PS385 Response Maintenance and Generalization

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Question Description

Read the following chapter in your Applied Behavior Analysis text:

  • Chapter 28: “Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change” (pp. 614–635)

Read the following chapter in your Ethics for Behavior Analysts text:

  • Chapter 10: “The Behavior Analyst as Teacher or Supervisor” (Guideline 5)

Response Maintenance and Generalization-300 words, no title page needed

Scenario: Bill is a BCBA who provides services as an independent contractor for Orange County Public Schools. Bill received a referral from Pine Valley elementary school to provide ABA therapy for a 5th grader, Jake, who displayed significant problems with noncompliance in response to directions from teachers and school staff, as well as physical aggression toward other students. Jake has been suspended three times within the first 6 weeks of school, and all interventions attempted have been ineffective to this point. Jake’s mother reports no significant problems at home and cannot understand why school is such a problem. Jake attends an off-campus after school program at the Boys and Girls Club, where he is in danger of losing his placement due to similar behavioral issues.

Upon completing a functional behavioral assessment, the BCBA determined that noncompliance and physical aggression were both maintained by socially mediated attention from adults. The BCBA developed a behavior intervention plan that consisted of non-contingent attention in which the teacher would spend 2 minutes providing 1:1 attention upon arrival to class, as well as a reinforcement plan in which Jake was rewarded with a token at the end of each class period for the absence of physical aggression. Jake also earned a token when he participated in social-personal training in the classroom where he practiced conflict resolution strategies with his classmates. The tokens earned could be exchanged for a variety of back up reinforcers, including lunch with a preferred teacher. This intervention plan resulted in significant overall progress in his classroom, as he began to comply with directions from the teacher and school staff more consistently and demonstrate appropriate social behavior with his classmates. Jake even earned “Student of the Week” for 2 consecutive weeks. Surprisingly, Jake continued to engage in significant noncompliant behavior and physical aggression at the Boys and Girls Club, where a meeting has been called to discuss possible dismissal from the program.

Answer the following questions based on your readings in the current unit:

  1. What are the requirements for response maintenance, setting/situation generalization, and response generalization? Which of these behavior change considerations appear to be most related to the problem regarding continued behavioral issues at the Boys and Girls Club after school program? Explain the reason for your response.
  2. According to your reading, how could the BCBA have designed his behavior intervention plan to ensure generalization of behavior change across settings? Be sure to include in your response a discussion of at least two of the five major strategies for promoting generalized behavior change.

Assignment- Complete the attached template.

Learning Activity Assignment: Ethics in Behavior Analyst Supervision

The purpose of this Learning Activity is to discuss ethical considerations as they pertain to the role and responsibilities of the Behavior Analyst supervisor. Guideline 5 of the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts covers the responsibilities of the Behavior Analyst as teacher and/or supervisor. In the Learning Activity, you will consider a scenario in which you will evaluate the appropriateness of feedback provided to a BCaBA by her BCBA supervisor.

Submitting Your Assignment

  1. View the Ethics in Behavior Analyst Supervision Case Scenario and complete the Unit 8 Learning Activity Template located in Course Documents.
  2. When completed, submit the Unit 8 Learning Activity Template to the Unit 8 Assignment

