ENGR10 Area Moment of Inertia essay

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the topic is : Area Moment of inertia

Literature Search - (1 topic, 2 pages of information, MLA format, double spaced, 12 Font size, include 2 references in a third page);

I will include what to write in the files each file have a details to what you focus on and the last one the format.


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How to write an abstract? ENGR101 Dr. Lizzie Santiago What is an abstract?  It is a summary of the entire report  First section read  Written in a manner so that the reader will get an overall understanding of what is detailed in the report.  Most important portion of the report to write. Content of an abstract  The abstract contain the following elements: Introduction ◦ A short background of the problem. ◦ A clear, concise statement of the problem. ◦ A brief statement of the approach taken to solve the problem (methodology). ◦ A statement of the most significant results and conclusions (results) ◦ Future work/trend (if necessary) Guidelines  Keep the abstract short ◦ Most readers expect to prefer a concise, short abstract around 250 words ◦ Many times the abstract will be the only part of the report read by highest level decision-makers within the company.  Avoid technical jargon ◦ Include only the level of technical language the reader will comprehend  Include only important conclusions and recommendations. ◦ What information is most essential for the reader?  The abstract should be a stand-alone section. Only important conclusions Independent from report Mistakes Avoid references to the body of the report.  Too short… (2 sentences)  The purpose of the project is to learn how to use Excel  The purpose of this project is to learn how to work in groups  ◦ To design a cardboard bridge that supports the weight of a 6lbs truck. Example of an abstract: The authors investigated vigorous physical activity, psychological well-being, and self-reported illness during transition to first-year university life in a sample of 175 Canadian undergraduates. At the completion of their first year of university study, participants completed retrospective measures assessing vigorous physical activity, upper respiratory infectious illness (URI), doctor visits, as well as measures of psychological well-being. Based on nationally recommended (US Department of Health and Human Services) standards, 61% of students reported engaging in adequate levels of vigorous activity during their first year at university. The authors found no differences in URIs between sufficiently and insufficiently active students. However, insufficiently active students scored lower on psychological well-being and were twice as likely to have consulted a physician regarding an illness compared with sufficiently active students. Don’t include this statement in your abstract Source: Bray and Matthew, J Am Coll Health. 2006 Sep-Oct;55(2):77-82. Example of an abstract: The authors investigated vigorous physical activity, psychological well-being, and self-reported illness during transition to first-year university life in a sample of 175 Canadian undergraduates. At the completion of their first year of university study, participants completed retrospective measures assessing vigorous physical activity, upper respiratory infectious illness (URI), doctor visits, as well as measures of psychological well-being. Based on nationally recommended (US Department of Health and Human Services) standards, 61% of students reported engaging in adequate levels of vigorous activity during their first year at university. The authors found no differences in URIs between sufficiently and insufficiently active students. However, insufficiently active students scored lower on psychological well-being and were twice as likely to have consulted a physician regarding an illness compared with sufficiently active students. Example of an abstract: Earlier studies associated the first year of college with a dramatic increase in body weight, termed the "freshman 15". However, recent studies showed that weight gain might be smaller. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the extent of observed weight/body composition changes, including factors associated with them, among students entering university. Searches were conducted for studies examining weight/body composition changes during freshman semesters. Most studies were not comprehensive in assessing numerous potential causative factors for weight gain. Methods for assessing diet, physical activity, and behavioral factors varied among studies. Weight changes were often not quantified by measures of body composition (lean/fat) to ascertain that changes were limited just to gains in fat mass. Overall, weight changes ranged from 0.7-3.1 kg, but among individuals who gained weight, the range was narrower, 3.1-3.4 kg. There may be specific groups of students with a greater predisposition