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Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade or
razor (with or without anaesthesia), FGM is concentrated in 27 African
countries, Yemen and Iraqi Kurdistan, and found elsewhere in Asia, the
Middle East, and among diaspora communities around the world.The age at which it is conducted varies from days after birth to
puberty; in half the countries for which national figures are available,
most girls are cut before the age of five.
The procedures differ according to the ethnic group. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans (the visible part of the clitoris), removal of the inner labia and, in the most severe form (known as infibulation), removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure, a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid, and the vagina
is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth. Health
effects depend on the procedure, but can include recurrent infections,
chronic pain, cysts, an inability to get pregnant, complications during
childbirth and fatal bleeding. There are no known health benefits.
The practice is rooted in gender inequality, attempts to control women's sexuality,
and ideas about purity, modesty and aesthetics. It is usually initiated
and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour, and who
fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will
expose the girls to social exclusion. Over 130 million women and girls have experienced FGM in the 29 countries in which it is concentrated. The United Nations Population Fund
estimates that 20 percent of affected women have been infibulated, a
practice found largely in northeast Africa, particularly Djibouti,
Eritrea, Somalia and northern Sudan.
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Jul 17th, 2015
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