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Jul 12th, 2015
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  • Code of Conduct and Effective Leadership (one to two pages)
    In LEA316: Ethics in Law Enforcement, you wrote a final paper analyzing ethical theories and your moral beliefs.  Drawing upon your research for this paper and the topics covered in this capstone, write a code of conduct that you think every police officer should follow. Then, explain how this code of conduct promotes good leadership and integrity in law enforcement officers.
  • Community Development Plan  (six to eight pages)
    You are the leader of your agency’s planning and research division and have been asked to present a critical analysis of policing as it will appear ten years into the future. Write a report based on peer-reviewed research. Refer to the Community Development Plan Instructions for the required
  Code of Conduct and Effective Leadership (one to two pages)
In LEA316: Ethics in Law Enforcement
, you wrote a final paper analyzing ethical theories and your moral beliefs.  Drawing upon your research for this paper and the topics covered in this capstone, write a code of conduct that you think every police officer should follow. Then, explain how this code of conduct promotes good leadership and integrity in law enforcement officers.The paper is below

·  Community Development Plan  (six to eight pages)

Below  is the final paper for LEA 316 

Crime and social disorder are the inevitable traits of a dysfunctional surrounding that is potentially plagued with misguided choices, thus, resulting in a preconceived notion in with ethics and morality may be absent. From law enforcement practitioners such as criminologist and criminal of varies degrees, conceptualized, social theorist have provided tools, techniques, and methods that will explain the relational function of individuals actionable results. Additionally, it is understood that although the method of implemented theories provide methods of uncovering criminal intentions and behaviors, critics have found their way in for the simplicity of scrutinizing directional criminal justice theories. Throughout this course, theories have covered the issues and concerns associated with social influences and individualized human behaviors. The outline through this project will be theories such as the Divine Command Theory and the Virtual Ethics theory, the correlation between these two theories, as well as the differences that critics conceive. Crime is the derivative of opportunity and social settings, thus, what to do when no one’s looking becomes the ethical and moral questionings within one’s own dilemma.

Theoretical Concepts

Effectively controlling criminal intentions and behaviors has become more scientifically understood throughout the history of law enforcement developments and structuring’s. Law enforcement has endured many conceptualized and theorized ideologies that have transformed the way law practitioners evaluate and analyze characteristic behaviors. Law practitioners have developed theories that would allow for the development of retributive and restorative methods for combative law enforcement policies, practices, and criminal act interpretation. For example, individuals that display characteristics of either virtual ethics and/or Divine Command concepts will produce behavioral functions that are dutiful, appropriate, and ethical. What makes individuals do the right things, what motivates people to do the right thing, is it a belief system and if so, where does their chosen concepts derive from? These will be some of the questions that this paper will attempt to uncover. Although theories present viable methods and techniques of understanding individual characteristics, law performance practitioner and policy makers will gain the opportunity of constructing productive polices and legislative enactments. Depending on the criminal act that is being investigated, law enforcement will utilize certain techniques to uncover such dysfunctional social outcomes.

Criminal Justice Theories

For the purpose of this outline, the focus will be on the chosen ethical theories and the comparative functions that each contributes to the understanding of human behaviors within the criminal justice system. Criminal Justice Theories has provided much insight into the formulated concepts of understanding motives behind human characteristic that permeates criminal activities (Greg Mantle, 2014, pp. 2-36). As a result to the developmental approach to understanding human behaviors and criminal intentions, theories such as Divine Command, Virtual Ethics, and other theories in which criminologist will develop and hypothesize. As a result of the many developed theories that have been formulated by criminal justice practitioners, understanding the correlation between crime and deviant behaviors. For example, theories that have been concocted will uncover the subconscious decision that was made and/or that generated such choices to commit criminal acts. Additionally, to explain and understand crime, criminologists have created integrated theories that uncover the unicausal for all serious criminal aces. What this shows is that crime can be understood by understanding criminal behaviors and their triggering precursors. Although theories have existed for many decades, new concepts and theories constantly emerge when challenging deviant criminal acts occur.

Divine Command Theory Concept #1


Divine Command Theory evaluates the possible connections between religion, ethics and its correlation of morals that are generated by the ideological understandings of religious connections (Drummond Young, 2013, pp. 83-95). Divine Command Theory is essentially the practice of following the lord’s word through the actions that we display. Divine Command Theory’s developmental concept is that of spiritual guidance, living a humble existence, as well as helping others when the time arrives without expecting things in return. According to the Divine Command Theory, individuals must adhere with the word that is written within the bible as a means of developing their own personal and/or professional actions that promotes wellness and togetherness. Through the Divine Command concept and theory, acceptable ethics may be effectively instilled within ones daily actions and choices. This is the optional choice for many Americans belief systems, from different religious formalities that generate and promotes growth from within to that of criminal that utilized the same mentality, without theories, distinguishing their motive, ethics, and morals become extremely difficult to understand and/or hypothesize.

