BUS2030 Effective Leaders discussion

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Question Description

Answers must be numbered, and be a total of 1000 words. Must also include 3 sources and have in text citations, with APA formatting.


1. What are five practices of effective leaders? Describe each

2. Describe four leadership styles within the situational leadership mode. Provide an example of each.

3. How do most effective leaders establish credibility?

4. What are four components of effective persuasion? Create a hypothetical case study, or possibly a situation you have actually experienced, where a team leader was trying to get members more committed to a team. Discuss the effectiveness of their techniques.

5. Discuss the differences between transactional leadership and transformational leadership. What are the outcomes of each?

FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. C H A P T E R 4 Leadership S T O Team leadership is the practice of enlisting and overseeing others in the pursuit of shared V seeks to inspire others to the highest levels of goals. In contrast to management, leadership individual, team, and organizational performance. Whereas managers focus on planning, E organizing, and controlling, leadership involves vision, networking, and consensusR will possess good management skills, the conbuilding (Kotter, 1998). While good leaders verse is not always true. Leaders must, be able to foster communication, cohesion, and commitment within their teams. After looking at a brief overview of management trends in organizations, we will survey the major theories of leadership, discuss the five practices of exemplary leaders, and describe how C leaders can influence and persuade others. We conclude with specific strategies for conducting effective meetings. A R CASE 4.1: COGENT O HEALTHCARE L Brentwood, Tennessee, is home to a health care company that specializes in hospital medicine, an emerging spe- cialty with an impressive year-over-year increase in demand. This company has experienced 24% compounded annual growth and has recently doubled in revenue and 2 headcount. With over 1,100 physicians employed in over 130 hospitals and clinics across the United States and fewer than 200 employees running the corporate head3 quarters, this business relies on a distributive leadership model to make sure that the clinical services and business 1 standards. operations run smoothly, efficiently, and up to the highest From the executive suite down to the hospital or “program” level, the company is broken down into leadership 3 “dyads” of a clinical leader and an operations leader. The chief operating officer and chief clinical officer distribT officers and regional chief medical officers, who in turn ute leadership responsibility over regional chief operating S medical directors. This “role-player” model has proven divide responsibility for program managers and program successful with world champion sports teams, on paramedical teams, and within military Special Forces teams. A vital component of this model, however, is training, team-building, and the establishment of trust. One of the key differentiators for this rapidly growing company is the investment it makes in the ongoing development of its human capital. It is one of the few health care companies of any size with a dedicated Organizational Development (OD) department, which has developed an academy model that is designed to meet the advancing needs of the corporate staff, the field support staff, the clinicians, and the hospital program and 67 FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 68 Working in Teams regional leadership teams. The academy model is self-buttressing, meaning that it supports itself by crossreferencing courses and training different program-level role players in unison. For example, in the initial “level 1” training program, the operations leadership and the clinical leadership team members learn the same fundamentals, laying a foundation for understanding, trust, and interdependence across the footprint of the company. This uniformity helps everyone who has attended the level 1 academy speak the same language, share the same expectations, and understand the baseline knowledge. As they advance, the leaders participate in more specialized skills training that complements the work they do. Whether that training focuses on managing finances or managing physician performance, these team leaders are trained to be fully competent and on the cutting edge of their own specialization, and to understand the language of their counterpart. This ensures ongoing communicationSand transparency between co-leaders of very highpressure, high-stress program sites, which prepares these leadership teams for the daily demands of the volatile T hospital environment. O The advanced leadership training, the third level of the academy model, is designed around a “live case” strucV problem that is facing its hospital team—such as ture, which requires the leadership “dyad” to bring an actual floundering patient satisfaction scores or a strained relationship E with the hospital administration—to the training event. Each team’s “live case” is used in every module or session in the training in order to lend context to the R material and to create a bridge between theory and practice. The academy takes each team through a series of , performance (to name a few), and each session sessions about managing culture, relationships, conflict, and involves table exercises designed to force the teams to develop a change initiative to resolve the problem. By the end of the seminar, each leadership team weaves together an integrated and multifaceted change plan, complete C with milestones. These detailed plans are shared with the regional leaders for the sake of accountability and follow-through, improving the execution and implementation A of those initiatives. It is estimated that the company invests almost $10,000 Rper year on the development of each of its top leaders, not including the money allocated for “continuing medical education” (known as “CME”) credits. The figure O it is a significant amount of money that surprises decreases for employees who bear less responsibility, and while many business leaders across industries, it has proven valuable L in driving business performance and retention of the company’s “top talent.” In the time that these academies have been instituted, average length of physician tenure has doubled, the company-wide turnover rate is the best it has been in the company’s history, and the 2 quality-based incentive bonuses that programs earn have increased across the company. Given the annual revenue of the company, the decreased costs associated with turnover, 3 and the training of new employees—not to mention the intangible value of improved client satisfaction and industry reputation—the investment in leadership develop1 ment has more than justified itself. 3 Case Study Discussion Questions T S business, education, and the military? How do 1. What common needs exist on teams in health care, sports, you think leadership addresses those needs? 2. How does Cogent Healthcare justify its investment in leadership development? What are the tangible shortand long-term benefits? 3. What is the best way to train leaders? Describe the Cogent Healthcare leadership development model. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 69 For generations, leaders and supervisors have used their positional power to issue commands and control subordinates’ behavior. They relied largely on the promise of reward and the threat of punishment to manage and motivate employees. This business model was designed by powerful men such as J. P. Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, and John D. Rockefeller Sr. in the early 1900s to run their growing companies (Kayser, 1994). As the United States transitioned from an agrarian to an industrialized economy, factories and organizations sought raw material and human labor to an unprecedented extent. To meet their needs, companies hired thousands of employees who, subsequently, needed to be managed and organized. Supervisors and foremen had almost total power to hire, fire, reward, and punish those who worked for them. Workers were given direction, evaluated, and then either rewarded or punS 1979). But today’s competitive and fast-paced ished based upon their performance (Edwards, global economy requires a new organizational model that shares power and capitalizes on T the collective wisdom of groups and teams (Guillen, 1994; Senge, 1990). O V SELF-MANAGED WORK TEAMS E The most successful organizations areR flexible, innovative, and collaborative in order to maximize the strengths of an increasingly , educated and diverse workforce. Hierarchical command and control systems that emphasize authority and compliance are out of fashion and, ultimately, ineffective in the long term (Pfeffer, 1992). Some authors have coined this new autonomy-granting phenomenon as Cthe second industrial revolution, postulating that it may represent as profound a change as the first industrial revolution of the eighteenth A and nineteenth centuries (Fisher, 2000). Self-managed work teams (SMWTs)R are more than groups of people working together to accomplish tasks defined by their managers. SMWTs are, as their name implies, truly O self-managed. These teams hold responsibility for the entire process: goal-setting, creating L a project plan, dividing up the tasks, assigning responsibilities, and allocating compensation. For example, W. L. Gore and associates, the company that produces GORE-TEX, makes significant use of self-directed work teams. Job titles do not exist at Gore. Rather, every 2 when it comes to compensation, the associates employee is known as an “associate,” and are evaluated by their entire team. 3 SMWTs share power by allowing members to participate in important decisions and to volunteer for leadership opportunities 1 (Oh, 2012). When individuals are empowered and motivated, they are more committed to 3 the team’s success and feel a greater sense of involvement in the process (McIntyre & Foti, 2013). In these types of teams, discussions tend to be more dynamic and innovativeTas members share different perspectives and work collaboratively to find the best answers and S solutions (Bergman, Rentsch, Small, Davenport, & Bergman, 2012). Members realize they can use their personal power to influence group behavior and improve team performance. Shared power, then, allows individual members to exert their opinions and positively influence group decisions and actions. As Johnson and Johnson (2006) suggest, “The effectiveness of any group is improved when power is relatively mutual among its members and power is based on competence, expertise, and information” (p. 240). Shared power based upon competence as opposed to position grants all members the opportunity to contribute to team success. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 70 Working in Teams LEADERSHIP AND GENDER For most of human history, men have occupied positions of power and have enjoyed privilege in nearly all its forms. Indeed, most of the storied leaders around the world are men, and most of today’s revered CEOs and titans of industry are men. However, in a 2010 article from The Atlantic magazine entitled “The End of Men,” author Hanna Rosin wonders if the golden age of male leadership is coming to an end. Rosin’s exposition on the advancement of women leaders is based in the argument that “the postindustrial economy is indifferent to men’s size and strength. The attributes that are most valuable today—social intelligence, open communication, the ability to sit still S and focus—are, at a minimum, not predominantly male. In fact, the opposite may be true.” T roles and strengths of men and women are Rosin argues that the historical or traditional social constructs more than they are biological O ones. Her conclusion, therefore, is that the dominance of males—even in leadership positions—is on the decline. She states, “As thinkV physical strength and stamina as the keys to ing and communicating have come to eclipse economic success, those societies that take E advantage of the talents of all their adults, not just half of them, have pulled away from the rest.” If physical strength and size no longer command attention and respect, it follows R that people with the greatest skill in the most valuable areas (in Rosin’s argument, these areas , are thinking, communicating, perspectivetaking, and social intelligence) are the ones who will ascend to leadership positions. Leaders are only effective to the extent to which they can influence their environment and their team. These factors may, indeed,Chave been influenced by certain social constructs or constraints in the past, but the world is in transition. The knowledge, skills, and A abilities that lead to success are based upon communication, cooperation, and collaboration. And these can be developed, refined, and R acquired by men and women alike. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP O L Leadership is a hotly contested subject in academic and organizational settings. Not every2 one agrees on what constitutes effective leadership. Kotter (1985) makes a strong argument that as the workplace continues to become more 3 competitive and complex, issues of leadership, power, and influence will become increasingly important. Work teams today are 1 also contending with the ever-increasing pressure to solve complex, multidimensional 3 leader today must manage “thousands of problems at lightning speed. The typical team interdependent relationships—linkages to people, groups, or organizations” (Kotter, 1985, T p. 23). Though relatively straight-forward tasks and goals can usually be accomplished through simple structures and concrete roleS assignments, solving more complex problems is a more difficult process. Teams have to figure out how to generate, evaluate, and implement innovative solutions to new and unforeseen problems. Leadership models that can catalyze and monitor this process while empowering and developing team members are at the very heart of effective leadership (Pfeffer, 1992). Blake and Mouton (1961) created the Managerial Grid to graphically represent the balance between task and relationship. Their model suggests that the best leaders have a high concern for both people and production or results. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership Table 4.1 Managerial Grid High Concern for People 71 Country club management Middle of the road management Medium Low Team management Impoverished management Authority-compliance Medium High S T Concern for Production (task) O SOURCE: Adapted from tBlake and Mouton (1961). V E people than production, their style is friendly and When leaders are more concerned with nonconfrontational. When production is given priority over the value of people, the use of R authority to enforce compliance is the norm. When leaders are passive and detached from both the people and tasks of their team,, the management style is impoverished. The ideal Low leadership style in this model is to value and invest in people while simultaneously creating accountability and the expectation of task achievement (Arana, Chambel, Curral, & Tabernero, C of the most common models of leadership. 