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Major Questions You Should
Be Able to Answer
14.1 What is culture and why is it helpful to understand its
layers and functions?
14.2 How are different types of organizational culture related to
14.3 What mechanisms or levers can I use to implement culture
14.4 How can I integrate the findings of socialization research
with the three phases of socialization?
14.5 How can I use mentoring to foster personal and
The set of shared, taken-for-granted, implicit assumptions that a
group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about,
and reacts to its various environments
• Shared concept
• Learned over time
Four Characteristics of
• Influences our behavior at
• Impacts outcomes at
Drivers and Flow of Organizational Culture
Jump to Appendix 1 for description
Three Levels of Organizational Culture
• The physical manifestation of an organization’s culture
Espoused versus enacted values
• Espoused values: explicitly stated values and norms that are
preferred by an organization
• Enacted values: values and norms that are actually exhibited or
converted into employee behavior
Basic underlying assumptions
• Organizational values that have become taken for granted
Four Functions of Organizational Culture
Test Your OB Knowledge (1 of 4)
Which level of organizational culture is the hardest to
C. enacted values
D. espoused values
E. basic underlying assumptions
Competing Values Framework
This gives us four types of organizational culture, each with different core values and different
sets of criteria for assessing organizational effectiveness.
Jump to Appendix 2 for description
Types of Organizational Culture
Internal focus, flexibility valued
rather than stability and control
Achieving effectiveness by
encouraging collaboration, trust, and
External focus and flexibility valued
Creation of new products and
Culture adaptable, creative, and fast
to respond to the marketplace
Internal focus, formalized and
structured work environment
Strong external focus and stability
and control valued
Stability and control valued over
Strong desire to deliver results and
Efficiency, timeliness, and reliability
Outcomes Associated with
• Organizational culture is related to measures of organizational
• Employees are more satisfied and committed to organizations
with clan cultures.
• Innovation and quality can be increased by building
characteristics associated with clan, adhocracy, and market
• Financial performance is not strongly related to organizational
• Market cultures tend to have more positive organizational
Often not a single homogeneous culture
Rather, multiple subcultures that either intensify the
existing cultural understanding and practices or diverge
Subcultures often form around:
• Functional or occupational groups or work roles
• Divisions or departments
• Geographical areas
• Products, markets, technology
• Levels of management
Test Your OB Knowledge (2 of 4)
Jane works in an organization where quality and
efficiency are highly valued. This organization's culture
The Process of Culture Change
Four truths about culture change
1. Leaders are the architects and developers of organizational
2. Changing culture starts with one of the three levels of
organizational culture: artifacts, espoused values, basic
3. Consider how closely the current change aligns with the
organization’s vision and strategic plan.
4. Use a structured approach when implementing culture
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (1 of 5)
Design of physical space
Using formal statements of:
• Organizational philosophy
Physical spacing among people
Location of office furniture
E.g., open office or flexspace
• Materials used for recruiting
Represent visible artifacts
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (2 of 5)
Slogans, language, acronyms,
Role modeling, training,
• Often powerful forces for cultural
Structure training to provide an indepth introduction about
organizational values and basic
• Easy to remember
Explicit rewards, status
• Strong impact on employees due
to highly visible and meaningful
• Strongest way to embed culture
Stories, legends, or myths
Powerful way to send messages
about values and behaviors that are
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (3 of 5)
Leader reactions to
• Leaders pay attention to
those activities they can
measure and control
• People learn and pay
attention to emotions
exhibited by leaders.
• These can send messages to
• Positive emotions spread.
• Negative emotions travel
faster and further.
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (4 of 5)
Rites and rituals
• Planned and unplanned
activities and ceremonies
• Hierarchical structure versus
• Used to celebrate important
events or achievements
• Reducing organizational
• Empower employees and
Mechanisms for Creating Culture Change (5of 5)
Organizational systems and procedures and
Reflected in how an organization manages
Test Your OB Knowledge (3 of 4)
Jackson Electronics would like to change their
organizational culture to emphasize clan culture. Jackson
should use all of the following methods EXCEPT
A. develop training programs to teach the underlying
assumption of clan culture.
B. have leaders keep information about negative events
C. change the office structure to allow space for
employees to collaborate and communicate.
D. develop group and team reward systems.
E. celebrate employee accomplishments and life events.
The Organizational Socialization Process (1 of 4)
What is organizational socialization?
