WaldenU Annotated Bibliography Food Shortage

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Question Description

  • Locate six articles on the same topic of interest—two quantitative research articles, two qualitative research articles, and two mixed methods research articles—published in peer-reviewed journals.
  • Prepare an annotated bibliography that includes the following:

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Locate six articles on the same topic of interest—two quantitative research articles, two qualitative research articles, and two mixed methods research articles—published in peer-reviewed journals.


 


Prepare an annotated bibliography that includes the following:

 


A one-paragraph introduction that provides context for why you selected the research articles you did.  (this is the paragraph I would like to use but if you can please improve it)


 


 


I selected the articles and the subject content because I am extremely concerned about the food shortage among families in the United States especially children and what it does to them physically and mentally. I feel that no child should ever go hungry and that families (especially low income families) that depend on state provided food benefits should have knowledge on alternative methods of making their benefits last. They could be taught different locations to obtain food, how to join a community garden group, how to shop correctly, how to make recipes ahead, and even the use of coupons   

 

 

 


A reference list entry in APA Style for each of the six articles that follows proper formatting. Follow each reference list entry with a three-paragraph annotation that includes:


 


summary


 


An analysis


 


An application as illustrated in this example


 


A one-paragraph conclusion that presents a synthesis of the six articles.


 


Format your annotated bibliography in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment.