Models of Ethics

Model of ethics within the Divine Command Theory are supplied with through the theoretical framework and concept. It is mentioned that ethic within this theory drives from ones self-awareness of a purposeful life through the writing of God. Furthermore, the primary ethical implications of this theoretical approach are that of unselfishness acts, words of encouragements, as well as the ability to propel others to do the right thing in life. Additionally, ethical practice eventually instills one morality through acceptance and accepting.


In addition to the ethical principles mentioned above, Divine Command theory provides individuals that the distinct and absolute behaviors associated with doing the right thing. To do the right thing without expecting things in return is not human nature , we tend to seek out things that reward us for our efforts, however, Divine Command Theory is absolute the opposite. Morality is the just behavioral outcome of someone that cares, is compassionate and understanding, as well as open and honest. Despite the goodness of Divine Command Theory provides critics will always have something to say, it is the ethical understanding of our existence to agree by disagreeing. 

Opposing Views

The opposing views have the conceptualized ideology those individuals that practice this theory. One example is that of questioning the acts of an individual for example, are their acts moral of obligatory under the word of God. This questions points a few interesting ideas such as the right thing, did it generate ethics, and was it encompassed the religious practices and standards. Although critic may claim otherwise, that is ok because not everyone will see the same thing in the same manner.

Virtual Ethics Concept #2


Virtual Ethics has been identified and considered as a theoretical concept that emphasizes the moral character in contrast to duties or rules (Manuel Velasquez, 2014). Understand how individual human behaviors derive from virtual ethics can be explained by correlating moral principles with actions of behaviors. These observation allow law performance practitioner is develop answers to questions such as interpretations of  people's actions, why people do what they are doing, as well as conceptualizing attitudes. Virtue ethics are developed through learning and t practice, thus, motivations for doing the right thing must derive from some type of belief system in which the individual will utilize as forms of guidance. Conceptualized theories that become implanted within the criminal justice system ensure that law enforcement practitioners and criminal alike have the ability to make rational choices that may led to either ration and or irrational actions.

Models of Ethics

According to authors Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, S.J., and Michael J. Meyer, “at the heart of the virtue approach to ethics is the idea of "community" (Manuel Velasquez, 2014). The primary function of within this model is to answer the primitive question of examining the implications of moral principles that derive from the standards we have created within our lives. Virtual ethics was developed with the intentions of providing individuals with the conceptualized purpose of social obligation, achieving the greatest good for the greatest number of involved participants, as well as forming the moral actions for conducting their behaviors.


Morality within virtual ethics is the derivative of one own conceptualized ideology in which they have conceived as “correct” or “right”. Similar to that of Divine Command, Virtual Ethics includes characteristics that display of honesty or generosity as a willing and reasonable way of existing. Furthermore, the concept also derives from a personal perception of Virtual Ethics and how that may manifest into their guiding principles, their motivational presences, and their behavior displacement. Although an effective concept when considering individual characteristics, opposing views also have conceivable concepts.

Opposing Views

Opposing views find that individual that implement virtual ethics is simply consider themselves before placing others fist. Another concept that has been debated is whether or not the individual actually possess these characteristics and/or utilizing them for a different purpose, At this point, critics point out fallacies in the characteristics of such individuals that include self-centered concepts, motivated by rewards, and is not actually moral when considering ethical perceptive. Critics have substantiating points that cannot be overlooked, yet, it does not mean that either side is correct and/or even wrong. What is inevitable is that not all theories will apply to all behavioral function.

Comparative Analysis (Concept)

Similarities and difference can be observed between Divine Command Theory and Virtual Ethics Theory. For example, Divine Command Theory is heavy rooted within the religious encompassing of nurture and nature through the word of God. On the other hand, Virtual Ethics derives from the individual themselves, not from their actions, and includes an inward concept as opposed to an outward prosoma as Divine Command Theory provides. Each also provides the individual with the ability to conceive their actions as right and/or wrong while preserving the interest of that individual. The ideologies that have been formulated is centered and structured on a belief system in which individuals are guided by and influencing their actions. The ethical concerns derive form intentions and motivations within both of the theories, however, although each provides the individual with a particular perceptive, self-interest is often credited as the ethical issues. Doing the right or wrong things derives from the concepts perception, however, each mentioned theory give people the stepping stone for treating each other correctly, respectfully, and in a non-discriminative manner. What is morality, is it the conceived results prior to their actions, or, is it the unobservable intentions that are attached to the reward system that generates a particular choice within that given circumstance/s, which leads to theories about human behaviors, intentions, and motivations. How to live life and by which means does life become ethical and moral?

