describe how well your data shows the momentum to be the same before a collision as after the collision, as measured

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timer Asked: Jan 19th, 2019
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Question Description

... by comparing the momenta before and after and by the percentage differences you calculated.

Do you find momentum conserved best for any particular kind of collision?

Next, list the sources of experimental error, explaining each in a sentence or two, and try to estimate how large an error it would introduce in the measured values you obtained. Consider for example what happens in a collision whether the two gliders really interact only with each other or have other interactions and effects you see or hear. You can also consider the model itself. What aspects of the simulation are inaccurate and may have contributed to error?Include in this analysis how the error would change your results. Would the calculated momentum be higher or lower due to the types of error you found?

Science | Laboratory Instructions | Laboratory: Momentum http://k12.http.internapcdn.net/k12_vitalstream_com/CURRICULUM/213628/CURRENT_RELEASE/HS_PHX_S2 _01_05_0204_SSC_virtual_lab.html Laboratory Instructions Laboratory: Momentum Materials Supplied • • • • Student Guide Laboratory Guidelines Threaded Discussion Board Grading Rubric PHX 1.05 LRD: Momentum Notes Timers The timer starts when it is blocked by a glider and stops when it is unblocked. So the timer records the total time the photogate was blocked. The top timer records the first pass, and the bottom records the second pass, or the pass of another glider. Once the bottom timer has recorded data and you’ve copied that data into the tables in the Lab Report for Discussion (LRD), you need to press the reset button on top of the photogate to record new data. Air Track Don’t forget to turn on the air track using the switch on the air compressor before you perform a trial. When the trial is done, turn off the air track to restore friction and cause the gliders to stop moving. The air track should be assigned a positive and negative end for your calculations. It doesn’t matter what side is positive and what side is negative, but for this experiment use left side as negative and the right side as positive for your calculations. Data Workbook The virtual lab has a data workbook to record your data. Clicking the save button will save your data to the workbook. However, after a successful trial, you should always record the data in the LRD. It’s easier to keep track of there, and it’s a good idea to have a hard copy of your data. Glider Length The yellow glider is .0765 m long, and the red glider is .1509 m long. Record this information in the data table in the LRD. Advance Prep (3 days) Review the list of materials for the lab prior to the lesson, because there are several items that you must supply. Safety Review the Laboratory Guidelines before conducting the lab. Experiment Setup 1. Note that the left side of the track is negative and the right side is positive for your calculations. 2. Print or open the LRD for data collection. You may record data in the virtual lab’s data workbook, but you will need to copy it to the LRD at some point for analysis. © 2015 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 1 of 5 Science | Laboratory Instructions | Laboratory: Momentum 3. Record the mass and length of each glider in the data table in the LRD. Remember to convert the mass to kg. 4. Experiment with different setups to get good data. You will have to repeat the experiment and may need to practice positioning gliders and choosing the glider push. Also, the gliders should only collide once. So sometimes you will have to catch a glider that has already gone through a gate. You don’t want a glider to bounce into another glider that has not gone through a gate, and you do not want gliders bouncing back into each other giving additional velocity to the other glider. 5. Don’t assume that both gliders have to move or that they will both bounce off each other and go back through the gates. You may decide not to push a glider, or you may find that after one glider hits another, it doesn’t bounce backwards. If a glider stops moving after a collision, record that as a zero final velocity. If you cannot get accurate data for a certain trial, don’t record the data. Just do another trial with a slightly different setup. Elastic Collision Procedure Tell your virtual lab partner you want to perform an elastic collision. He or she will slide the magnet to the nonfacing ends of the gliders so the gliders will bounce off each other when they collide. For this lab, it doesn’t matter how hard you push the gliders, you just need to make sure they collide in the center of the track. The top timers record the photogate the glider is blocked. The bottom timers record the second time the photogate is blocked. Because we established the left side of the track as negative and the right side as positive, gliders moving toward the right