2009). The following section describes some A R In the early 1900s, leadership researchers O assumed that great leaders had a consistent set of innate traits that set them apart from followers. Researchers believed that once people L knew which personality traits were associated with success, they could identify potential Trait Theories leaders and put them into positions that would maximize those traits. According to this reasoning, identification was crucial because the personality traits associated with effective 2 leadership were only present in extraordinary people and could not be developed in people lacking such traits. Although this was a3reasonable and systematic approach at the time, researchers were disappointed when they were not able to identify a common set of traits 1 present in successful leaders. Research by Mann (1959) and Stogdill (1948) shattered the illusion that great leaders are born with 3 certain characteristics; the data simply did not support that position. T More recent research has used characteristics of the five factor model of personality S agreeableness, and neuroticism) to examine (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, leadership qualities. Traits within the five factor model tend to be relatively stable throughout life and are thus categorized as personality traits rather than learned behavior or transitional states. Using this model, leadership researchers found significant differences between leaders and followers. The most effective leaders, on average, exhibit higher levels of extraversion (outgoingness and assertiveness), conscientiousness (diligence and work ethic), and openness (flexibility and creativity) (McCrae & Costa, 1987). Not surprisingly, the most effective leaders work well with others, get things done, and find innovative ways to solve problems. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 72 Working in Teams Contingency Theories As behavioral researchers were observing leaders in various settings, they found that a consistent style of leadership did not always work for every situation. In other words, certain styles of leadership work better depending on the specific task, composition, and context of the group. Out of these observations emerged a theory of leadership that posits the importance of matching leader behaviors with the context. Contingency theories rest upon the assumption that leadership styles must adapt to changing team conditions in order to be most effective. Situational leadership is a well-known contingency theory of leadership developed by Blanchard and Hersey (Blanchard, Zigarmi, &SZigarmi, 1999; Hersey, 1985). This theory suggests that leaders are defined by two things: the amount of direction they give and the T amount of support they give. A team leader who is highly directive gives detailed information Ohow they should do it. Leaders who are supto members about what needs to be done and portive give a lot of encouragement to othersVand empower them to figure out the best way to get their job done. There are four possible leadership styles, depending on the amount of E direction and support a team leader gives: directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. R , High C A Supporting R O L Supportive Behavior Delegating 2 Low Low Coaching Directing 3 1 3 T S Directive Behavior High While individual leaders might have a preferred style of leadership, Blanchard and Hersey believe the most effective leadership style depends on the team. Situational leadership theory asserts that leadership style must be fluid and dependent on the developmental level of team members (DeRue, Barnes, & Morgeson, 2010). When FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 73 teams are in the forming stage of development, members are not exactly sure how they will contribute or how the team will function together. The team is in an early developmental stage exhibiting characteristics of low competence as a team but high commitment. At this stage, members respond best to a leader who provides a lot of structure and uses a directing style of leadership. As the team develops, members increase their level of competence but lose some of their initial motivation for the task. Thus, the leader must maintain a high level of directiveness while also providing high levels of support and encouragement. This style of leadership is called coaching. As members become competent in their abilities, they require less direction but still need support. Thus, the supporting style helps maintain high levels of commitment to the task. Finally, as members develop competence and interS is delegating. At this stage, members are able to nal motivation, the ideal leadership style accomplish the tasks they are assignedT with little support or direction. This variable style of leadership is well suited to the changing needs of developing groups. Situational leaders O start with a directing style and end up with a delegating style. V Transformational Leadership E Transformational leadership is a theoryR of leadership that describes the process by which leaders transform a group of individuals into a cohesive team that is committed to the high, upon the ability of leaders to inspire others to go est levels of success (Bass, 1998). It relies beyond mere compliance by encouraging them to take ownership of a task or project and to identify with the results. Transformational leaders are visionaries who empower others to accomplish great feats. They lead byCexample and are able to enlist others to take on great challenges. Transactional leadership, A in contrast, focuses on the management of tasks and is defined as the transaction between a manager and an employee. It relies upon strucR ture, accountability, and a reward system to ensure that work is getting done. Transformational leaders use influence O strategies such as inspirational appeal, consultation, and personal appeal to garner the highest levels of commitment. Similarly, they use L referent or expert bases of power to motivate others, as opposed to coercive or legitimate power, which may foster resentment. These leaders would rather have members volunteer for tasks than force them to comply. Thus, transformational leadership tends to generate a 2 deep sense of loyalty to the team and commitment to the task. 3 transformational leader. There are certainly Steve Jobs is an example of an inspiring, tales of his occasional heavy-handedness 1 and slavish dedication to a singular vision, but shortly after his death in 2011, many of his former colleagues and direct reports shared detailed stories of how he brought out3the best in his employees. He had an appealing genius about him, according to many, and T he was uncompromising in his pursuit of innovative solutions, user-friendly designs, and exceptional results. The teams that survived the SApple, its mission, and to Jobs himself. The result, intensity of his style were fiercely loyal to obviously, has been a series of historic and influential products including the iPod, iPad, and iPhone that have revolutionized technology and communication. Primal Leadership Primal leadership is a theory of leadership that emphasizes the emotional and social maturity of the leader (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2004). Emotional intelligence, as we have FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 74 Working in Teams discussed in Chapter 3, on interpersonal dynamics, begins with the ability to recognize and manage one’s own emotions. Being aware of feelings such as anger or irritation and being able to manage those feelings is the foundation of emotional intelligence. If leaders are not aware of their own feelings and do not have an accurate understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses, they will not be able to manage their teams effectively. In this regard, healthy self-esteem is not thinking too highly of oneself, and it’s not thinking too poorly of oneself; it’s thinking accurately about oneself. The second half of emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage relationships. Leaders must have social awareness and the ability to accurately read others. More specifically, they need to recognize how they are personally affecting their team S effectiveness and make changes, if necesmembers. This allows leaders to evaluate their sary. One of the reasons why the fictitious character Michael Scott, from the award-winning T TV show The Office, is so funny is that he has absolutely no idea how foolish he appears to O others. He has neither self-awareness nor social awareness, which can be quite humorous as he tries to lead his team. Ultimately, effective V leaders need emotional intelligence in order to know themselves and to inspire others. Furthermore, when interpersonal tensions E build, leaders need social maturity to accurately diagnose the situation and to intervene R with a level head. , Leadership Development Plan C Ain the future? 2. Where do I want to be 3. What do I need to doR to get there? O L Most of us have had irritable, moody managers or supervisors who made our working 1. Where am I now? lives miserable. Bosses can have a significant impact on the atmosphere of a team. Not only are emotions subconsciously perceived on 2 a neurological level, they tend to be mirrored by others (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2001). The mood or emotions of a team leader 3 or negative, in the rest of the team. For this often generate similar emotions, either positive reason, Goleman and his colleagues suggest 1 that leaders need to be aware of their emotions and how their moods impact their teams. They assert that if team leaders are to be consistently successful over a long period of time,3they need to regulate their moods while still being authentic and genuine. If they are angry, T stressed, or upset but try to act superficially playful or artificially positive, the team will know. It is better for them to be aware of their S setting than to cover them up and pretend emotions and deal with them in an appropriate that nothing is wrong. Another distinguishing characteristic of primal leadership is its emphasis on intentional leadership development. Goldman and his associates believe that leaders can be developed by following a specific process. First, individuals need to know their strengths and weaknesses. They can either gather data informally or they can participate in a more structured 360 degree assessment in which feedback from multiple perspectives such as peers, FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 75 supervisors, and direct reports is solicited. Once leaders have an accurate understanding of their strengths and weaknesses, they can create specific goals about the kind of leader they would like to become. The final step in the leadership development process is to create a concrete action plan to achieve those goals. Starting with where they are now and moving to where they would like be, emerging leaders create a detailed, written action plan to get there. Once a plan is constructed, discipline and diligence are needed to carry it out. One of the best ways to stay committed to the process of personal development is to enlist a coach, which is one of the primary characteristics of our next leadership theory. Resonant Leadership S The theory of resonant leadership is closely T related to primal leadership, but with some distinguishing differences. Boyatzis and McKee (2005) argue that it is the relationship O between the leader and his or her direct reports that is the key determinant of team success. Relationships that are positive andVempowering lead to feelings of trust and growth. Conversations and meetings with resonant leaders leave members feeling excited about E being a part of the team and encouraged about their role (Baran, Shanock, Rogelberg, & R interpersonal resonance. Conversely, when the Scott, 2012). This is what Boyatzis calls relationship with supervisors generates feelings of fear, anxiety, or distrust, the result is , dissonance. Dissonant leaders may be smart, competent, and hard-working, but they are not able to build meaningful connections with their team; thus, they will not be able to maintain sustainable success. C Leaders are often under a tremendous amount of pressure. They carry an emotional burden that can wear them down over A time. If leaders are not managing stress effectively, they lose the ability to relate to others inRa positive way and become disconnected from or dissonant with their team. The solution is to practice regular habits of rest and renewal. In O particular, Boyatzis recommends mindfulness to slow the body down and to focus the mind. With mindfulness, leaders regularly set aside time for quiet reflection and peaceful L relaxation. It is often during times of this mindfulness or increased self-awareness that the full creative capacities of our brains are utilized. It also creates feelings of hope and goodwill toward others, which can lead to resonance with team members. 2 Another way leaders can experience renewal is to mentor and coach their team mem3 bers with compassion (Boyatzis, Smith, & Blaize, 2006). This coaching experience not only has the potential to impact the development 1 of team members, it can also be an extremely meaningful endeavor for the leader. The practice of compassionate coaching occurs when 3 the leader is truly interested in the well-being of others and not just interested in what they Tresonant leaders see one of their primary roles as can contribute to the organization. Thus, developing the potential of their team members. Simply put, they are invested in helping S team members achieve their own goals. Coaching appointments can foster resonance by asking team members the following questions: 1. What do you want to achieve personally and professionally? 2. How can I help you achieve those goals? 