PS385 | Targeted Topics in Applied Behavior Analysis Unit 8 Learning Activity: Ethics in Behavior Analyst Supervision Mary Davis is a BCaBA who works with Brighter Days Behavioral Services. Mary has been working with Brighter Days for approximately 6 months and was about to have her second supervision meeting with Peter King, her BCBA supervisor. Mary had previously discussed a challenging case with Peter during their prior supervision approximately 3 months ago. Peter has previously recommended some interventions that might be useful in addressing some of the behavioral concerns that the client had in this previous supervision session. Please listen to the following exchange and answer the questions based on your readings on Guideline 5 from the Bailey and Burch text: Mary: Hello Peter. Thank you for meeting with me today. It certainly has been some time since our last supervision meeting. Peter: Hello Mary. You are correct, it has been some time. Things have been so busy around here that I barely have enough time in the day to get things done. In fact, we may have to limit this meeting to about 30 minutes so let’s get going. Mary: Okay Peter. Well, I want to discuss a case that we discussed in our prior supervision meeting 3 months ago. The child’s name is David Anderson. He is a 10-year-old child who lives with his mother and two older brothers who are 17 and 18 years of age. Peter: (Looking through his prior supervision notes) Oh yes, this is the child who was eloping from home. It appears that I recommended that you do a functional behavioral assessment to determine the function of elopement behavior. How did that go? Mary: Well Peter, I did an interview with the mother and completed the Motivational Assessment Scale with her. It was kind of difficult to determine the function of elopement based on her responses. I don’t have a lot of experience administering this instrument. Peter: It’s okay Mary. This is a very easy instrument to administer and complete. Are you sure the mother understood the questions? Mary: I thought that she did. Is there something that I should have done to evaluate her ability to understand? I am so lost with this case. This child’s most recent incident of elopement resulted in police intervention, and the other is currently in trouble with the Department of Social Services. PS385 | Targeted Topics in Applied Behavior Analysis Peter: Just make sure that you have recommended an intervention and that you are training the parent on consistent implementation. We want to make sure that we are addressing the issue, especially since the Department of Social Services is involved. Mary: Is it possible to develop an emergency plan or some plan of action now? I really don’t know how I should address the issue. I would like to develop an intervention plan but I just need some direction on what to do. Peter: I would love to address this matter with you further Mary, but I have another appointment in about 5 minutes. Why don’t we sit down together to figure out a course of action this Friday? Mary: Okay, but I am supposed to meet with the family tomorrow. What should I tell them? Answer the following questions based on your readings from the Bailey and Burch text and Guideline 5 of the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts: 1. Discuss at least two ethical responsibilities of the behavior analyst supervisor discussed in Guideline 5 in the Bailey and Burch text. Provide details on why it is important for the behavior analyst supervisor to uphold these responsibilities. 2. Based on your readings, discuss at least two ethical standards that are being compromised in the current scenario. Include in your discussion why you think that the BCBA is not behaving in an ethical manner. PS385 | Targeted Topics in Applied Behavior Analysis 3. What actions do you think that the BCBA supervisor need to take in order to remain in compliance with Guideline 5, based on your readings? Reference Bailey, J., & Burch, M. (2011). Ethics for Behavior Analysts (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Chapter 29: Ethical Considerations for Applied Behavior Analysts Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Ethics • Behaviors, practices, and decisions that address three fundamental questions: – What is the right thing to do? – What is worth doing? – What does it mean to be a good behavior analyst? • End goal: Further the welfare of the client Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved What is the right thing to do? • Personal history influences our decision making – Personal experiences – Cultural/religious beliefs – Professional training and experiences – To ensure that personal experiences and cultural/religious beliefs don’t take over: – Consult research literature, case studies, supervisors, colleagues Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved What is worth doing? • Social validity – Are the goals acceptable for the planned behavior change intervention? – Are the procedures acceptable and aligned with best treatment practices? – Do the results show meaningful, significant, and sustainable change? Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved What is worth doing? • Cost-Benefit Ratio – Does the potential benefit to the individual justify the short- and long-term cost for providing the service? • Decisions should be made by committee • Person with highest stake in outcome should be given greatest consideration Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved What is worth doing? • Existing Exigencies – Behaviors that are more serious warrant intervention consideration before behaviors that are less problematic – Must still consider long-term ramifications for treatments that result in quick change Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved The good behavior analyst… • Follows the Golden Rule • Is self-regulating • Calibrates decisions over time to meeting changing cultural values and contingencies Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Professional Standards • Written guidelines or rules of practice that provide direction for the practices associated with an