are moving in a positive ( + ) direction and gliders moving toward the left are moving in a negative ( − ) direction. Perform three different elastic collision setups and record the data in the tables in the LRD. You may need to run multiple trials to get good data, but you only need to record the final data in your report. Calculate the velocity of the gliders using the formula v = d/t where d is the distance the glider moved while it blocked the photogate, which is equal to the length of card on top of the glider. Calculate the momentum of the glider using the formula p = mv. Make sure you reset the photogates after each trial, and make sure the air track is running before you perform a trial. © 2015 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 2 of 5 Science | Laboratory Instructions | Laboratory: Momentum Elastic Collision Air Track Data: Sample Data Criteria Time (s) Direction ( + / − ) Red (larger) glider before collision 0.54 + Yellow (smaller) glider before collision 0.11 − Total momentum before collision cell s haded cell s haded Red (larger) glider after collision 0.41 − Yellow (smaller) glider after collision 0.13 + cell s haded cell s haded Total momentum after collision Velocity (m / s) Momentum (kg • m / s) cell s haded cell s haded Inelastic Collision Procedure Tell your virtual lab partner you want to perform an inelastic collision. He or she will slide the magnet to the facing ends of the gliders so the gliders will stick to each other when they collide. For this lab, it doesn’t matter how hard you push them, you just need to make sure they collide in the center of the track. There are a number of ways to create an inelastic collision, but starting with one of the gliders standing still is the simplest. Place the yellow glider in the center of the track and choose “No push” for your partner. Because the yellow glider is not moving, you know its initial speed is zero m/s. © 2015 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 3 of 5 Science | Laboratory Instructions | Laboratory: Momentum Note: When you move the glider past the photogate, it will trigger the timer. Make sure to reset the timer before starting the experiment. Because there is a gap between the glider cars, the top timer on the left will record the yellow glider time, and the bottom timer will record the red glider time. You don’t need both of these in your calculations when the gliders are attached together. The yellow glider has a shorter time because it is smaller, but both gliders are traveling as one object at the same velocity. The top timers record the first time a glider blocked the photogate. The bottom timers record the second time the photogate is blocked. Because we established the left side of the track as negative and the right side as positive, gliders moving toward the right are moving in a positive ( + ) direction and gliders moving toward the left are moving in a negative ( − ) direction. Perform three different inelastic collision setups and record the data in the tables in the LRD. You may need to run multiple trials to get good data, but you only need to record the final data in your report. Calculate the velocity of the gliders using the formula v = d/t, where d is the distance the glider moved while it blocked the photogate, which is equal to the length of the card on top of the glider. Calculate the momentum of the glider using the formula p = mv. For final momentum, don’t forget to use the combined mass of both gliders. Make sure you reset the photogates after each trial, and make sure the air track is running before you perform a trial. Inelastic Collision Air Track Data: Sample Data Criteria Time (s) Direction ( + / − ) Red (larger) glider before collision 0.16 − © 2015 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Velocity (m / s) Momentum (kg • m / s) Page 4 of 5 Science | Laboratory Instructions | Laboratory: Momentum Criteria Time (s) Direction ( + / − ) Yellow (smaller) glider before collision not moving not moving 0.12 (yellow glider measured) − Velocity (m / s) Momentum (kg • m / s) Total momentum before collision Both gliders after collision Data and Analysis Percent Difference for Total Momentum Calculations You can compare the total momentum before and after the collisions by looking at the numbers and estimating if they are close together or far apart. You can make a more precise calculation by using the following formula for percent change in momentum. % change in p = pafter − pbefore pbefore  100 Calculate the change in momentum for each of your trials. Change in Momentum Criteria Elastic Collisions Elastic Collisions Elastic Collisions Inelastic Collisions Inelastic Collisions Inelastic Collisions Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 % change in p Answer the questions in the LRD to prepare for the Discussion. © 2015 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 5 of 5

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markjunior209
School: Boston College

Hello, your assignme...

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