3. Are you open to me giving you specific feedback and suggestions for growth? FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 76 Working in Teams The answers to these questions can be used as the groundwork for future meetings where goals and plans are discussed more specifically. Again, this type of coaching is beneficial to both the leader and the team member and is one of the key characteristics of resonant leadership. FIVE PRACTICES OF EXEMPLARY LEADERS Trait theories, contingency theories, and transformational theories of leadership all have something to contribute to the discussion about leadership. Each perspective S emphasizes certain criteria or conditions that lead to effective leadership. Another T of the salient components of these models model of leadership that incorporates many is described in The Leadership Challenge, by O Kouzes and Posner (2007). Used in many corporate leadership training programs, this popular leadership model is grounded in V over 3 million leaders. The authors have 30 years of research and includes data from identified five characteristics of exemplary Eleaders. These include the ability to do the following: • Model the way R , • Inspire a shared vision C • Enable others to act A • Encourage the heart R O The theory suggests that if individuals learn to use these five practices on a regular basis, they would be more effective as leaders. TheL five practices are easy to understand and, with • Challenge the process practice, can be mastered by almost anyone. The rest of this chapter will describe each of the five practices in detail. 2 3 Model the Way 1 Kouzes and Posner assert that exemplary leadership begins with character. After surveying people on six continents, a clear consensus 3 of admired characteristics emerged. The most admired leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent. The following T their 2007 survey that identified each of chart highlights the percentage of people from these top four characteristics. S First and foremost, people want to follow leaders who are honest and authentic (Hannah, Walumbwa, & Fry, 2011). The most effective leaders establish credibility through high ethical character. Honesty, authenticity, and integrity foster trust and provide the foundation upon which effective leadership is established. Leaders who speak the truth and do what they say they are going to do engender loyalty in their followers. With that foundation in place, a leader can become a role model and example to others. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership Table 4.2 77 What People Want to See in Their Leaders Admired Characteristic Percentage of Respondents Honest 89 Forward-looking 71 Inspiring 69 Competent 68 S SOURCE: Adapted from Kouzes and Posner (2007) T From the first contact, team membersO are observing leaders to assess their character and to determine whether or not their behavior V matches their words. When a leader is modeling the way, they not only verbalize their core values, they demonstrate them as well. The first Eidentify, develop, and live consistently with one’s step in becoming an effective leader is to core values. The following questions canR help clarify one’s personal and professional values: , • What are my core values? • When am I at my best and my worst? C A What do I want for my life? R What do I think about my team? O What do I believe about our task? L • What are the most important things to me? • • • • What do I believe about the larger organization? • What do I think is the best way to work with others? 2 Values are most effectively demonstrated 3 by aligning actions with words. That being so, if a leader wants the team to be passionate about a certain task, she or he must be visibly 1 create an open environment that questions the passionate about it. If a leader wants to status quo, he or she must be open to critique and refrain from defensiveness when chal3 lenged. Obviously, leaders are expected to be able to articulate their core values when asked, but they must also live them outT consistently in order to establish credibility. S Inspire a Shared Vision In order to inspire a shared vision, one must have a compelling goal for the future. As mentioned above, the most respected leaders are visionary, forward-looking individuals; they know where they are going. Visionaries live in the present but are looking to a better future. The more detailed and comprehensive the vision, the better. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 78 Working in Teams In addition to having a goal or vision for the future, effective leaders are able to enlist others to join him or her in the pursuit of that goal. In order to inspire others, one must be able to communicate a compelling picture that motivates people to action. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. was a master communicator who not only had a dream for a better future, but was also able to communicate that vision and motivate others to adopt it as well. His famous “I Have a Dream” S not only engaged an entire generation but speech continues to inspire us today. T Inspiring others often means communicating O the vision in a way that excites the passions of others. V To do this, effective leaders tend to be excellent storytellers. They use anecdotes, illusE trations, and colorful language to paint a vivid R of what the team can accomplish if everypicture one gets on board. Furthermore, the best stories are able to align the shared goals of the , team with the personal goals of its members. That way, when the team is successful, each member personally benefits as well. C Challenge the Process A Challenging the process begins with a critical R assessment of what is not working within a team or organization. It requires tenacious honesty to evaluate current practices and make O changes, where necessary. Change can be a threatening process for many. Identifying areas for improvement and making changes to short-term strategies or long-term goals is often L met with resistance. Regardless, the best leaders regularly evaluate team structure and operating procedures to identify weaknesses and possible blind spots. They challenge their teams to settle for nothing less than the highest 2 levels of excellence. The most effective leaders are not satisfied with the status quo and constantly look for 3 innovative ways to improve performance. When something has not worked as planned, they challenge team members to learn from1the experience and make improvements. This model of continuous improvement helps teams find the most effective strategies to achieve 3 their goals. As leaders model an attitude of accountability and challenge, norms will develop within the team, and members willTadopt these characteristics as well. Instead of relying solely on the leader, effective teamsS are those in which all team members look for ways to improve individual and team performance. Enable Others to Act Enabling others to act includes the ability to foster collaboration and strengthen others. It first begins by establishing a collaborative environment that fosters trust and an open exchange of information. In order to be effective in this practice, leaders must embrace a humble and relational posture. They must be willing to admit mistakes, ask for feedback, FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 79 and defer to the wisdom of the group. In addition, they need to take a genuine interest in others and attempt to get to know each member of the team on some level. Building rapport can often be established by making simple statements such as “How was your weekend?” or, “Is there anything I can do to help you on this task?” Team members can sense if a leader is genuinely interested in them and their success, so the attempts to connect interpersonally must be sincere. When there is an atmosphere of trust and mutual respect, members will be more interested in making a meaningful contribution to the team. Enabling others to act also includes the ability to coach members and help them develop competence and confidence. Leaders often play the role of player-coach on a team. They are a contributing member of the team but also have responsibilities to help others develop their skills and abilities. Since they often haveSmore experience and expertise than others on the team, they are a great source of wisdom. Coaching includes giving real-time feedback, instrucT tion, and informal training on various tasks or skills. In addition, coaches hold team members O accountable for their particular role on the team, which communicates the belief that the team member can successfully complete the task. V When members show progress or demonstrate competence, exemplary leaders will then encourage the heart, as described in the next section. E R Encourage the Heart Finally, Kouzes and Posner suggest that ,effective leaders recognize individual performance while at the same time creating an environment that celebrates collective effort. When a team member has made a significant contribution, that person should be recognized for his or her efforts. To do so, leaders can adoptC a philosophy of looking for reasons to applaud team members instead of trying to catch themA doing something wrong. As the old adage goes, “You can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar.” This practice, however, can be overused. R While some members need encouragement in order to stay motivated, others do not. It is up to the leader to determine the needs of each O team member. But even if a member is not particularly responsive to public recognition, the leader is creating a positive, encouraging atmoL sphere and reinforcing the norms and expectations for ideal member behavior. High-performing teams work hard to reach their goals and celebrate their victories with equal verve. Leaders who have pushed their teams to strive for success are quick to reward 2 their teams for their effort. Various awards such as trophies, trips, cash bonuses, or other 3 When teams have faced adversity and overcome perks can be used to recognize excellence. obstacles to achieve a goal, they develop 1 a strong bond. Those experiences should be reflected upon and celebrated. For example, the 1980 U.S. hockey team overcame great odds to win a gold medal at Lake Placid,3 New York. Imagine the thrill and team pride shared by the players as they stood together onTa platform in front of thousands of people as the “Star Spangled Banner” was playing. The blood, sweat, and tears that it took to get to the champion circle were swallowed up byS the thrill of victory in that one moment. FIVE BASES OF POWER In his book Power: A New Social Analysis, the famous philosopher Bertrand Russell (1938) suggests that “the fundamental concept in social science is power, in the same way that energy is the fundamental concept in physics.” Power is the capacity to influence one’s environment and the people within it. But where does power come from? There are times when power is FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 80 Working in Teams inherent in a position or job title. Other times, it is not the title, but a particular quality or circumstance that allows the individual increased influence and power within a social setting or organization. This section will explore French and Raven’s (1959) five bases of power including reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, and referent power within a team setting. Reward power is established when a member of a team possesses sufficient means to reward other members for positive behaviors. Rewards can take many forms, from verbal encouragement to financial compensation. If the reward is perceived as valuable and the request is reasonably attainable, individuals will comply. The drawback to this type of transaction is that member behavior may only be sustained as long as the rewards are offered. In other words, the work and ultimate purpose of the group may not be fully interS if rewards are promised but not delivered, nalized by members (Pink, 2009). Furthermore, resentment and distrust may follow and canTcompromise motivation for future tasks. Coercive power stems from the power to punish others. The power holder has the capacO ity to issue negative consequences when requests are not followed or rules are broken. The degree of the consequence may range from the V mild (sending a bad review to the member’s superior) to the extreme (eliminating a member from the team). Individuals with this type E of power can threaten, constrain, block, or interfere with others, and thus use fear to conR trol their behavior. Legitimate power is associated with the implied power of certain roles in a group or , organization. For example, team leaders might be given a certain amount of authority over their group. Members obey the requests of the group’s authority figures out of a sense of duty, loyalty, or moral obligation. While leaders C can command compliance due to their position, those who provide the reasons for their requests enhance member commitment. Expert power is awarded to members whoA are perceived as having knowledge that is particularly useful to the group. One of the earliest R pioneers of management theory, Peter Drucker, speculated more than 30 years ago that modern employees would need to be “knowledge workers” (Davenport, 2005). TheOstrongest assets these workers bring to teams and organizations are their knowledge, intellect, L and ability to solve complex problems. Their expertise in various subject matters helps teams critique ideas and make better decisions. Referent power is a source of power that is established by those who are charismatic and well-liked by others. They may not have the2 best ideas or suggestions, but they garner a lot of support because they are so likeable. Members want to please them and gain their 3 approval, rendering them quite influential over individual members, in particular, and the group process, in general. 