for weight gain and future research should focus on identifying those groups. Source: Crombie et al., Nutr Rev. 2009 Feb;67(2):83-94. Example of an abstract: Pediatric craniofacial surgery is complicated by a shortage of autologous bone. Children between 2 and 10 years of age are especially problematic, as the dura has lost its potential to spontaneously heal large calvarial defects by approximately 2 years of age, and split calvarial grafts are often unavailable because of the underdeveloped diploic space until later childhood. We demonstrate the efficacy of a BMP-2-based system in repairing large-scale cranial defects in a rabbit model. Calvarial defects, 15 mm, were created in 18 adult New Zealand white rabbits, treated as follows: group 1, no repair (n = 6); group 2, absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) (n = 4); and group 3, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 delivered on ACS (rhBMP-2/ACS) (n = 8). Bone regeneration 6 weeks postoperatively was evaluated by 2- and 3-dimensional standard computed tomography, micro-computed tomography. Analysis of variance was performed using SPSS. The generated bone was also evaluated histologically. After 6 weeks, group 1 defects were on average 32.8% (SD, 8.8%) ossified. Group 2 defects were on average 34.4% (SD, 17.1%) ossified. Defects in group 3 were on average 96.9% (SD, 3.7%) ossified, significantly (P < 0.005) more than the defects in groups 1 and 2. rhBMP-2induced bone was histologically and radiographically consistent with native bone. This study demonstrates the efficacy of rhBMP-2/ACS for the repair of calvarial defects in the rabbit model. rhBMP-2/ACS may offer a viable treatment option for craniofacial surgeons facing a shortage of bone, with the potential to replace autologous bone grafts and render their attendant morbidities obsolete. Source: Smith et al., J Craniofac Surg. 2008 Sep;19(5):1315-22. Example of an abstract: Pediatric craniofacial surgery is complicated by a shortage of autologous bone. Children between 2 and 10 years of age are especially problematic, as the dura has lost its potential to spontaneously heal large calvarial defects by approximately 2 years of age, and split calvarial grafts are often unavailable because of the underdeveloped diploic space until later childhood. We demonstrate the efficacy of a BMP-2-based system in repairing large-scale cranial defects in a rabbit model. Calvarial defects, 15 mm, were created in 18 adult New Zealand white rabbits, treated as follows: group 1, no repair (n = 6); group 2, absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) (n = 4); and group 3, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 delivered on ACS (rhBMP-2/ACS) (n = 8). Bone regeneration 6 weeks postoperatively was evaluated by 2- and 3-dimensional standard computed tomography, micro-computed tomography. Analysis of variance was performed using SPSS. The generated bone was also evaluated histologically. After 6 weeks, group 1 defects were on average 32.8% (SD, 8.8%) ossified. Group 2 defects were on average 34.4% (SD, 17.1%) ossified. Defects in group 3 were on average 96.9% (SD, 3.7%) ossified, significantly (P < 0.005) more than the defects in groups 1 and 2. rhBMP-2-induced bone was histologically and radiographically consistent with native bone. This study demonstrates the efficacy of rhBMP-2/ACS for the repair of calvarial defects in the rabbit model. rhBMP-2/ACS may offer a viable treatment option for craniofacial surgeons facing a shortage of bone, with the potential to replace autologous bone grafts and render their attendant morbidities obsolete. How to write the introduction? ENGR101 Dr. Lizzie Santiago Introduction Introduce reader to your topic  Prepare readers for the discussion ahead  Do not summarize the report  Sets the particular problem being solved  Establishes the necessity for, consequences of and benefits from the project  ◦ Why necessary/ importance of the work ◦ What benefit does this work provide? Example Introduction The transition from high school to college or university attendance represents a major life stressor for most students. Leaving home and moving to a dormitory or shared student residency during late adolescence is a major disruption to existing family and friendship relations. First-year students also have to deal with changing familial and societal roles involving greater independence. Furthermore, first year students often encounter more difficult courses that demand not only attendance at lectures, tutorials, and laboratory experiences, but also a great deal of independent coursework requiring diligent and adept time management skills. Example (continuation) The purpose in the present study was to examine the association of vigorous physical activity with psychological well-being and illness during first-year students’ transition to university life. It was hypothesized that students who were sufficiently active would report fewer URIs and seek medical attention for illness less often than would insufficiently active students. It was also expected that sufficiently active students would report more positive psychological well-being during their first year, compared with students who were insufficiently active. Understanding the effect of physical activity in psychological well-being can help university officials to devise strategies to promote and maintain a healthier student population. Technical Report: Background Engineering 101 Dr. Lizzie Santiago Background This section is normally written first  Literature review  What is already known  What already exists  Briefly summarize the test, experiments, and results that other people have presented.  