Module 05 The classification system of galaxies

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Question Description

Edwin Hubble's observations of the Andromeda "nebula" in 1924, using the then new 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, lead to the understanding that the Milky Way was not the only galaxy, but one of a countless large groups of stars in our Universe. Within this new field of astronomy, Hubble devised a classification system for galaxies based on their observed shape and structure. In this laboratory exercise, you will use Stellarium to observe a number of galaxies and attempt to classify them using Hubble's system.

For this project piece, use a computer simulation to examine the concept of habitable zones around other stars or examine and classify a range of galaxies. Please read through the assignment background information and follow the steps listed in the lab assignment instructions. You will be asked to form a hypothesis, state the lab objective, record your measurements and calculations, and answer each of the lab questions.

Module 05 – A Universe of Galaxies Edwin Hubble’s observations of the Andromeda “nebula” in 1924, using the then new 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, lead to the understanding that the Milky Way was not the only galaxy, but one of a countless large groups of stars in our Universe. Within this new field of astronomy, Hubble devised a classification system for galaxies based on their observed shape and structure. In this laboratory exercise, you will use Stellarium to observe a number of galaxies and attempt to classify them using Hubble’s system. Background Question – Describe the major Hubble galaxy classifications and how they are organized on Hubble’s “turning fork”. Object: Explain the purpose of this laboratory assignment in your own words. What do you think you will accomplish or learn from this exercise? Hypothesis: Write a simple hypothesis connected to observed properties of galaxies that you will be able to test using the Stellarium software (for example, most galaxies are spiral in shape like our Milky Way). Procedure 1) Open the Stellarium software. Open the Sky and Viewing options window (F4). Under the “Sky” tab, uncheck the Atmosphere. 2) Select the Landscape tab and uncheck “Show ground”. 3) Open the Search window (F3) and enter Andromeda Galaxy. The view should shift to center on the Andromeda Galaxy. Scroll your mouse wheel forward to zoom in until you can see the Andromeda Galaxy in detail. 4) Based on the Andromeda Galaxy’s shape and appearance, record on the lab data table which major type of galaxy you think it is (Spiral, Elliptical, Irregular). Make a note if you see any particular interesting features (color, if spiral is there a bar, if a galaxy is interacting with another galaxy) 5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each galaxy listed on the data table. You make need to zoom in or out to see the selected in detail. Q1: From the list of galaxies given, did you find more of classification group then the other? Q2: Did you observe any spiral galaxies with a bar structure? Q3: Where all the elliptical galaxies all the same exact shape? Q3: Did you notice a difference in general color between elliptical and spiral galaxies? Q4: Which classification group showed evidence of ongoing star formation (visible new O and B blue stars)? 6) Continue using Stellarium if you need further information to test your individual hypothesis. If you need further direction, please ask your instructor. Conclusion: In 1-2 paragraphs, explain if your observations and data support or conflict with your hypothesis and if you have met your assignment objective. Was there any portion of the assignment that was particularly interesting or difficult? Galaxy Andromeda M33 LMC SMC M51 M58 M60 M63 M81 M82 M86 M87 M88 M90 M91 M94 M99 M100 M102 M106 M109 Classification Type Interesting Features

Tutor Answer

proggerardo
School: UIUC

Attached you will find the outline and answer for your assignment. Please let me know is you need modifications or clarification 😀

ANSWERS
Background Question
The classification system of galaxies, invented by Edwin Hubble, is shaped like a turning fork and
it's divided in two major categories:


Elliptical galaxies look like a football, are red and rounded with one part longer than the other.
They contain very little cool gas and dust. They often contain very hot ionized gas. They appear
on the "handle" at the left, designated by the letter E and a number. The larger the number, the
flatter the elliptical galaxy: An E0 galaxy is a sphere, and the numbers increase to the highly
elongated type E7.



Spiral galaxies look like flat white disks with yellowish bulges at their centers. The disks are
filled with cool gas and dust, interspersed with hotter ionized gas, and usually display beautiful
spiral arms. They appear on the two forks and are designated by the letter S for ordinary spirals
and SB for barred spirals, followed by a lowercase a, b, or c: The bulge size decreases from a
to c, while the amount of dusty gas increases. Lenticular galaxies are designated SO, and
irregular galaxies are designated Irr (not rounded galaxies).

Object.
To observe and classify galaxies using the Hubble’s classification system of galaxies by its shape
using the Stellarium software.
Hypothesis.
Most galaxies are barred spiral galaxies due it's continuous expansion since they were created.
Data.
Galaxy
Andromeda

Classification
Type
S-b

M33
LMC
SMC
M51
M58

S-c
Irr
Irr
S-b
SB-b

M60

E2

M63

S-b

M81

S-a

M82

Irr

M86

E3

M87

E0

M88

S-b

Interesting Features
Bright in t...

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Review

Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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