1 Some sources of power are more valuable in particular contexts than others. Naturally, 3 groups tend to value those sources that are most applicable to their identity and purpose. T For example, Krause and Kearney (2006) conducted research on power bases in hospitals, schools, orchestras, and corporations. TheySfound that the use of legitimate and expert power were most prominent in hospitals and orchestras; this is not surprising, since those organizations value achievement and expertise. Status and power are embedded in titles such as “doctor” or “conductor.” In contrast, coercive, reward, and legitimate power were strongly operational in schools. Teachers regulate school performance by distributing grades (reward power) or punishment (coercive power). Teachers and principals are granted respect in most cases because of the legitimacy of those roles. Lastly, in corporations, referent and expert power were most highly valued. Their organizational success depends on FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 81 how well people work together and the amount of knowledge those individuals bring to the team. This research shows that the importance of power bases across contexts depends on their value to that particular set of circumstances (Schriesheim & Neider, 2006). Group members respond differently to different sources of power. Coercive power can generate resistance or reluctant compliance, whereas reward or legitimate power often results in a more positive response. However, it is referent and expert power that engender true commitment (Yukl & Falbe, 1991). When members are voluntarily enlisted through rational persuasion rather than force, and inspirational appeals rather than positional power, they are far more likely to be committed to the task. Not surprisingly, people with multiple sources of power have an even greater capacity to S influence the behavior of others. For example, after successfully overseeing the merger of Compaq Computer and Hewlett-Packard,T Michael Capellas joined MCI/WorldCom in December 2002 as president and CEO. Despite its position as the world’s largest telecommunications O company at the time, MCI/WorldCom was embroiled in an accounting scandal and forced into bankruptcy. Using his impressive business V acumen, Capellas brought the company out of bankruptcy in early 2004 and successfully negotiated its sale to Verizon Business a year later. E His possession of the five bases of power clearly contributed to his success. He had the power R employees and remove those who were less than to reward competent and highly motivated stellar. In addition, his position at the top of the organizational chart garnered respect and , obedience. But Capellas was more than a typical high-level executive who understood balance sheets and reporting structures; he was an expert in the field of information technology and an avid reader of information about technology development and future trends. He knew his C stuff. Furthermore, he was likeable and very relational. He inspired hundreds of thousands of Aa vision that would turn the company around and discouraged MCI employees to commit to reassert its global presence. By most accounts, R he was completely successful. INFLUENCE STRATEGIES O L While leaders have access to different power bases within a group, they also have choices as to how they will exercise that power.2Influence tactics are the means by which people influence the attitudes and behavior of others. The choice of which tactic to use is based 3 upon available resources (i.e., the power bases one possesses), the willingness to invoke a power base (based upon personal values, 1 social norms, and possible costs associated with each tactic), and the resistance one expects from the target (Bruins, 1999; Kipnis, 1976). 3 Yukl and associates originally identified nine influence tactics (Yukl & Falbe, 1990, 1991; Yukl, Kim, & Falbe, 1996; Yukl & Tracey,T1992), and their most recent research has identified two additional tactics (Yukl, Chavez, & Seifert, 2005). Most of the methods can be used S by either leaders or members and, thus, fit well within a self-managed team environment. The following table describes each of the 11 tactics. Not all influence tactics produce the same results. According to Yukl and Tracey (1992), three core tactics (rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation) were found to be the most effective at gaining task commitment and were strongly related to successful leadership as evaluated by their superiors. Committed members, as opposed to merely compliant members, understand the value of the requests being made; thus, they tend to FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 82 Working in Teams Table 4.3 Eleven Primary Influence Tactics Influence Tactic Definition Rational persuasion The person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade others that a certain position is the best course of action. Inspirational appeal The person makes a request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to values, ideals, and aspirations. Consultation The person seeks others’ participation in planning a strategy, activity, or change S and is willing to modify a proposal based upon their concerns and suggestions. Ingratiation The person seeks to get others in a good mood or to think favorably of him or her O before making a request. Exchange The person offers an exchange ofVfavors, indicates willingness to reciprocate at a later time, or promises a share of the benefits if help is given. Personal appeal The person appeals to feelings ofRloyalty and friendship. Coalition The person garners the aid and support of others before making a request for , someone to do something. Legitimating The person seeks to establish the legitimacy of a request by claiming the authority Cthat it is consistent with existing policies, rules, or right to make it or by verifying practices, or traditions. A Pressure The person uses demands, threats, R or persistent reminders to influence the attitudes or behavior of others. Collaboration The person offers to provide relevant resources or assistance if others will carry L change. out a request or approve a proposed Apprising The person explains how others will benefit by complying with the request. T E O 2 3 1 and persistence. The most ineffective influcarry out their tasks with enthusiasm, initiative, ence tactics identified in the study were pressure, 3 coalition, and legitimating (Yukl & Tracey, 1992). While these strategies may elicit compliance, overuse can produce resistance. Furthermore, compliance only guarantees T that members carry out their duties, not that they exhibit any more than minimal to average S effort. SOURCE: Adapted from Yukl, Chavez, & Seifert, 2005 In another study, Falbe and Yukl (1992) asked 95 managers and nonmanagerial professionals in a variety of private companies and public agencies to evaluate their reaction to 504 influence attempts made upon them. Each attempt was categorized as one of the nine original influence tactics and associated with a resulting response of resistance, compliance, or commitment. The following table describes the results. Hard tactics such as legitimating, coalition, and pressure often produce resistance and rarely engender commitment. Leaders will have significantly better long-term outcomes if they use softer tactics such as consultation, inspirational appeals, or ingratiation FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership Table 4.4 83 Effectiveness of Various Influence Tactics Outcomes Influence Tactics Resistance Inspirational appeal Compliance 0% Consultation 18 Personal appeal 25 Exchange 24 Ingratiation 41 Rational persuasion 47 Legitimating 44 Coalition 53 Pressure 56 S T O V E R , Commitment 10% 90% 27 55 33 42 41 35 28 31 30 23 56 0 44 3 41 3 SOURCE: Adapted from Falbe and Yukl (1992). C (Falbe & Yukl, 1992). Feedback and skills training can help team leaders develop influence A and McDonald (2003) found that multisource tactics that are most effective. Seifert, Yukl, feedback and the use of a feedback facilitator can help leaders and managers become R more aware of their own strategies and develop more effective ways to motivate subordiO nates and peers. L PERSUADING OTHERS 2 This section describes specific things a team 3 leader or influential member can do to ensure that his or her voice is not only heard, but heeded. We’ve already talked about the impor1 in group settings, but how do you make sure tance of voicing one’s opinions and positions that those opinions are given the consideration they deserve by the rest of the group? 3 Conger’s (1998) research identifies four components of successful persuasion: (a) establishT (c) providing evidence, and (d) making an emoing credibility, (b) finding common ground, tional connection. The best and most persuasive arguments include all four components. S Establish Credibility In order to be persuasive, group members must have credibility and respect from their peers. The ideas of a low-status or marginally committed member are not likely to be heard, even if they are brilliant. It takes some measure of status and personal power to be taken seriously. According to Conger (1998), credibility comes from intellectual competence, interpersonal competence, and personal character. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 84 Working in Teams Intellectual competence is demonstrated every time a member makes a significant contribution to the group. When a competent member speaks, others believe that what is being said is worth listening to because ideas from that member have been credible in the past. In short, competence is a characteristic that engenders trust and is established when members have proven themselves to have sound judgment and valuable knowledge. Credibility is also enhanced when a member has interpersonal competence and quality relationships with others. The ability to work collaboratively with others will go a long way toward building relational trust. When members are seen as “team players,” they are appreciated by the group. This type of credibility is acquired when members are perceived as likeable, agreeable, and enjoyable to work with. Sthey demonstrate honesty, consistency, and Finally, members are highly valued when reliability—personal character. Honesty and T fairness are admirable characteristics that earn the respect of others. Furthermore, those who consistently follow through on their O commitments are highly regarded as well. Meeting deadlines with high-quality work is a sure way to win over colleagues. Another characteristic that is admired on teams is work V ethic. If a person is willing to work hard and shows commitment to team success over E personal gain, he or she has earned the right to be heard. Find Common Ground R , In addition to having credibility, effective persuasion requires the ability to frame suggestions in terms of their benefit to the whole C group. Unfortunately, when people are overly attached to a certain perspective or position, they lose sight of the group’s interests. A Discussions can become personal and competitive, and members can feel compelled to win at all costs. A potential power struggle ensues with members going on the attack and R attempting to pressure others to agree with them. It is not uncommon for these negative Orefuse to comply. To avoid this from happenpatterns of interaction to emerge when others ing, members should keep in mind that theLbest arguments are tied to the ultimate goals and success of the group. According to Conger (1998), an understanding of the audience is a prerequisite for finding common ground. The most effective persuaders 2 are students of human nature who seek to understand the concerns and interests of others before advocating their own agenda. They 3 are active listeners who collect data through conversations and meetings. This allows them to construct arguments that emphasize issues 1of mutual concert and mutual benefit. Finding common ground also allows for compromise and collaboration. Those who wish to 3 influence the group will be more successful if they stay open to the concerns and perspectives of others and are willing to adapt and modifyTtheir own position. When met with resistance, these individuals listen, paraphrase, and ask probing S questions to better understand the issues of concern. Influence tactics such as consultation, collaboration, and apprising can be effective in identifying shared benefits and building a common framework from which to work. Provide Evidence As the name suggests, data-based decision making is a practice in which groups make decisions and create plans based upon careful calculations of the best data available to them. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 85 Setting measurable goals and correctly analyzing problems help groups uncover the necessary data that can guide their efforts. Solid numerical data provide the reasoning and justification for group decisions and direction. Before putting forth an argument, a member should anticipate the question: “What evidence do you have for your position?” Argyris (1994) describes this process as coming down the ladder of inference because members provide the data and reasoning upon which a decision, conclusion, or argument was based. When a person has already established credibility, providing strong empirical data that support a certain perspective makes for a compelling argument. Knowledge is a source of power, and sharing it empowers the rest of the group. This S which, while not perfect, give approximate proprinciple is the basis for using trend data, jections of what is likely to occur in theTfuture. For example, if a marketing team responsible for selling nutrition bars is trying to create a marketing plan for the next five years, it O will use data from the previous five years, along with information on current market conditions, to project sales and create a strategic V plan. While numbers and data are important, they do not tell the whole story. Statistics and E graphs are most effective when they are presented with vivid language and concrete examples. Stories can be powerful toolsRthat bring numbers to life and persuade others to arrive at certain conclusions. Analogies, anecdotes, and metaphors can also be used to , make data more concrete, interesting, and tangible. Instead of making an argument based solely upon past performance and current market trends, a customer testimonial describing how his or her quality of life improved C after buying the company’s product may provide the emotional dynamic that rounds out a strong case for more aggressive growth. Consider A marketing team designed an entire campaign Subway, the fast-food sandwich giant whose around “Jared,” a man who lost over 200Rpounds in one year by eating nothing but Subway food. The ad campaign not only included data in terms of the number of pounds that Jared O life story. lost, but it also tied the numbers to his own L Connect Emotionally While rational arguments can foster agreement, establishing an emotional connection is 2 often needed to ensure commitment. Inspirational appeal is the most effective tactic for 3 generating commitment because it engages people on an emotional level. When it is done 1conducted by Falbe and Yukl (1992), inspirational effectively, people rarely resist. In a study appeals resulted in commitment 90% of the time and compliance 10% of the time, and 3 they never generated outright resistance. Connecting emotionally requires that members T demonstrate their own emotional commitment and passion for the position they are advocating. In addition, they must be able toSaccurately read the emotions of their audience to know whether or not the listeners are receiving the message enthusiastically. With credibility, common ground, strong data, and relevant examples, members can persuasively advocate their position. But they must be convinced of the legitimacy of their own ideas, or their efforts will be in vain. People can see through a polished argument devoid of passion. If group members cannot tell that the member behind the delivery is thoroughly convinced, they, too, will likely be unconvinced. Yet too much emotion might create the impression that a person has lost objectivity or is too invested in a certain decision. Thus, FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 86 Working in Teams members who wish to influence others should demonstrate an appropriate amount of conviction to champion a given position by taking into consideration the comfort level of the audience. Each group environment will dictate the optimal level of emotional expression. Conger (1998) warns against underestimating the importance of being able to assess the emotional state of the audience. Presenters must be able to judge whether they are being well received or even understood. This can be achieved by observing nonverbal messages and reading between the lines of questions and comments. In spite of the stated importance of rationality in organizational settings, emotions play a strong role. Thus, those who are effective at persuading can judge the emotional reactions of others and adjust their comments accordingly. S Influential members who are effective at persuading colleagues establish credibility, find common ground, provide compelling evidence for their position, and connect emotionally T with the group. If members want to be active and influential in their groups, they can utilize O these methods to increase their effect on group decision making. V E CONDUCTING EFFECTIVE MEETINGS R Meetings are a critical component of group, work; most of the important work of teams takes place in a forum where members communicate with one another face to face or through some computer-mediated space (Kauffeld & Lehmann-Willenbrock, 2012; Scott, Shanock, & Rogelberg, 2012). Unfortunately,Cmany people experience the typical meeting as inefficient and even unpleasant (O’Neill & Allen, 2012). In his book Death by Meeting, A Patrick Lencioni (2004) reports that the most common complaint about meetings is that they are both ineffective and boring. Although R meetings are the lifeblood of teamwork, they can be quite frustrating, especially as teams grow in size. Hence the dictum that the O larger the team, the greater the potential for inefficiencies and process losses. In order to L combat these shortcomings, Whetten and Cameron (2007) have identified several strategies that teams can implement to make meetings more effective, which we discuss below. 