Remember to cite your references  Background Selye (1974) has defined stress as the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it and concludes that any major change in one's life can lead to stress. Barrow and Prosen (1981) describe several types of conditions known to produce emotional stress and include any emotional disruption stimulated by change, threat, frustration or conflict. More specifically they support that whenever a person's self-esteem is in some way perceived to be under attack, when the attainment of a desired goal is blocked, or when one is faced with a decision making dilemma that the person is apt to experience stress that can be psychologically disruptive (Barrow & Prosen, 1981). While stress is an ongoing part of everyday life and therefore can not be avoided, it is also generally agreed upon that overly high and/or prolonged levels of stress may produce undesirable consequences (Barrow & Prosen, 1981; Selye, 1956; 1974). Holmes and Rahe (1967) developed the Social Readjustment Scale to show the relative weight that can be attributed to stress producing changes. They concluded that a score on their scale of 250 or more indicated a high level of stress and suggested a major life crisis. When their scale was modified to more closely fit the experience of student-athletes and administered to freshmen football players an average freshman football player scored 630 points (Roberts-Wilbur & Wilbur, 1985). This certainly supports the premise of the authors that freshmen student-athletes experience a lot of stress. When this finding is considered along with the contention that high levels of stress are not conducive to the type of rational, systematic thought mental tasks demand (Cohen, 1978; Wine, 1971), it seems reasonable to conclude that stress may interfere with the academic performance of studentathletes. References Whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information  All publications (books, publications, internet sites, etc) used  List in order in text  DO NOT PLAGARIZE  References  Format ◦ MLA: Modern Language Association ◦ APA: American Psychological Association  MLA Format Formal Report Writing Engineering 101 Dr. Lizzie Santiago WHY TO COMMUNICATE? Why to communicate? Update boss on progress of a project Inform  Update client on progress  Request information from client Request  Request a meeting with the client  Document what you have done Document  Document the whole project  Written Communication between Engineers Memo  Emails  Reports  ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Progress Reports Engineering (Technical) Reports Sales Reports Research Reports Elements of a Technical Report Cover Page  Abstract  Table of Contents  ◦ List of Figures ◦ List of Tables Introduction  Background  Main Elements (Continuation) Problem Statement  Methodology  Results and Discussion  Conclusions and Recommendations  References  Appendices  Cover or Title Page Project Title (Be Specific)  Client (supervisor’s ) Name  Your Name  Date  TYPE OF REPORT TITLE OF YOUR WORK PREPARED BY: RESEARCHER NAMES West Virginia University Course or Program/Section SUBMITTED TO: CLIENT NAME Client Information Version # Date Submitted Abstract Brief Summary  Include important conclusions  Anyone Can Read  Write Last  Page number: i   Essence of report in Abstract and Conclusions Tables and Lists  Table of Contents ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Readable No Sentences Make sure it is correct Appropriate headings List of Figures  List of Tables  Page number: ii  Introduction Prepare readers for the discussion ahead  Do not need to summarize the report  Introduce reader to your topic  Why necessary/ importance of the work  What benefit does this work provide?  Background This section is normally written first  Literature review  What is already known  What already exists  Briefly summarize the test, experiments, and results that other people have presented.  