Healthcare Emergency Management before 9/11 and Evolution after 9/11 Enormous changes in the US healthcare emergency system took place with the occurrence of the 9/11 emergency. According to (Reilly & Markenson, 2011), the emergency management department worked with first community stakeholder, government institutions, and first responders to aid in matters related to emergency response activities. Health care organizations were not involved and their duties were mainly restricted to serving communities at the personal level. Reilly and Markenson (2010) presume that before 9/11 the health care emergency management largely relied on few persons who managed affected casualties. In addition, there were no strategic measures in place that would be employed in such eventualities and thus the 9/11 emergency found the health care emergency sector unplanned. The 9/11 emergency led to the establishment of multiple influential programs, for example, the “Department of Health and Human Services” and “The Joint Commission” resulting in the integration of the emergency management sector and the health care sectors to strengthen relations. “The Joint Commission” (TJC) amended the guidelines from giving a safe environment of care to stimulating health institutions to utilize an incident command system (ICS), integrating hazard vulnerable analysis (HVA), and widening preparedness to a composite emergency management (Sauer, McCarthy, Knebel, & Brewster, 2009). There are now technological advancements and large numbers of emergency responders trained to provide essential services and support in emergency events. In addition, in 2008, the “Emergency Operations Plan” (EOP) was included and public policy action plans established, all geared to ameliorate emergency management power of health institutions in the United States. Governments have increased finances geared to emergency management in a bid to guarantee better emergency responses, with regard to the lessons learnt. Health departments have also undergone transformation to facilitate coordinated medical emergency responses and various arms have come together to work as one in coordinated emergency operations (Barbera & Yeatts, 2009). However, Saucer et al. (2009) presume that challenges still exist and the emergency management team may not be prepared to handle other forms of emergency such as unprecedented natural emergencies, nuclear explosives as well as chemical and biological attacks. Reason for Dramatic Growth of the Scope of Health Care Emergency Management The scope of health care emergency management has grown dramatically because of the lessons learnt from the 9/11 attack. The emergency found the sector not prepared and equipped to handle emergencies of such magnitude and population growth as well as the recognition of the changing trends in emergency would require proper preparation to mitigate and respond to catastrophic events. Continued advancement in global trade and relations as well as disparities exposes the nation to detrimental events. Health care is an imperative aspect in emergency management and poor preparation in terms of personnel, knowledge, and equipment could result in overwhelming events in case of a disaster. Besides, introduction of educational initiatives that teaches persons in schools on immediate first aid operations has been an imperative program to improve emergency response actions to the community. Will the Growth Continue? Yes, the health care emergency management will continue to grow. These because it the duty of the government to safeguard its population against emergencies and to guarantee better health. Besides natural calamities, terrorism has become a global problem and a severe threat humanity due to changing modes of civilization and despite high vigilance, governments cannot safeguard persons, everywhere, all the time. Besides, innovations are changing the forms of maninstigated emergencies thus the need to stay on toes with the changing technology and science in order to reduce the impacts. Reference List Barbera J.A., M. A. G., &Yeatts, D. J. (2009). Challenge of hospital emergency preparedness: Analysis and recommendations. Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness, 3(1), 7482. https://doi.org/10.1097/DMP.0b013e31819f754c Reilly, M., &Markenson, D. S. (2010). Health Care Emergency Management: Principles and Practice Sauer, L. M., McCarthy, M. L., Knebel, A., & Brewster, P. (2009). Major influences on hospital emergency management preparedness and disaster preparedness. Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness, 3(1), S68-S73. https://doi.org/10.1097/DMP.0b013e31819ef060
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