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• • • o o o o o o ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ o o • • Locate six articles on the same topic of interest—two quantitative research articles, two qualitative research articles, and two mixed methods research articles—published in peerreviewed journals. Prepare an annotated bibliography that includes the following: A one-paragraph introduction that provides context for why you selected the research articles you did. (this is the paragraph I would like to use but if you can please improve it) I selected the articles and the subject content because I am extremely concerned about the food shortage among families in the United States especially children and what it does to them physically and mentally. I feel that no child should ever go hungry and that families (especially low income families) that depend on state provided food benefits should have knowledge on alternative methods of making their benefits last. They could be taught different locations to obtain food, how to join a community garden group, how to shop correctly, how to make recipes ahead, and even the use of coupons A reference list entry in APA Style for each of the six articles that follows proper formatting. Follow each reference list entry with a three-paragraph annotation that includes: A summary An analysis An application as illustrated in this example A one-paragraph conclusion that presents a synthesis of the six articles. Format your annotated bibliography in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment. Applied Geography 31 (2011) 1232e1241 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Applied Geography journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apgeog Growing what you eat: Developing community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland Michelle P. Corrigan* Ohio university, Geography, Clippinger laboratories 122, Athens,OH 45701, USA a b s t r a c t Keywords: Community gardens Food security Food insecurity is a growing concern in the United States as it has been linked to increased health problems including obesity and diabetes. The community food security movement was created in an attempt to overcome this unequal distribution of food by localizing food production through approaches such as community gardening. The popularity of community gardening and the localization of food production are evident across the country, especially in central cities hoping to clean up vacant lots and in areas hoping to narrow the gap between production and consumption. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews with gardeners and a non-profit organization and field observations from food stores and community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland were used in this study to determine the extent to which community gardens contribute to food security. The selected study site represents different approaches to community gardening and different perceptions of healthy food. While it is evidenced that the community garden in this study contributes to individual, household, and community food security, additional help is needed in the form of education, policy, and funding to increase food security and promote healthy lifestyles. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction Food insecurity is a growing concern in the United States, where 49.1 million people are unable to access enough nutritious food for an “active and healthy life at all times,” and are therefore considered food insecure (USDA, 2009). Obesity is also an increasing problem in the United States, where the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate 34% of people over 20 years of age are obese (CDC, 2007). Food insecurity in the “Global South” is typically associated with hunger resulting from protein energy malnutrition and micronutrient malnutrition (Derose & Millman, 1998). Conversely, food insecurity in much of the “Global North” is increasingly defined by obesity. The United States produces enough food for all residents but almost 15% are unable to access quality food due to financial or other resource limitations. Paradoxically, food insecurity and obesity often occur among the same populations and thus their relationship has important implications for policymakers (Drewnowski & Specter, 2004). Community food security (CFS) is emerging as a widely accepted strategy for addressing food insecurity (Lyson, 2004). CFS attempts to ensure that all community members obtain enough nutritious food through safe and culturally acceptable means, while also incorporating environmentally sustainable techniques in an economically and socially just manner (Hamm & Bellows, 2003). * Tel.: þ1 11 513 260 5811. E-mail address: michellepcorrigan@gmail.com. 0143-6228/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.01.017 A need for CFS exists in environments where obtaining healthy and affordable food sometimes proves difficult, especially for lowincome and minority populations who often lack access to automobile and public transportation (Block, Scribner, & DeSalvo, 2004; Bullard, 2004; Kwate, 2008; Morland, Wing, Diez Roux, & Poole, 2002). Improving access to quality food is important because it contributes to a healthy diet, which, in addition to increased physical activity, aids in the prevention of obeseogenic environments (Drewnowski & Specter, 2004). Currently, growing your own food is popular and becoming an important element in many communities across the country (Muhlke, 2010). Vacant lots are providing a space for people to grow their own food and engage with the local food system and also with others in their community. One suggested method of integrating CFS is through the use of community gardens (Lyson, 2004). While other studies focus on the public health implications of community gardens and the benefits of gardens from a CFS perspective, little information is available regarding the challenges encountered during the initial stages of community garden development (Brown & Jameton, 2000; Gottlieb & Fisher, 1996; Lyson, 2004; Wakefield, Yeudall, Taron, Reynolds, & Skinner, 2007). Similarly, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of community gardens in terms of engaging people with food systems. Understanding the challenges involved with community gardening provides communities and organizations an opportunity to be successful during garden development. Successful community gardens can contribute to increased involvement with the food system. M.P. Corrigan / Applied Geography 31 (2011) 1232e1241 The purpose of this research is to elucidate the challenges of community gardening and to determine the extent to which community gardens encourage involvement with food systems. In order for communities to promote food security and healthy environments, CFS approaches, such as community gardening, need to be better understood. This research will answer the following question: How does engagement with community gardens make people more aware of issues of food security as well as their overall involvement with the food system?. The Duncan Street Miracle Garden (DSMG) in Baltimore, Maryland has been selected as a study site. Once a blue-collar manufacturing city, Baltimore’s economy underwent a painful transition in the years following World War II. This transformation to a service economy led to high unemployment and to disinvestment in many neighborhoods (Olson, 1997). At the same time, the population of Baltimore City quickly fell while suburban areas experienced an increase in population. Prior to 1900, black and white populations were more equally distributed throughout many parts of the city; however, segregation acts instituted as early as 1910 distinctly separated neighborhoods into “white” and “colored” (Boone, Buckley, Grove, & Sister, 2009). Similar to many other large cities, after 1950, white populations began leaving the city of Baltimore while African American migration from the South continued to increase (Boone et al., 2009). The DSMG is located on North Avenue between Chester Street and Collington Avenue in the Broadway East neighborhood of historic East Baltimore and takes up a city block (Fig. 1). This primarily African American (98%) neighborhood experiences high rates of poverty. Nearly 42% of residents live below the poverty level, the median household income in 2007 was about $22,000, and almost 50% of residents rely on public transportation (City Data, 2007). The existence of a food desert indicates uneven access to quality food and therefore creates an issue of injustice. The DSMG is supported by the Parks and People Foundation (PPF), whose vision is to “enhance the health and beauty” of communities and parks in Baltimore (Parks and People Foundation, 2009). Currently there are 11 gardeners who tend 17 plots. Surplus food from the garden is donated to various organizations in the neighborhood, including two local churches that manage soup kitchens, in addition to families and individuals. In this study, I argue that community gardens engage gardeners and the community with food systems in Baltimore and this contributes to improved food security. Interviews with several gardeners indicate access to fresh food is improved during the growing season and notably improved during the non-growing 1233 season if techniques such as canning and freezing are utilized. Donations from this garden are considerable and also have a large impact on the community. Although community gardens cannot alone resolve food insecurity; they are able to contribute to improved access to fresh foods on a local level. Food insecurity and the unequal distribution of quality food With respect to food insecurity, the USDA stresses the “availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods” and the ability of populations “to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies)” (USDA, 