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Solar brightening - depending on if the sun is brighter or dimmer over a long-term period, the Earth’s planetary surface temperatures will increase and decrease respectively.
Changes in axis tilt - a greater degree of tilt in Earth’s axis will make for more extreme seasons, while a smaller tilt will keep polar regions colder and darker.
Changes in planetary reflectivity - reflectivity levels increase with dust, smog in atmosphere, and deforestation, which leads to planetary cooling. The levels decrease with paving, leading to a warmer planet overall.
Changes in greenhouse gas abundance - increasing the greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere on Earth will warm the planet, while decreasing the same gases cools the planet.
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