2 should be explicitly clear. Meetings are 1. Purpose: The reason for holding a meeting generally called in order to share information, 3 build commitment to a project, provide information, give or receive feedback, and/or problem-solve. 1 2. Participants: It is important to pay attention to the number of people in attendance. 3 to report information as opposed to being Meetings of more than 10 people should be used an open discussion of ideas. Also, group composition is an important consideration: How T similar are members in terms of backgrounds, personalities, knowledge, and the like? Are S Are they task or process oriented? These they competitive, or do they prefer cooperation? are important questions to ask. For example, discussion may be difficult in a large group of people. And groups that are not very diverse may not be able to generate a wide variety of creative perspectives and solutions to a particular problem. 3. Planning: Setting the agenda is a key task for the meeting facilitator. The agenda should be distributed to attendees prior to the meeting, and should inform participants of FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 87 what to expect, any contributions they are required to make, and the duration of the meeting. Agenda items should be written with action verbs like “approve minutes,” rather than “minutes,” and organized into three phases: old business, new business, and closing thoughts. Then the group needs to stick to the agenda and begin and end on time. 4. Participation: After paying careful attention to ensure that the right people are present, it makes sense to focus on their participation. Begin meetings with introductions so that all members begin to feel comfortable with one another. Leaders can encourage participation through various communication strategies such as asking open-ended questions, making eye contact, paraphrasing comments, linking comments together, and summarizing discussions. S 5. Perspective: Perspective involves T analyzing the meeting in hindsight. Leaders who regularly reflect on the quality of their meetings not only improve their own skills, but also O improve the overall productivity of the team. In the same way, it is often helpful to get the perspective of the participants as well. V Direct questioning and the use of anonymous surveys are both effective ways to collect feedback on what went well and what changes E should be made in the future. LEADERSHIP IN ACTION R , The five practices of exemplary leaders can make C anyone a better leader. We just need to look for A opportunities to serve as a positive role model, inspire a shared vision, productively challenge the R process, enable others to act, and encourage the O hearts of teammates. These practices, though, will L require a certain amount of reflectiveness. Leaders in training must be willing to step back from team experiences and think critically about their own 2role, the variables at play, and the fine and nuanced 3dance between them and their team. Strong leaders are not only aware of their own perceptions, 1but are also inquisitive and responsive to other 3people’s perceptions and needs. So much of leadership is about managing information, personaliT ties, and perceptions. To do this well, leaders need to be constantly observing their own behavior and S that of their teammates. These five practices are not necessarily performed in order. Rather, they are a dynamic list of tools that can be employed any time a situation warrants them. The more they are used, the more effective they become. At first, it may feel strange FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 88 Working in Teams to try to “inspire” colleagues, but those skills will develop over time and with practice. A good starting place is to lead by example by showing up early, arriving prepared, staying engaged, and bringing a positive and encouraging attitude to team meetings. Then, as credibility increases, emerging leaders can add in such practices as offering productive challenges and enabling others to act by giving feedback and suggestions for improvement. The key to developing leadership skills is to be intentional about it. After every team experience, leaders should reflect (think critically) on what happened, what worked well, and what the leader might have done differently to improve the outcome. Essentially, these five practices need to be exercised on a regular basis so they become internalized and part of one’s identity. Leaders in training should model the positive and productive habits they wish to see within their teams. They shouldSencourage team members who demonstrate positive behaviors and challenge those whoTdon’t. They should hold their team accountable to the highest standards of excellence and create a culture in which team members O challenge one another to work harder. Developing these skills requires a significant amount of trial and error. New practices will be farVfrom perfect at first, but over time they will pay rich dividends. Successful leadership development requires courage, discipline, selfE reflection, and intentionality. R K E Y T E ,R M S Self-managed work teams 69 Situational leadership 72 Directing style of leadership 73 Coaching style of leadership 73 Supporting style of leadership 73 Delegating style of leadership 73 C Influence tactics 81 A Intellectual competence 84 Interpersonal competence 84 R Personal character 84 O LU E S T I O N S DISCUSSION Q 1. Over the last century, the dynamic between managers and workers has changed. Describe 2 those changes and discuss how those changes have affected teams. 3 1 Describe the three influence tactics you think are most effective for team leaders. 3 Describe the four leadership styles within the situational leadership model. Give examples of T each. S Discuss the difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership. 2. Describe French and Raven’s five bases of power and give an example of each. 3. 4. 5. What are the outcomes of each? 6. What are the five practices of effective leaders? Name and describe each. 7. How do most effective leaders establish credibility? 8. What are the four components of successful persuasion? Create a hypothetical case study in which a team leader is trying to get members to be more committed to the team. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 4   Leadership 89 GROUP ACTIVITIES EXERCISE 4.1 INSPIRATIONAL LEADERS Get into groups of four to five people to talk about your past experiences with leaders, supervisors, and bosses. • Create a list of qualities of the best leaders you have observed. • Create a list of characteristics associated with the worst leaders you have observed. S • Who is the leader your team admires T most? Provide a detailed rationale for your answer. O V results of your discussion to the rest of the class. Appoint a spokesperson to present the E R LEADERSHIP EXERCISE 4.2 PRACTICING EXEMPLARY , You have been selected to be on a nomination committee to identify viable candidates for student body president. In groups of four to five students, discuss the characteristics of a successful student body president and choose C someone from your class as a possible candidate. The nominee doesn’t have to come from your group but does have to be a member A of this class. While you are having this conversation, practice one of the five practices of exemplary leadership described in thisRchapter (model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, O or encourage the heart). Be relentless. Continue to use the same practice over and over again, no matter how silly or contrived it might feel. L practice that each person was practicing. At the end of the exercise, try to guess the C A S E 4 . 2 : O U T L I N I N G 2L E A D E R S H I P S T R E N G T H S 3 You’ve been working at your company, Galactic Enterprises, LLC, for three years and have developed a good reputation for getting1things done. Your boss, who refers to you as his “go-to person,” has called you into his3office to talk about a project team whose leader unexpectedly took a new job with a rival company, giving only two-weeks’ notice. When T there with three other managers. He asks you you arrive at the meeting, your boss is sitting to describe for the group your leadership S philosophy and to lay out the approach you would use to lead the project team out of confusion and back on plan. • Using content from the chapter, create an appropriate, semi-formal presentation to describe how you would lead this team and why you are the right person for the job. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. C H A P T E R 5 Communication S T Verbal and nonverbal communicationOVamong group members defines much team life. Individual goals, team goals, structure, and norms are evident in the communication patterns that develop among members. Tasks E are accomplished and relationships managed through interpersonal interaction. Yet not all communication is positive, and as a result, RThis chapter describes communication skills and team performance can be compromised. patterns that lead to team success. It also , identifies specific strategies members can adopt to improve their ability to communicate effectively. The chapter ends with a discussion about virtual communication and the benefits and challenges of virtual teams. C A CASE 5.1: THE APPRENTICE R The TV reality show The Apprentice first aired on NBC O during the winter of 2004 and quickly became the hit that it is today. At the beginning of each season, 16 contestants are divided into two teams that compete against each L other for the ultimate prize of becoming the president of one of Donald Trump’s companies. Every week the two teams face off in various challenges, ranging from selling lemonade on the streets of New York City to organizing charity events. The project leader of the losing team must 2 face Trump in the boardroom and explain why the team did not succeed. Trump then identifies a member of the team who, in his opinion, was most responsible for the 3 loss and issues his now famous decree, “You’re fired.” 1 (all men) and Protégé (all women), were given the In week two of the first season, the two teams, Versacorp task of designing an advertising campaign for a private 3 jet service. Each team chose a project leader and began to structure the task. The men made a strategic error when they decided not to conduct customer interviews. Not T knowing the distinguishing characteristics or the desires of the customer proved to be fatal and led to Versacorp’s S of the team, Sam, talked excessively during planning downfall. In addition, one of the more eccentric members sessions, frequently getting off topic. In one of the meetings, when he spent valuable project time lying on the floor of a conference room taking a nap, his credibility was compromised. As a result, when he later tried to interject his ideas and influence other members, he was interrupted by the project leader, Jason, and marginalized. In contrast to the men, Protégé met with the customer and eventually decided upon an advertising campaign that used sexual overtones in its print ads. However, not all the members were comfortable using that approach, as it risked offending the customer. In the process of discussing options and making decisions, a number of 91 FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 92 Working in Teams members had different opinions, and tempers flared. Even though the women won the competition, it became obvious that there were serious interpersonal problems on their team. Two of the members, Omarosa and Ereka, had engaged in a number of arguments, and other members of the team were concerned that their dislike for each other would hurt the team’s performance in the future. For this challenge, Trump asked Donny Deutsch, the principal of a successful advertising agency in New York City, to decide the winning proposal. Deutsch and his two associates were torn between the men and the women. The sex appeal in the women’s presentation may not have been appropriate for an actual print campaign, but it showed that they were more creative and willing to take risks. Ultimately, those qualities persuaded Deutsch to declare the women victorious. In addition, he commented that their presentation was sharper and more persuasive than that of the men. S Their ability to communicate their ideas with passion and enthusiasm connected well with Deutsch. After losing the task, Jason, the project manager for the men’s team, identified Sam as the team’s biggest T problem. Jason explained to Trump how Sam failed the group by literally falling asleep during the project and not O caring about the team’s performance. Sam told Trump that Jason was just an average leader who made many V that because the team did not take the time to mistakes, including not meeting with the customer. He added thoroughly understand the customer’s needs, the project plan E was flawed from the start. Thus, Sam didn’t respect Jason’s leadership and became passively detached. In the end, Trump held the team leader, Jason, responsible and R fired him; Sam was spared. However, the group members became so frustrated with him that they decided to make him team leader for the next project in an effort to get him, to “put up or shut up.” While this may have been a strategic move to deal with Sam, the team suffered, losing the next competition. Although the women’s team was winning competitions, interpersonal conflicts began taking their toll. Hostility and mistrust among members C began to compromise the team’s ability to perform. A R Case Study Discussion Questions • What should the men do about Sam? How do you viewO members who don’t exactly fit in with the group? Is Sam a resource or a liability to the team? Explain. L • Two of the women strongly dislike each other. How would you handle that situation? 