2009). The USDA’s definition is one of many in circulation. Maxwell (2000) compiled a list of over 32 different definitions of “food insecurity” published between 1975 and 1991. In the early 1980’s, Sen (1981) changed the way people thought about food insecurity when he published work on entitlements. He attributed food insecurity, and specifically famine, to a decline in entitlements and not of a decline in food availability. According to Sen, this led to an inequitable distribution of food and, ultimately, to food insecurity for poorer segments of the population (Sen, 1981). As difficult as it is to define food insecurity, measuring it poses an even greater challenge. In part, this is due to the fact that the first measurements were not taken until the 1960s. Likewise, the first official report using census data was only released in 1995. As a result, food insecurity was largely ignored by policy makers. Except during holidays and natural disasters, the mainstream media also ignored the issue (Berg, 2008). Although income is the single greatest predictor of food insecurity, research indicates that certain groups are more vulnerable than others at the household level, including the elderly, single-parent households, and large families (Rose, 1999). Since the availability and price of food in the U.S. is heavily influenced by government subsidies and multinational corporations, citizens lacking financial resources or government assistance have found accessing nutritious food difficult. This problem is worsened by the uneven distribution of quality food outlets, which has resulted in the creation of food deserts (Larsen & Gilliland, 2008). Food deserts are defined here as “places where people do not have easy access to healthy, fresh foods, particularly if they are poor and have limited mobility” (Furey, Strugnell, & McIlveen, 2001, p. 1). Therefore, food deserts are places offering an abundance of fast food restaurants and a limited number of stores offering quality food. Fig. 1. Map of study area in Baltimore, Maryland (Ohio University Cartographic Center, 2010). 1234 M.P. Corrigan / Applied Geography 31 (2011) 1232e1241 Fast food restaurants often predominate in low-income and predominately African American neighborhoods (Block et al., 2004; Larsen & Gilliland, 2008). Lewis et al. (2005) also found that restaurants (both full service and fast food) in low-income neighborhoods offer fewer healthy menu options than restaurants located in more affluent neighborhoods. This pattern has been attributed to a weak retail climate and an abundance of low wage labor in low-income neighborhoods (Kwate, 2008). While the density of fast food restaurants is higher in low-income and minority neighborhoods, the availability of supermarkets is lower among these populations (Morland et al., 2002). The same factors contributing to the abundance of fast food restaurants also contributes to the limited availability of supermarkets in economically disadvantaged and minority urban neighborhoods. Many supermarkets migrated to suburbs due to the weak retail climate in urban environments. In addition, profitability and securing adequate space required to operate in urban environments proves difficult (Nayga & Weinberg, 1999). Ironically, food insecurity exists in conjunction with obesity, which occurs from an “imbalance between energy intake and expenditure” (Skidmore & Yarnell, 2004, p. 819). As previously mentioned, roughly 34% of adults in the United States over 20 are obese, where obesity is defined as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of over 30 (CDC, 2007). In addition, nearly 32% of children ages 2e19 are considered obese (CDC, 2007). Obesity is linked with elevated levels of mortality as well as harmful medical and psychological consequences. Medical consequences of obesity include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer while psychological consequences include anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem (Wyatt, Winters, & Dubbert, 2006). In addition, obesity has a negative economic impact related to high health care costs associated with treatment and prevention of the disease (Friedman & Fanning, 2004). Public health experts have recommended treating obesity by promoting walking instead of driving to school and other destinations and encouraging healthy diets through improved product labeling (Koplan, Liverman, & Kraak, 2005). However, focus on residents’ environments is also necessary. By focusing on the environment and individual habits, both food insecurity and obesity levels could be lowered. The CFS movement has gained momentum as part of a larger effort to localize food production and provide greater and equal access to healthy and affordable food. A shift towards community food security Over the last few decades, the CFS movement has sought to overcome the unequal distribution of food through systems changes. The movement is growing in popularity as more people make the link between food production and food consumption (Lyson, 2004). CFS incorporates environmentally sustainable techniques in an economically and socially just manner by encouraging community gardening, farmers’ markets, community supported agriculture (CSA), and food processing microenterprises (Gottlieb & Fisher, 1996). The movement towards CFS is a response to the lack of focus paid to current food access problems by city agencies and planning departments (Allen, 1999). Since the industrialization of agriculture, most people have little or no say in the way their food is produced. Instead, these decisions are made by small groups of executives and affect millions of people. CFS works to restore a democratic voice and relocalize the production of food in order to ensure all community members obtain enough nutritious food through safe and culturally acceptable means (Hamm & Bellows, 2003). While anti-hunger movements seek to relieve immediate hunger problems through emergency food programs, CFS attempts to improve food security over the longer term (Hamm & Bellows, 2003). Also in contrast to anti-hunger movements, CFS uses multiple indicators to assess the extent of food insecurity in a particular community. Antihunger indicators of food insecurity are developed from need-based assessments and statistics on food program participation, including the Food Stamp Program, Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and school breakfast and lunch programs. Indicators of the CFS model include accessibility to quality food, public transportation options, rates of diet-related health problems, nutrition education options, analysis of current local food production systems, and the availability of emergency food options (Winne, Joseph, & Fisher, 2000). Of the various CFS approaches, community gardening may be the most viable in environments where low-income populations have few food options (Gottlieb & Fisher, 1996; Lyson, 2004). Here, a community garden is defined as “an organized, grassroots initiative whereby a section of land is used to produce food or flowers or both in an urban environment for the personal use or collective benefit of its members” (Glover, 2003, p. 265). In urban environments vacant lots are often rented to community gardeners until more lucrative uses for these spaces are identified (Schmelzkopf, 1995). Unlike safety net programs, which often foster dependency, gardens provide community members with selfreliant strategies for obtaining healthy and affordable food (Winne, 2008). In order for community gardens to prove viable, certain conditions, such as adequate space, access to soil, water, seeds, and tools, and a dedicated group of community members, are required. Carole Nemore states, “community gardens cultivate more than plants, they cultivate communities” (1998, p. 1). Similarly, Winne (2008) believes that “garden” is not the most important word in “community garden.” Thus, community gardens require substantial participation in order to be successful. Studies have shown gardens experience a higher success rate when they are developed through a “bottom-up” approach, which occurs when the community is involved from the beginning of the planning process. This success is perhaps due to the gardeners’ desire to build the garden themselves, rather than adopt a garden developed through a “top-down” approach, which would be planned and perhaps even planted by an outside organization (Schmelzkopf, 1995). A top-down approach to development is generally defined by an outside governing body while a bottom-up approach is identified by the community (Laverack & Labonte, 2000). Community gardens, along with many other local-food based movements such as farmer’s markets and urban agriculture, have become important resources for the community food security movement (Baker, 2004). A study in Newark, New Jersey showed that 44.4% of 189 respondents considered growing their own food a socio-economic benefit of community gardening (Patel, 1991). Patel (1991) also found that in 1989, 405 community gardens in Newark, New Jersey produced $450,000 worth of produce which allowed garden participants to substantially reduce their food bills. Additionally, a youth garden in Berkeley, California earned $10,233 from sales in 1998 alone (Lawson, 2005). Some gardens produced over five times the national production standard of vegetables (Baker, 2004). An upstate New York survey indicated 60% of lowincome gardeners chose to garden because it provided them with a significant food supply (Armstrong, 2000). Gardeners in Toronto thought of the food produced in their gardens as a substitute for store-bought food; they also believed gardening made a considerable difference in their household food budget (Wakefield et al., 2007). Community gardens also represent a part of civic agriculture, which has been defined by Lyson (2004, p ...
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Tutor Answer