The process by which a person learns the values, norms, and
required behaviors which permit them to participate as a
member of an organization
The three-phase model of organizational socialization
• Anticipatory socialization
• Change and acquisition
The Organizational Socialization Process (2 of 4)
Phase 1: Anticipatory
Occurs before an individual actually
joins an organization
Information learned about careers
• Current employees
• Social media
Realistic job previews: mitigate
unrealistic expectations formed
during this phase
Lower quit rates
The Organizational Socialization Process (3 of 4)
Phase 2: Encounter
• Employees come to learn
what the organization is
• Organizations use
Phase 3: Change and
Employees master important
tasks and roles and adjust to
their group’s values and
The Organizational Socialization Process (4 of 4)
What research tells us
• Effective onboarding programs result in increased retention, productivity,
and rates of task completion for new hires.
• Many organizations use socialization tactics to reinforce a culture that
promotes ethical behavior.
• Managers need to help new hires integrate with the culture to overcome
stress associated with a new environment.
• Support for the stage model is mixed, different techniques are appropriate
for different people at different times.
• Managers should pay attention to the socialization of diverse employees.
Mentoring and Embedding
Mentoring is the process of forming and maintaining
intensive and lasting developmental relationships
between a variety of developers and a junior person.
Occurs over four phases
General Functions of the Mentoring Process
• Role modeling
• Exposure and visibility
• Acceptance and
• Challenging assignments
Building Your Social Capital
A broad developmental network aids career success.
Consistency and congruence between personal career
goals and your developmental network boosts job and
Develop a mentoring plan
• Make it goal driven.
• Seek out those experienced in the areas in which you
want to improve.
• What value will you bring to the relationship?
• Know when to move on.
Test Your OB Knowledge (4 of 4)
All of the following are benefits of the RJP (realistic job
preview) process EXCEPT
A. leads to higher job performance.
B. leads to lower turnover.
C. provides a clearer picture of actual job expectations.
D. employees may not accept a position after learning
about the negative aspects of the job.
E. All these are benefits of RJP.
Organizational Culture, Socialization and
Mentoring: Putting It All in Context
Figure 14.8 Organizing Framework for Understanding and Applying Organizational Behavior
Jump to Appendix 3 for description
Copyright 2014 Angelo Kinicki and Mel Fugate. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without permission of the authors.
Please prepare a Word document and provide written responses to the following questions.
Draw on text material and course readings to support your answers. Submit it via the TurnItIn
link provided in the class Canvas site under Week 4. Be sure that your name is on the document.
20 points each
1. One of the key things that needs to be considered in a merger or acquisition is how the
two companies will manage the process of “combining” (or not) the two corporate
cultures. Review the lecture slides for Chapter 14 posted to Canvas under Week1 about
the importance of a bi-cultural audit and strategies for managing organizational culture
during a merger/acquisition. Also review the 3 articles posted under Week 1 --“Why
Tony Hsieh Sold Zappos”, “Inside Amazon”, and “Zappos CEO Distances”.
a) Given the Competing Values Framework in your text and the readings posted, how
would you describe the corporate culture of Zappos as compared to the corporate
culture of Amazon? Why do you say this (provide examples/evidence to back up your
b) In 2009, Amazon acquired Zappos, how was the “marriage” of the two corporate
cultures handled? How well does this arrangement appear to be working? Do you
have any concerns about Zappos’ ability to maintain its culture going forward?
c) Given Amazon’s recent purchase of Whole Foods, how do you think that this will
impact the corporate culture of Whole Foods? Do some research and provide some
evidence to support your answer.
2. Given the Time Magazine article (“How High is Your XQ?”) on personality testing
posted to Canvas under Week 2:
a) What appear to be the trends in how companies are utilizing data analytics and
personality testing for employment?
b) The article cites advantages and disadvantages of using these. What are these and
what your thoughts about this?
3. This question has two parts.
a) With regard to the article “On the Folly of A While Hoping for B” posted to Canvas
under Week 3, what can be learned about problems with reward systems and how
they are designed? Which example did you like the best and why? How can
organizations learn/benefit from this?
b) Please paste the following link into your browser and watch the Ted Talk by Dan
Pink on motivation and rewards. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrkrvAUbU9Y
What does Dan argue that companies should focus on when attempting to motivate
employees and why? Do you agree with his views? Why/why not? How is this similar
or different from job enrichment?
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