2 are angry and start attacking one another? What • What do you typically do in group situations when people do you do when others challenge you? 3 • What communication skills are needed in the men’s group? 1 In the women’s group? 3 T In an article in Business Communication Quarterly, Kinnick and Parton (2005) describe S on all 15 episodes from the first season of the results of a content analysis they performed The Apprentice. They examined the following communication skills in each of the episodes: oral and written communications, interpersonal communication, teamwork skills, intercultural communication, negotiating skills, and ethical communication. In addition, they examined Trump’s view of how those skills influenced individual and team performance. Trump and his associates identified poor communication skills as a factor in 5 of the 15 team losses. Poor communication was also cited as a factor in more than half of the individual firings. The last five players in the competition at the end of the season were FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 93 considerably more likely to be praised for their communication skills than were the first five who were eliminated. Communication skills are foundational for individual, team, and organizational success (Kinnick & Parton, 2005). For example, oral communication and interpersonal skills are often cited as the most important criteria in evaluating job candidates. Interpersonal skills were mentioned more frequently than any other competency listed in classified ads for entry-level jobs in 10 major metropolitan newspapers. Not surprisingly, the U.S. Department of Labor has identified communication and interpersonal skills as core requirements for future workers. Colleges work hard to prepare individuals for professional success by helping them develop these skills through team-based learning activities and class projects S (Kalliath & Laiken, 2006). And once employees are hired, organizations invest significant resources to enhance their communication skills. According to one study, 88% of U.S. T companies provide communication skills training for their employees (Industry Report, O 1999). The importance of communication cannot be overstated. Thus, it is important to thoroughly understand this powerful interpersonal process. V E R ENCODING AND DECODING MESSAGES , Communication is the exchange of thoughts, information, or ideas that results in mutual understanding between two or more people. The process requires at least one sender, one receiver, and a message that is transmitted C within a communication medium. It begins with an idea or concept in the mind of the sender. He or she encodes the idea into meaningful A symbols in the form of words, pictures, or gestures (i.e., language). The sender then selects a medium to transmit those symbols soR the receiver can access them through one or more senses. The medium can be a face-to-face conversation, a piece of artwork hanging in an O L Figure 5.1 Sending and Receiving Messages Sender 2 3 1 Transmission 3 T S Response Encoding Receiver Decoding Transmission Medium: Oral, written, non-verbal, or electronic FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 94 Working in Teams art gallery, a text message, or any growing number of electronic transmission media. When the receiver receives the message, he or she must decode the symbols in order to interpret the message and understand the intent of the sender, as depicted below. Meaningful communication takes place when the receiver accurately understands the message transmitted by the sender. However, this does not always happen perfectly. A multitude of potential problems can hinder the process and block understanding. The rest of the chapter examines the many ways in which a message can become distorted or misunderstood; it also suggests ways to minimize the potential for communication missteps. S T The use of verbal statements is one of the most Ocommon ways individuals communicate with one another. As team members work together to understand problems and manage projects, V hundreds, if not thousands, of verbal comments are exchanged. A team member might be communicating a message at face value, or he E or she may be implying hidden meanings or even multiple layers of meaning in a single statement. Because members do not always know R the exact intent of one another’s comments, there can be multiple interpretations and , of group development, team members have frequent misunderstandings. In the early stages VERBAL COMMUNICATION to learn the most effective way to interact with and understand that particular group. Wheelan and her associates have developed a classification system called the Group Development Observation System (GDOS) asC a way of categorizing and analyzing the verbal interactions that take place among group members A (Wheelan, Davidson, & Tilin, 2003). The GDOS classifies statements into one of eight categories, and while statements can someR times fit more than one category, trained observers are in agreement 85% to 95% of the time. The eight GDOS categories are as follows: O • Dependency statements are those that L show an inclination to conform to the dominant mood of the group and to solicit direction from others. • Counterdependency statements assert 2 independence by resisting the current leadership and direction of the group. 3 • Fight statements directly challenge others using argumentativeness, criticism, or 1 aggression. • Flight statements are attempts to avoid 3work and demonstrate a lack of commitment to the group. T S • Pairing statements are expressions of warmth, friendship, and support toward others. • Counterpairing statements demonstrate an avoidance of intimacy and interpersonal connection by keeping the discussion distant and intellectual. • Work statements are those that represent goal-directed and task-oriented efforts. • Unscorable statements include unintelligible, inaudible, or fragmentary statements. After observing 26 task groups in various stages of development, researchers identified 31,782 verbal statements made during one meeting for each of the groups. Wheelan, FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 95 Davidson, and Tilin (2003) found that established groups utilized twice as many taskrelated statements as compared with newly formed groups. In the early stages of group development, for example, there are more fight, flight, and dependency statements communicated among members than in later stages (Wheelan, 2005). Interestingly, they found that the number of pairing statements remain relatively stable. Approximately 17% of the statements made at any stage of development are supportive of others and meant to engender positive relationships (Wheelan, 2005). The verbal statements of members of any group can be evaluated to determine whether or not members are committed, compliant, resistant, or disengaged from the team at any given time. Observing a member’s consistent pattern of verbal statements over time is one possible way to determine that person’sScommitment to the task and people of the group. Dependency statements suggest compliance, T whereas counterdependency and fight statements suggest resistance. Flight and counterpairing statements often indicate disengageO ment. Finally, pairing statements suggest commitment to other group members, while work statements suggest commitment to Vteam goals. E R As verbal messages are being communicated, an equally important process of communica, NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION tion is taking place on a nonverbal level. Nonverbal cues from a speaker such as smiling, eye contact, or fidgetiness help listeners interpret the meaning behind the words a person is using to communicate a message. Listeners C perceive these messages subconsciously and often have a difficult time articulating why they arrived at a certain understanding of a A person’s message. As the title of Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005) book Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking suggests, thisRprocess of rapid cognition takes place in the blink of an eye and often outside of awareness. For instance, although the words are the same, O the message below may be interpreted as having entirely different meanings based upon the nonverbal cues associated with it: L Table 5.1 Using Nonverbal Cues to Interpret 2 Messages Verbal Message We need to be more prepared for the next project. 3 1 The speaker scans the group and gestures 3 widely. Her facial expression demonstrates sincere pleading as she emphasizes the word T need. The speaker emphasizes the wordSprepared Nonverbal Cues Possible Meanings The speaker is desperate. For her, there is a lot riding on the success of the group. We need to be more prepared for the next project. as she looks intently at and leans toward a particular member. Her brow is furrowed and she appears frustrated. The speaker is blaming one of the other members for the group’s recent failure and hopes to shame that person into doing better in the future. We need to be more prepared for the next project. The speaker says this in a monotone voice with no energy, facial expression, or hand gestures. Her body is facing slightly away from the group. The speaker is disengaged, does not actually care whether the group sees improvement, and does not plan to put in any extra effort. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 96 Working in Teams Mehrabian’s (1981) seminal research on the importance of nonverbal communication suggests that messages, especially those that express feelings, are overwhelmingly understood through nonverbal cues. The following percentages represent the relative contributions of the verbal and nonverbal components that a listener uses to interpret a message: • 7% from verbal cues (words) • 38% from vocal cues (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc.) • 55% from facial expressions (smiling, frowning, etc.) and other body movements (arms crossed, eye contact, etc.) S Nonverbal cues such as physical appearance, facial expressions, level of eye contact, body movements, vocal qualities, and the physicalTspace between members all contribute to the way a message is interpreted. An accurate perception of nonverbal communication helps the O listener understand the intent of the speaker and is strongly related to social intelligence and V interpersonal sensitivity (Goleman, 2006). So while an individual’s “words” can be difficult to understand, nonverbal cues are even more Esubject to personal interpretation as listeners use their own subjective frame of reference to interpret the nonverbal expressions of others. R Nonverbal cues not only help members interpret verbal messages, they also help regu, For example, when members want to interlate the flow of conversation (Goleman, 2006). ject a comment into a discussion, they may use any number of nonverbal prompts such as leaning forward, clearing their throats, making direct eye contact with the current speaker, Ca desire to speak. Additionally, if speakers or posing a facial expression that indicates receive positive nonverbal feedback from others A while they are speaking (i.e., head nodding, eye contact, or smiling), they will continue with confidence that they are being heard. R relaxing their body posture, reducing verbal Speakers signal the end of their comments by volume, or leaning back in their seat. These Ocues prompt others to respond or add their own thoughts. A more direct invitation might be to nod or gesture toward a particular L Effective group facilitators frequently use member with an open hand, palm facing upward. these types of nonverbal cues to move members in and out of the conversation and to otherwise regulate the discussion. 2 3 POSTURING 1 Individuals use both verbal and nonverbal means 3 to establish credibility and communicate ideas in a persuasive manner. Because people desire to be understood and respected, the use of posturing is common. Posturing andTthe use of identity markers are used to influence the perception, opinion, and approval S of others and to bolster one’s status within the team (Polzer, 2003). According to Polzer, “We do not communicate identity-relevant information solely for the benefit of others. . . . When we bring others to see us in a favorable light, we tend to boost our own self-image as we bask in their approval” (p. 3). Identity markers might include the following: • Physical appearance: This includes how people are dressed, whether they have a well-groomed appearance, or their fitness level. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 97 • Personal office or room decorations: The presence or absence of plaques, framed diplomas, photographs, or other indicators of success. • Body posture: How much space a person takes up, whether their arms or legs are crossed, whether they stand up straight or slouch, the direction they are facing, strength of eye contact. • Demeanor: Loud voice or soft, smiles or frowns, engaged or withdrawn, warm or cold, attentive or aloof. • Explicit statements: Success stories that are shared verbally, statements of one’s strengths, subtle references to past S accomplishments. The communication and utilizationTof these markers is driven by the need for selfenhancement. The self-enhancement motive O relates to the desire to present oneself in a positive light to garner respect and admiration from others. This is commonly demonstrated V on college campuses, for example, by identity markers such as fraternity or sorority T-shirts, sweatshirts, and accessories to identify as E a member of an elite social group or by clothing, automobiles, and vacation trips to communicate wealth and social status. Leaders need to R be attuned to both the subtle and blatant attempts of members to promote themselves. Self, and restrict the free expression of ideas, and it promoting behavior can intimidate others can be off-putting and hinder the development of trust and cohesion. It might also signal a strong need for recognition and admiration on the part of those who employ such tactics. Cperform for others in order to gain their respect Unfortunately, members posture and and admiration at the expense of authenticity. Teams can become like families in which A the members (siblings) compete for the approval of the team leaders (parents). This type of “sibling rivalry” in which the membersR compete for the favored child status can be a distraction for the team. One way a leaderO can help minimize this dynamic is by establishing the norms of authenticity, honesty, and transparency early on in the life of the team by L sharing his or her own mistakes or weaknesses. This sends a strong message that members do not need to compete with one another for performance-based status but, instead, will be valued for their genuineness and humanity. 