agneta
School: Duke University

Attached.

Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography
Institution Affiliation
Date

1

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

2
Introduction

I selected the articles and the subject content because I am extremely concerned about the
food shortage among families in the United States especially children and what it does to them
physically and mentally. I feel that no child should ever go hungry and that families (especially
low-income families) that depend on state-provided food benefits should have knowledge of
alternative methods of making their benefits last. Low-Income families need educative programs
where they can learn ways to avoid experiencing food shortages. Program activities like prepreparation of recipes, shopping habits, identification of different food locations, making use of
coupons, and creation of community garden groups would solve the food insecurity problem.
1. Whitaker, R. C., & Orzol, S. M. (2006). Obesity among US urban preschool children:
relationships to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Archives of pediatrics &
adolescent medicine, 160(6), 578-584.
Summary
The article demonstrates an issue of concern, obesity, among ethnic groups which creates
high health risks such as hypertension and diabetes. Whitaker and Orzol, (2006) suggest that the
prevalence of obesity starts at preschool since the behaviors that affect energy balances usually
begin in a child’s early life. This has increased high rates of childhood obesity and where factors
like the economic status in families prevent children from getting nutritional and safe food.
Analysis
The researchers performed a qualitative study to establish whether indeed there are racial
or ethnic differences in the existence of obesity among children in preschool. The also identified

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

3

whether the differences were caused by socioeconomic factors (Whitaker, & Orzol, 2006). The
study design was effective in helping the researchers collect adequate data for their study.
However, the main challenge was analyzing the data adequately since factors like income;
maternal education and food security were not measured within the same duration. Therefore,
this might have prevented them to get appropriate results.
Application
The information provided is significant since it will help me establish how to develop
educative food programs in my future study. My plan is to help the families from racial or ethnic
groups to improve the feeding practices of their preschool children. In this case, the
consideration of the identified socioeconomic factors will influence the right ...

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Good stuff. Would use again.

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