Remember to cite your references  Problem Statement / Objectives Few lines, one paragraph  What is purpose  What are we trying to learn  Include assumptions (for this course)  Methodology Procedure used to solve problem  Another engineer/person should be able to exactly duplicate your work  Include figures, illustrations, photograph as needed  How tests were conducted  List materials  AVOID:  ◦ Do not include Results Methodology: Equations Use the equation editor  Caption your equation  Results What you discovered, invented, or confirmed  Focuses on your specific work  All preceding sections (Introduction, Background, Methodology) lead into the results section  All subsequent sections (Conclusions, Recommendations) consider what the results mean  Results  Logical order ◦ Importance ◦ Chronological order  Sequence in which events occurred  Include figures ◦ Figures: visually represent data  Include tables ◦ Tables: organize data into groups Results: Graphical display  Pie chart ◦ Relative areas, volumes or amounts into which a whole (100%) has been divided  Graph ◦ Show the trend or relationship between two dimensions  Flow charts ◦ Organization or relationship between discrte parts of a system Results: Tables and Figures Self-sufficient  Cited in the text  Include a number such as Table 1 or Figure 10  Include a concise title  Include clear labels  Never include a table or figure simply to include them (wastes reader’s time)  Tables and figures supplement rather than simple repeat information in the report  Discussion Most technical portion  Longest Portion  Without this section, the reader will not understand what your work proves  Interpret your results  ◦ What did you prove ◦ What did you NOT prove Do not report your results! Discussion  Organization ◦ Begin with a discussion of the data ◦ Move on to generalize about or analyze the data ◦ Consider how the data addresses the problem at hand ◦ Discuss what can be inferred from the data  Limitations of your work ◦ Results are inadequate, negative, or not consistent with previous work Discussion (Cont)  Move from fact to opinion ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Collect data Test data Analyze test Make recommendations Discussion Use frequent headings and subheadings  Short, declarative sentences  No long paragraphs or convoluted sentences  Use pictures and graphs  Do not include calculations (they are part of the methodology)  Place details or side discussions in Appendices  Conclusions / Recommendations State conclusions clearly  Do not introduce any new idea  Comprehensive Summary  Summarize findings  ◦ What was tested ◦ What was learned Recommend further action  Raise unanswered questions  APPENDICES  More detail not needed in body of report ◦ Calculations ◦ Raw data ◦ Computer programs References Cite the sources from which you drew information  All publications (books, publications, internet sites, etc) used  If you don’t cite  ◦ PLAGARIZE References  Format ◦ MLA: Modern Language Association ◦ APA: American Psychological Association More Avoid first person (I, we)  Passive voice  ◦ Not – “We designed the bridge to hold ten pounds” ◦ “The bridge was designed to hold ten pounds”  Past tense ◦ “The bridge was designed to hold ten pounds” ◦ NOT “the bridge is being designed…” More Be concise and clear  Don’t overwrite your vocabulary  Write, re-write, re-write, then re-write again  Use spell checkers  Don’t plagiarize, cite references  More  Stay organized, make an outline  A ◦ 1 ◦ 2  a  i  ii  b  B T Y P E O F R E P O RT TITLE OF YOUR WORK PREPARED BY: RESEARCHER NAMES West Virginia University Course or Program/Section SUBMITTED TO: CLIENT NAME Client Information Version # Date Submitted ABSTRACT An abstract is an accurate representation of the contents of a document in an abbreviated form. An abstract can be the most difficult part of the research report to write because in it you must introduce your subject matter, tell what was done, and present selected results, all in one short (about 200-300 words) paragraph. As a result, you should usually write the abstract last. An abstract serves an important function in a technical report; it communicates the scope of your report and the topics discussed to your reader. Abstracts help the reader locate materials that are of interest to them, and many times engineers will only read a paper’s abstract in order to determine whether the report will be relevant to them. Considering your audience and their needs will help you to determine what should be included in your abstract. Ask yourself: ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Why would a reader be interested in this work? What are the most important aspects of your work? What should a reader be sure to know about your work? What information will the reader have to have in order to understand the most important aspects? What are the main points from each section of your report? An informative abstract summarizes the key information from every major section in the body of the report, and provides the key facts and conclusions from the body of the report. A good way to develop an informative abstract i ...
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