organization Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Professional Standards • See… – APA: Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct – ABA: The Right to Effective Behavioral Treatment and The Right to Effective Education – BACB: Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts and The BCBA and BCABA Behavior Analyst Task List Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Ensuring Professional Competence • Academic training that includes: – Formal coursework – Supervised practica – Mentored professional experience • Certification and licensure – Behavior Analyst Certification Board • Keep practice within your area of competence Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Maintaining and Expanding Professional Competence • Continuing Educational Unit credits (CEUs) • Attending and presenting at conferences • Professional reading • Oversight and peer review opportunities Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Making and Substantiating Professional Claims • Avoid making unsubstantiated claims (e.g., “I am certain I can help your son”) – Maintain a healthy dose of humility • Only present yourself with valid credentials (never claim to have certifications, licenses that you don’t have) Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Informed Consent • The potential recipient of services or a participant in a research study gives his or her explicit permission before any assessment or treatment is provided • Permission must follow full disclosure and information has been provided Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Three Tests for Informed Consent • Person must demonstrate capacity to decide • Person’s decision must be voluntary • Person must have adequate knowledge of all salient aspects of treatment Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Capacity to Decide • The person must have – Adequate mental process or faculty by which he/she acquires knowledge – Ability to select and express his or her choices – Ability to engage in a rational process of decision making • These are often fluid concepts Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Surrogate/Guardian Consent • When a person is deemed incapacitated, consent may be obtained through a surrogate or guardian – Surrogate: a legal process by which another individual is authorized to make a decision for the person deemed incompetent – Guardian: legal custodian of the individual Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Voluntary • Consent is given in the absence of coercion, distress, or undue influence • Consent can be revoked at any time Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Knowledge of Treatment • Treatment must be presented in clear, nontechnical language – All important aspects of treatment – All potential risks/benefits – All potential alternative treatments Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Treatment Without Consent • Life-threatening emergency • Imminent risk of serious harm • Cannot be done when parents simply refuse; have recourse through legal system Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Confidentiality • Information regarding an individual receiving services may not be discussed with or made available to third parties (unless explicit permission has been given) • Limits – Abusive situations – Imminent, severe harm to the individual Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Protecting Dignity, Health, and Safety • Do I honor choices? – Do I help the client select outcomes and behavior change targets? • Do I provide adequate space for privacy? • Do I look beyond the disability and treat the person with respect? Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Advocating for the Client • Is the problem amenable to behavior treatment? – Ensure the problem is not medical – Ensure the problem is the client’s and that there is, indeed, a problem – Ensure other interventions have been attempted and that the problem can’t be solved informally or by another discipline Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Advocating for the Client • Is the proposed intervention likely to be successful? – Client, caregivers willing to participate – Research support for treatment – Public support for treatment – Behavior analyst skilled in treatment – Contingencies of reinforcement can be controlled Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Embracing the Scientific Method • “In science keeping an open mind is a virtue, but not so open that your brains fall out” (James Oberg) • When selecting interventions, behavior analysts should rely on – Peer-reviewed scientific reports published in reputable outlets – Direct and frequent measures of behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Conflict of Interest • Occurs when a principal party, alone or in connection with family, friends or associates, has a vested interest in the outcome of the interaction • Direct and frequent observations puts behavior analysts in close contact with the client and family members in natural settings • Must be cautious not to develop personal relationships that cross professional boundaries Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved

Tutor Answer

chriss200
School: UIUC

Attached.

Response Maintenance and Generalization
According to Cooper, Heron, & Heward (2007), response maintenance requires that a
learner continues to exhibit the desired behavior after all the interventions have been withdrawn
this depends on the essentialness of the behavior to the person. Setting or situation generalization
requires a learner to portray the desired behavior in a setting different from the environment in
which they were trained. A generalized setting differs from the instructional training. Response
generalization requires a learner to showcase new responses that serve the same purpose or
function as the original target behavior. Learners should be trained to generalize.
Setting/situation generalization appears to be most related to the program regarding
Jake’s continual behavioral issues at the Boys and Girls club after school program. ...

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