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HIV is transmitted through the following main ways
- vaginal fluids, including menstrual blood
- breast milk
- lining inside the anus
- Sexual contact with an infected person. Anal or vaginal intercourse without a condom with a partner who is either positive or does not know his or her HIV status account for the vast majority of sexually-transmitted HIV cases in the U.S. and elsewhere. Oral sex is not an efficient route of HIV transmission. To learn more about the "theoretical risk" of oral sex and HIV transmission, Kissing, massage, masturbation and "hand jobs" do not spread HIV. More information about safer sex to help prevent HIV transmission can be found.
- Sharing needles, syringes or other injection equipment with someone who is infected. Information on safer injecting to help prevent the spread of HIV can be found.
- Mother-to-child transmission. Babies born to HIV-positive women can be infected with the virus before or during birth, or through breastfeeding after birth. More information about HIV and pregnancy can be found.
- Transmission in health care settings. Healthcare professionals have been infected with HIV in the workplace, usually after being stuck with needles or sharp objects containing HIV-infected blood. As for HIV-positive healthcare providers infecting their patients, there have only been six documented cases, all involving the same HIV-positive dentist in the 1980s.
- Transmission via donated blood or blood clotting factors.However, this is now very rare in countries where blood is screened for HIV antibodies, including in the United States.
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Jul 22nd, 2015
Oct 26th, 2016
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