2 3 COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1 3 Communication skills, such as active listening and assertiveness, help make information processing more transparent. Actively trying to understand and interpret the verbal mesT sages of others takes work. Simply asking another person to provide the evidence that led S to certain conclusions can be very enlightening. Similarly, it is helpful to others when we describe the specific data and interpretation of that data that led to our conclusions. Advocating our ideas in a confident and comprehensive way is demonstrated in the practice of assertiveness. In a typical workgroup setting, assertiveness can take many forms such as promoting a new idea, lobbying for a policy change, or publicly supporting one method of resolving a problem over any number of alternatives. The following section describes the communication skills of active listening and assertiveness in detail. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 98 Working in Teams Active Listening Active listening is the key to accurately understanding what another person is saying. It requires effort and discipline. Yet group members are often preoccupied or distracted, and thus do not give 100% of their attention to one another (McKay, Davis, & Fanning, 1995). Instead, listeners may be busy comparing themselves with the speaker, mentally rehearsing what they will say next, daydreaming about a past experience, or wishing they were somewhere else. They might also be speculating S what is going on in the mind of the about speaker (mind reading), filtering out parts of his T or her message, or jumping to conclusions and O offering premature advice. It is also all too common for some listeners to be more focused on V debating and critiquing than actually hearing E is being said. In contrast to the benefits what reaped R when a person feels heard, contentiousness can elicit either a defensive reaction or , passive detachment, compromising meaningful dialogue. An accurate understanding of others is C needed before a meaningful response can be made. Effective listeners suspend judgment in A order to first understand the perspective of the R speaker. This advanced developmental skill requires listeners to attempt to “get into the O shoes” of the speaker and see the issue through L his or her eyes before responding (Kegan, 1994). The comments of others will make more sense if understood from within that person’s 2 perspective. Paying attention to posture, paraphrasing what is heard, and probing for deeper meaning are skills that facilitate this3type of perspective taking and lead to a more accurate understanding of the messages that 1are communicated. First, active listeners pay attention to their posture. Specifically, they use their physical posture to help them focus on what is being3said. It also creates an interpersonal dynamic that signals to speakers that the listener is paying T attention. The acronym SOLER describes five specific behaviors that encourage a listening posture: S S—Square: Face the person squarely. O—Open: Keep an open posture without crossed arms or legs. L—Lean slightly forward to communicate interest and engagement. Head nods and verbal encouragers like “uh-huh” and “yes!” are also effective. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 99 E—Eye contact: Maintain direct eye contact according to appropriate social norms. R—Relax: Stay relaxed. Listeners should be comfortable with silence where appropriate and allow the conversation to unfold without force. By following these guidelines, listeners will be perceived as engaged and interested in what is being said. This approach helps the speaker to feel more comfortable in sharing information. Paraphrasing is a powerful listening skill that validates others, builds trust, and invites deeper levels of disclosure. A paraphrase restates the message that was communicated in order to clarify and confirm an accurate S understanding of that message. For example, in the following dialogue, Mary responds to her roommate’s comments regarding the T cleanliness of their room without appearing defensive or minimizing the problem. In Oto understand the roommate’s concern before this way, the paraphrase is an attempt responding to it. V E a mess. We can’t live like this! I try to keep my Sue: I hate that our room is constantly side of the room clean, but yours R is always a mess. I want to hang out with friends here, but I can’t because I don’t want them to see this place! , Mary:  Okay, I understand that you’re feeling frustrated with our room and the way it looks, and you’re even embarrassed to have friends here because you don’t want them to think you’re sloppy. Am CI hearing you right? A This paraphrase invites Sue to elaborate on her frustration because Mary has neither R Sue’s concern. At this point, Mary is simply become defensive nor has she discounted listening and gaining a better understanding O of the issue. Thus, the paraphrase ensures an accurate understanding of the situation, maintains a peaceful interaction, and L moving to the problem-solving phase of the affirms Sue that she has been heard before conversation. Probing is the third skill that facilitates active listening. In order to understand the ideas, 2 opinions, and perspectives of others, a listener may need information beyond that which the speaker has already provided. A good 3 question is often the catalyst to an informationrich response. Open-ended questions lead to a deeper understanding of the issues at hand 1 because they stimulate reflective thinking and can be used to identify underlying assump3 been communicated, probing questions can be tions. Once an accurate paraphrase has used to solicit more specific, useful, or otherwise relevant information. Returning to the T example of the messy roommate situation, Mary’s response might include some of the S following probing questions: • What do you consider the messiest parts of our room? • When were you thinking of having friends over? • What are some realistic expectations for both of us? FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 100 Working in Teams • How can I be more sensitive to you in the future? • What do you need from me right now? These questions can be used to address issues and create meaningful dialogue. Instead of avoiding difficult issues, probing questions address them directly. Additionally, they validate the speaker by showing genuine interest or concern on behalf of the listener. Probing with open-ended questions is an excellent way to gather information about someone’s priorities, beliefs, and concerns because you give the respondent complete control over the content of his or her response. The material on which the respondent chooses to S focus is likely the material most pressing or important to that person. Open-ended questions often begin with the words how, what, or why.TExamples may include “What motivates you?” or “How could this process have been improved?” Open-ended questions can also come in O the form of an invitation for the speaker to provide more detail. For instance, one might begin with “Describe for me . . .” or “Tell meV in your own words . . .”. Hypothetical questions give insight into the state of mind of the speaker as well. These E types of questions allow you to discover the nuanced thought process of your respondent R skill. Respectively, examples may include and/or his or her comfort level with a given “Suppose you were the project manager on this task. How would you proceed?” or “If I , were to give you the lesson plans, would you feel confident teaching the class tomorrow morning?” Unlike the types of questions that we haveCdiscussed thus far, closed-ended questions aim to gather specific information, facts, or details. The range of responses available to your question’s recipient is quite small, and his A or her answer is likely to be short and to the point. Examples of closed-ended questionsR include “Did Kevin complete the spreadsheet for the meeting?” or “What is the fastest route to 6th Avenue?” Finally, forced-choice questions call uponO the respondent to make a choice. The answer to one of these questions will demonstrateLthe respondent’s priorities and may guide a decision about how to move forward in a given scenario. Consider the following example: “The printing company is wondering whether or not it should go ahead and ship the signs with the typo. Would you rather the signs 2 arrive on time, or that they are printed accurately?” Forced-choice questions are also frequently used in a negotiation if one is trying 3 to limit the other person’s options. While the previous types of questions can 1 all be productive within certain discussions, the following, however, are not. Leading questions, loaded questions, and multiple ques3 tions asked in rapid fire make it challenging for a recipient to respond productively. T intimidated, and confused. Leading and Instead, recipients are likely to feel challenged, loaded questions often use harsh language and S make unflattering assumptions in order to embed an accusation within a question. An example may be “Do you always pawn off your work onto other people?” or “How long have you been wasting the company’s time dealing with personal issues at work?” Obviously, questions like these will be perceived negatively by the recipient and have the potential to compromise trust and goodwill in the relationship. It is rarely beneficial to make enemies, so questions should not be used as weapons. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 101 Multiple questions refers to a string of questions asked in rapid progression that, while they may be related to the subject at hand, confuse and disorient the recipient. The following is an example of multiple questions: “How could the team have missed the deadline, and how do you know, and what are the consequences that we now face, and did you notify everyone, and who was supposed to have been keeping track of this?” By the end of this five-question series, it would be difficult for the responder to decide where to begin or to which question the asker truly wants an answer. Stressful situations can instigate the use of multiple questions. Therefore, when intensity mounts, it is helpful for members to slow down their speech and make discrete, productive, and answerable questions. S T Assertiveness O Assertiveness is the ability to express oneself directly and honestly without disrespecting or dishonoring another person. Assertive V people are able to stand up for themselves and communicate their ideas firmly without bullying, patronizing, or manipulating others. E Because group discussions can move quickly, teams frequently arrive at conclusions that R it is important that members speak up either are not well thought out or supported. Thus, to promote other perspectives or to challenge ideas that are ill-conceived. Assertive mem, bers, therefore, are actively engaged in group discussions and avoid the extremes of being either too passive or too aggressive. Baney (2004) suggests that assertiveness C can best be expressed by including the following three components: I think, I feel, I want. The first step in this assertiveness formula is A situation. For example, a member of the team to describe one’s thoughts about a particular is often late for meetings, so the projectR leader might say something like: “I’ve noticed that you’ve been late to most of our recent meetings.” Next, the leader describes his or her feelOto be interrupted when you arrive, and I never ings about the situation: “It’s frustrating know if I should stop and bring you up to L speed.” Finally, the assertive person would make a respectful request: “Do you think you could make it a priority to arrive on time from here on out?” This interchange shows respect for the other person but also values one’s own needs. According to the social style framework, drivers and expressives do much better at 2 advocating their positions than do analytics or amiables. 3 When making a point in a group setting, especially when responding to a particularly complex or important set of questions, assertive communicators pay attention to the intro1 duction and conclusion of their comments. To start, a brief overview of their position will 3 let others know what to expect. For example, an explanation of one’s position may begin with “I’d like to discuss a few key areas T where I think that the team could have been more organized.” At the end of the comments, Sa concise summary can be given to reinforce the main ideas. Returning to the example at hand, a person might end his or her comments with “and I believe that these were the problem areas that led to the poor performance of our team.” Opening and closing with clarity are useful practices that reinforce effective communication. It is often beneficial to provide specific examples or anecdotes to give texture and nuanced understanding. Some people are more likely to remember interesting statistics or FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 102 Working in Teams quotes, for example, than general concepts. Memorable stories or illustrations not only reinforce the main concepts, they also help listeners remember the main concepts. In addition, supporting comments with data and examples not only makes the argument more interesting and informative, but also credible. However, there is a difference between this tactic and attempting to establish credibility by overusing confusing jargon that others do not understand. This can alienate others and decrease their desire to engage in meaningful dialogue. At times, strong, assertive statements will provoke negative responses or questions from others. As discussed, an initial overview at the beginning of a response can be a useful tool in rephrasing and perhaps softening the nature of the question. For this reason, this stratS a leading or loaded question. If faced with egy is an excellent one to employ when asked multiple questions, the speaker can slow down T the pace of the conversation by calling attention to the multitude of questions and acknowledging the desire to answer the quesO tions one at a time. For example, an appropriate response to a hostile barrage of questions might be, “You clearly have a lot on your mind V and are looking for some clarity. Let me see if I can explain my position, beginning with your first question.” Finally, it is perfectly E acceptable to acknowledge feeling ill-prepared or uncomfortable answering a question R and, instead, choose not to respond at that particular time. For example, if one team member pushes another team member into making a commitment about a certain problem, he , or she might need to say something like “There are several aspects of this situation about which I know very little, and I do not want to speculate. Can you give me a few days to think about it and get back to you?” In that way, C he or she can buy time and formulate a more thoughtful response. A R CENTRALIZED VERSUS DECENTRALIZED COMMUNICATION O Group researchers have observed that one L of the most important features of group com- munication is the level of centralization (Brown & Miller, 2000). When one or two members do most of the talking and comments are routinely directed toward these members specifically, the group is said to have a centralized communication structure (Huang & 2 Cummings, 2011). Conversely, when groups exhibit more balance in terms of who speaks 3 and with what frequency, the group has a decentralized communication structure. In a decentralized structure, members engage in 1 both advocacy (proposing their own views) and inquiry (exploring the views of others). Of course, due to logistical and time constraints 3 on any given meeting, not everyone can be expected to comment on every topic. In larger T on the periphery and become marginally groups, it can be very easy to situate oneself involved. In smaller groups, it is more difficult Sto be anonymous, and members may choose to confront those who are consistently not speaking up. Nonetheless, who speaks, how often they speak, and to whom they speak are each important characteristics of communication structure. The degree of communication centrality within a given group is influenced by the level of complexity of the group’s task as well as the characteristics of individual group members. