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Read this excerpt from A Black Hole Is NOT a Hole by Carolyn Cinami DeCristofano.

Reber had just one little problem. To explore the radio energy, he needed a radio telescope—a telescope that could detect invisible radio energy—but there was no such thing at the time. So he invented one. He built it in his backyard in Wheaton, Illinois. Late into the night, Reber probed the sky with his new telescope, using it to locate the source of the mysterious radio energy.

Reber mapped these signals from the sky and shared his findings. Astronomers followed up with new investigations and soon began reporting more signals. Over time, with better radio telescopes, they found that some radio sources appeared as paired patches, one on either side of a tiny dot. They called these sources "radio galaxies." They also discovered other, more starlike sources—intense dots of radio energy without patches. How strange. What could these quasars (short for "quasi-stellar radio sources") be? Were they related to the radio galaxies?

According to the excerpt, how did astronomers use Reber’s findings to add to the knowledge of black holes?

In the 1930s, Grote Reber became known for

Why were astronomers interested in studying radio waves in the 1980s and 1990s?

Science writers make connections between ideas or subjects to

The discovery of supermassive black holes began with the discovery of

What information could a video of an exploding star provide that a text could not?

The first step in analyzing a video is to

Read this excerpt from A Black Hole Is NOT a Hole.

In the 1930s a telephone-company engineer named Karl Jansky was trying to track down the cause of hissing static in phone lines when he discovered something strange. Radio energy from outer space was interfering with the phone signals. After learning about Janksy's discovery, a radio engineer named Grote Reber decided to investigate.

The connection between Karl Jansky and Grote Reber in the excerpt shows that

Ricardo read this excerpt from A Black Hole Is NOT a Hole by Carolyn Cinami DeCristofano.

Discoveries of black holes exploded in the late 1900s and early 2000s. What scientists found reads like a cast of characters for a mixed-up fairy tale. First they discovered the small ("Baby Bear") black holes, then the giant "Papas." But where were the medium "Mama Bear" black holes? It just didn't make sense that there would be smalls and larges but no mediums. Astronomers began the search, and found them. There's just one size that still hasn't been found, even though it has been predicted. The tiniest of all, the "Tom Thumbs" of the black-hole world, have yet to be discovered—if they even exist.

After reading the excerpt, Ricardo made a text-to-text connection. Which example is a text-to-text connection?

One benefit of presenting information in a video rather than in text is that a video can

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