1. The Tet offensive of 1968 during the Vietnam War demonstrated that
(A) bombing North Vietnam had severely curtailed Vietcong supplies
(B) the army of South Vietnam was in control of the South
(C) American strategy was working
(D) a negotiated settlement was in the near future
(E) the Vietcong could attack major cities throughout South Vietnam
2. Liberty of conscience was defended by Roger Williams on the grounds that
(A) all religions were equal in the eyes of God
(B) the signers of the Mayflower Compact had guaranteed it
(C) Puritan ideas about sin and salvation were outmoded
(D) theological truths would emerge from the clash of ideas
3. By the end of the seventeenth century, which of the following was true of women in New England?
(A) They had begun to challenge their subordinate role in society.
(B) They were a majority in many church congregations.
(C) They voted in local elections.
(D) They frequently divorced their husbands.
(E) They could lead town meetings.
4. The First Great Awakening led to all of the following EXCEPT
(A) separatism and secession from established churches
(B) the renewed persecution of witches
(C) the growth of institutions of higher learning
(D) a flourishing of the missionary spirit
(E) a greater appreciation for the emotional experiences of faith
5. The Embargo Act of 1807 had which of the following effects on the United States?
(A) It severely damaged American manufacturing.
(B) It enriched many cotton plantation owners.
(C) It disrupted American shipping.
(D) It was ruinous to subsistence farmers.
(E) It had little economic impact.
6. The National Road was constructed primarily for the purpose of
(A) demarcating the southwestern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase
(B) promoting trade and communication with the Old Northwest
(C) opening the Southwest to ranchers
(D) assisting the movement of settlers to the Oregon Country
(E) relieving overpopulation and crowding in the Northeast
7. The idea of Manifest Destiny included all of the following beliefs EXCEPT:
(A) Commerce and industry would decline as the nation expanded its agricultural base.
(B) The use of land for settled agriculture was preferable to its use for nomadic hunting.
(C) Westward expansion was both inevitable and beneficial.
(D) God had selected America as a chosen land and people.
(E) The ultimate extent of the American domain was to be from the tropics to the Arctic.
8. Which of the following statements about woman suffrage is true?
(A) The six states of New England were the first to have complete woman suffrage.
(B) Woman suffrage was introduced into the South during Radical Reconstruction.
(C) No state granted woman suffrage before 1900.
(D) The only states with complete woman suffrage before 1900 were west of the Mississippi.
(E) California and Oregon were the first states to have complete woman suffrage.
9. The American Federation of Labor under the leadership of Samuel Gompers organized
(A) skilled workers in craft unions in order to achieve economic gains
(B) all industrial and agricultural workers in “one big union”
(C) unskilled workers along industrial lines
(D) workers and intellectuals into a labor party for political action
(E) workers into a fraternal organization to provide unemployment and old-age benefits
10. In the period 1890–1915, all of the following were generally true about African Americans EXCEPT:
(A) Voting rights previously gained were denied through changes in state laws and constitutions.
(B) Back-to-Africa movements were widely popular among African Americans in urban areas.
(C) African American leaders disagreed on the principal strategy for attaining equal rights.
(D) Numerous African Americans were lynched, and mob attacks on African American individuals occurred in both the North and the South.
(E) African Americans from the rural South migrated to both southern and northern cities.
11. Conservative Republican opponents of the Treaty of Versailles argued that the League of Nations would
(A) isolate the United States from postwar world affairs
(B) prevent the United States from seeking reparations from Germany
(C) violate President Wilson’s own Fourteen Points
(D) limit United States sovereignty
(E) give England and France a greater role than the United States in maintaining world peace
12. Which of the following best characterizes the stance of the writers associated with the literary flowering of the 1920’s, such as Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald?
(A) Sympathy for Protestant fundamentalism
(B) Nostalgia for the “good old days”
(C) Commitment to the cause of racial equality
(D) Advocacy of cultural isolationism
(E) Criticism of middle-class conformity and materialism
13. Which of the following is true of the forced relocation of Japanese Americans from the West Coast during the Second World War?
(A) President Roosevelt claimed that military necessity justified the action.
(B) The Supreme Court immediately declared the action unconstitutional.
(C) The relocation was implemented according to congressional pro-visions for the internment of dissidents.
(D) The Japanese Americans received the same treatment as that accorded German Americans and Italian Americans.
(E) Few of those relocated were actually United States citizens.
14. Which of the following was an immediate consequence of the Bay of Pigs incident?
(A) Congress demanded United States withdrawal from the Panama Canal Zone.
(B) The Soviet Union sent missiles to Cuba.
(C) Americans began to view nuclear power plants as dangerous.
(D) The United States ended its military occupation of Japan.
(E) China entered the Korean War.
15. The high inflation rates of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s were primarily the result of
(A) major state and federal tax increases
(B) increased investment in major industries
(C) spending on social-welfare programs and the Vietnam War
(D) a decline in foreign trade
(E) deregulation of key transportation and defense industries