Personal Morality

Obtaining the ability to effectively incorporate acceptable social behaviors can be contributed to the ideology in which Divine Command Theory provides. Furthermore, the belief system has been developed through the family dynamics and religious practices. The most inspirational aspect of the Divine Command Theory is that it aligns with our core beliefs of thinking of others first, humbling yourself through acts of random kindness, as well as the implementation of the lords vocal guidance. As a result of our personal developments through religious understanding, we provide ourselves with the ability to project encouragement through actions and word’s. Additionally, this perceptive allows individual to treat each other with respect, affection, and emotions in a manner that does not expect favors in return. What this shows is the although many may not practice religious beliefs and/or instill it within themselves, for many, it is a viable and productive way of guiding ones actions will increasing the beneficial properties for others. Although Divine Command is not accepted, practices, and/or believed in, those whom are not familiar with such concepts also find encouragement through these words. Regardless what chosen method individuals and/or law enforcements practitioners practices, critics claim that this method is not acceptable for the criminal justice field. Each theory generates a perception that may either motivate actions of criminal behaviors as each also provides methods of rewards through differentiated situations in which opportunities are raised. Theories generate ideas which in turn generates concepts, which in turn formulates plans of actions, yet, even with the right intentions, actions themselves could be unethical depending on the personal concepts and perceptions (Brock Bastian, 2013, pp. 1-10).


The concepts and direction of the United States Law Enforcement is built upon theoretical implementations, allowing law enforcement practitioners to conceive, conceptualize, and hypothesize the complexity of human behaviors. Criminal Justice theories cover just about every facet of human living behaviors. For example, theories such as classical, biological, psychological/psychiatric, social process, social structure, ands social conflict theories. With a host well-developed theories which also include Divine Command and Virtual Ethics, law practitioner are awarded the techniques and scientific tools that provide insight data into the development of human behaviors that are fostered by different social impacts. Additionally, as a result of theoretical concepts and theory implications, law enforcement and policy makers are forwarded the ability to develop effective and efficient legislations, resulting in the inception of new laws, regulations, and/or city ordinances and statues. What this shows is that as a result of legislative enactments generated by criminal practitioner, social implications can be further understood as the continued evaluations of human behaviors flourishes. Although criminal behaviors have evolved throughout the history of law enforcement, creative concepts generating theories concepts have also parallel that of crime. The quintessential function of theoretical concepts within the criminal justice system is to develop fundamental skills for law practitioner for the beneficial functions of social policies (Schmalleger, 2009, pp. 19-20).


Brock Bastian, T. F. (2013, April 1st). The Roles of Dehumanization and Moral Outrage in   Retributive Justice. . Ebsco Host, pp. 1-10.

Drummond Young, E. (2013, April 1st). God's moral goodness and supererogation. Ebsco Host,   pp. 83-95.

Greg Mantle, D. F. (2014, Aug. 3rd). Restrotive Justice and Three Individual Theories of Crime.   Retrieved from United States Department of Justice:   http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Mantle,%20Fox%20&%20Dhami%20-  %20Restorative%20Justice.pdf

Manuel Velasquez, C. A.-S. (2014, Aug. 3rd). Ethics and Virtue. Retrieved from Santa Clara   University: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/decision/ethicsandvirtue.html

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminiology and Social Policy. In F. Schmalleger, Criminology Today:   An Intergrative Introduction (pp. 19-20). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

the community development plan has to have the questions below answered

Community Development Plan Instructions (six to eight pages needs to answer all questions)

You are the leader of your agency’s planning and research division and have been asked to present a

critical analysis of policing as it will appear ten years into the future. Write a report based on peer




You must include the following components in your Community Development Plan:



What types of individuals would you recruit? Why?


What type of education or experience would be required? Why?


What type of training would be implemented?



What type of ethical training would be needed? Why?


What type of leadership training will be needed? How will this be implemented?


How would you define and describe the current need for succession planning for future police

leadership, and what can

agencies and individuals do to meet these challenges?


Why is it important for police leaders to study the future, and what approaches have been

adopted by Police Futurists International for this purpose

This was the response for the help you gave with the outlinealthough some portions need to be brushed up a bit.  First, make certain that you refer to the CDP in both your introduction and conclusion; there was no mention of it in either.  Your body paragraphs were solid in addressing one of the topics: recruitment.  Good detail with solid source support.  Several errors noted throughout that might have been caught through more careful editing.

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