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 103 Groups tend to adopt a more centralized communication structure if the task is relatively simple and become more decentralized as the tasks become more complex (Brown & Miller, 2000). This trend is due to the fact that task uncertainty and ambiguity lead to wider participation S and a more open exchange of information. Put another way, T complex tasks require cogniO tive flexibility and open discussions in order to thorV oughly understand the issues E and to make well-reasoned R decisions (Roy, 2001). Relatively straightforward tasks, on the other hand, are conducive to one or two people directing the discussion and coordinating the efforts of the group. , Simpler tasks benefit from the efficiency of centralized communication, allowing group discussions to be more organized, efficient, and concrete. In addition to task complexity, individual C member characteristics influence the communication structure of the group. Some members speak often and with confidence, while A member traits such as interpersonal dominance, others tend to be more hesitant. Individual perceived competence, and commitment R to the group’s task all serve to influence the degree of centrality in group communication. People with high interpersonal dominance O if they are not the designated leader, they may have a strong need to be in control. Even attempt to take charge and direct the group. L When members acquiesce and allow plans and meetings to be controlled by their dominant teammates, the communication becomes centralized. But sometimes members resist. When faced with dominant members, some group members form alliances or subgroups in order to create a balance of power and, 2 thus, ensure a decentralized communication pattern where everyone’s voice is heard. 3 During the “forming” stage of group development, members assess one another’s knowledge, skills, and competencies. This 1 is done partly to see how they might compare with their new teammates, but it is also done with the intent of taking inventory of the 3 group’s resources. Those who are perceived as competent and who possess important T abilities are allotted greater amounts of influence over the decisions, direction, and dynamics of the group. However, the criteria used in this assessment are not always related to the S task at hand. Sometimes members are given status based upon characteristics such as gender, physical attractiveness, education level, or professional success. For example, when medical doctors are given too much status while nurses or other health care professionals are marginalized, patient safety is compromised (Lingard et al., 2004). As a result, the health care industry has gone to great lengths to improve the quality of communication on FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 104 Working in Teams health care teams (Brock, Abu-Rish, Chiu, Hammer, Wilson, Vorvick, Blondon, Schaad, Liner, & Zierler, 2013). Once a member is perceived to have high levels of competence, regardless of the reasoning behind this perception, and is granted status in the group, members will naturally direct their questions and comments to him or her. Members who perceive themselves as having competence are also more likely to speak up in discussions. Interestingly, there is a slight tendency for men to overestimate their knowledge and abilities (Lemme, 2006), possibly explaining why men tend to be more frequent contributors in mixed-gender groups (Dindia & Canary, 2006; Krolokke & Sorensen, 2006). Commitment to the group’s tasks and goals will also affect the level of member engagement. Highly motivated members will tendSto be more active and contribute more frequently to discussions. They are more invested T in the group’s success, and will subsequently seek to be involved in major decisions. At the same time, there may certainly be members O who are very committed to the task but withhold their comments and ideas from conversations. In these cases, other personal or circumstantial variables have intervened to reduce V their perceived involvement. In order to establish balanced communication within the E team, leaders have to figure out the reasons for poor participation and help low talkers R become more active. As group members interact, each establishes his or her place in the group relative to , other members. A systems view of groups suggests that individual communication styles will depend upon the particular group composition within which members find themselves. For example, a dominant member might C take over if there are no other dominant members in the group. As that member exerts control, submissive or passive members become more passive, in turn encouraging A the dominant member to become even more dominant. Each member reacts to others inR a reciprocal fashion. If there are a number of dominant members in a group, control and management of the group may be shared. Similarly, if no particular person has a greatO deal of competence in a given area, a member with moderate competence will likely be L forced to become an active participant. The assessment of one’s own competence is related to the perceived competence of other members. The same holds true for commitment to the group’s task. If nobody is passionate about the goal or interested in taking charge, 2 a member who normally does not take a leadership role might find him or herself doing just that. Each group has a unique configu3 ration that influences how people act, interact, and communicate with others in that particular group. For this reason, the tasks and 1interpersonal roles that people fill will vary with each new group they experience. 3 The process of communication is complex and highly idiosyncratic. Different people T different interpretations. The practice of can hear the same message but have completely reflection can help group members slow down S the interpretation and evaluation of messages to improve the accuracy of understanding and thoughtfulness of responses. In addition, certain listening skills (posture, paraphrasing, and probing) can increase the likelihood that accurate understanding is taking place. Group members can also learn to express themselves more intentionally. They can become more aware of how they are communicating observations, thoughts, feelings, or needs. Members can provide the data and reasoning that led to certain conclusions. In addition, members can enhance their ability to communicate by avoiding mixed FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 105 messages and becoming more assertive. Assertiveness is a form of communication that respects the opinions of others while directly stating one’s own thoughts and perspectives. Effective communication requires members to suspend their assumptions and judgments of others in order to stay open to new ideas. Members can learn to minimize their reactivity even when dialogue becomes spirited or difficult. In the most effective groups, members feel comfortable to freely express their views and engage in a balanced level of participation. When this happens, communication contributes to the effectiveness and efficiency of group processing and team success. S VIRTUAL COMMUNICATION T O Virtual teams bring geographically dispersed members together though electronic information and communication technologies to V accomplish organizational tasks (Powell, Piccoli, & Ives, 2004). The use of technology can significantly improve team efficiency and increase E productivity, but they need to be actively managed (Hertel, Geister, & Konradt, 2005). Rpart of organizational life that some teams never Technology has become such an integral meet face to face; they only exist in a virtual environment. Virtual teams and the technology , that drives them offer the following benefits: (a) team compositions that increase quality and outcomes, (b) efficiency of communication, and (c) the development of intellectual capital. Putting the right mix of people together C without regard to geographic location allows managers to maximize knowledge, skills, and abilities (Blackburn, Furst, & Rosen, 2003). These types of diverse and specializedA teams are especially necessary to solve complex organizational problems and tasks. R For instance, a team of school prinO cipals and district administrators working on educational reform L might be able to benefit from the experience and knowledge of parallel committees in other states. 2 The team might also benefit from 3 the perspective of a curriculum specialist at a university who con1 sults with school districts. 3 Virtual teaming allows diverse T members to collaborate in ways that were heretofore difficult if not S impossible. Virtual teams allow team members in various locations to interact without the need for face-to-face (F2F) meetings. Scheduling and attending meetings may be easier when workers can stay at their own desk (wherever FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 106 Working in Teams that may be) and participate in virtual meetings instead of flying in from various places around the world to meet in a central location. Since physical spaces and other arrangements such as travel and accommodations are not necessary, organizations can save both time and money. While virtual meetings may not be as efficient as F2F meetings (Levenson & Cohen, 2003), the financial and logistical benefits are attractive. Without the benefit of nonverbal clues, group communication can be ambiguous and cohesion can be difficult to build. These obstacles, however, can be overcome by effective leadership. Improved Knowledge-Sharing When geographical obstacles are removed,Steams have access to subject matter experts from all over the globe. But those experts might T live in different time zones and have technological limitations that prevent them from engaging in virtual meetings. Knowledge O management systems assist members in capturing, storing, and cataloguing what they know so that others can access that knowledge V and experience. Knowledge-sharing links team members together through a virtual repository of expertise. For example, Proctor and E Gamble (P&G) has an electronic network that links 900 factories and 17 product development centers in 73 countries. In the past, it R was difficult to know what new products were being developed in different locations, centers, and departments around the world. To , address this issue, P&G purchased collaborative knowledge-sharing software that permits product developers to search a database of 200,000 existing product designs to see if a similar design or process already exists in another C part of the company. As a result, the time it takes to develop new products has been reduced by 50% (Ante, 2001). Buckman Labs, a chemical manufacturingAcompany, has effectively pooled the expertise of 1,400 employees in over 90 nations through R an electronic knowledge base (Buckman, 2004). For example, when one of its customers has an outbreak of a bacterial contaminaOin Brazil, the local Buckman engineer in that tion that threatens production in a paper mill part of the world can access the companyL knowledge base for possible solutions based upon the knowledge and experiences of engineers at other locations. In this way, problems can be solved more quickly and effectively than when field offices operate independently from one another. This type of quality customer 2 service earned Buckman Labs the 2005 MAKE Award (Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise) from a panel of leading knowledge 3 management experts. 1 3 Inherent Problems Tthey tend to be abstract and ambiguous, and, Virtual teams are not without their problems; by their nature, are challenging to manage. Davis S (2004) found that problems within virtual teams take longer to identify and solutions longer to implement. The distance inherent in virtual teams may serve to (a) amplify dysfunction, (b) dilute leadership, and (c) weaken human relations and team processes. Virtual teams can be especially difficult to manage in terms of goal definition, task distribution, coordination, and member motivation. Teamwork requires interdependence. Members need to have a level of trust that their teammates are equally committed to the goals of the group and will do their part to achieve those goals (Aubert & Kelsey, 2003). In organizational contexts, trust is built by assessing FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 107 the ability, benevolence, and integrity of other group members (Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995). In virtual groups the lack of face-to-face interaction makes it difficult to carry out this assessment. Therefore, virtual teams struggle to gain a level of trust that maximizes group potential. When group members interact in person, they are able to observe one another and draw conclusions about a number of variables including intellectual ability, past experiences, interpersonal style, and personality type. Virtual members have less information from which to make assessments. Thus, virtual environments can be more tenuous and less trusting (Gibson & Manuel, 2003). In addition to developing trust, virtual groups may also have a difficult time creating a shared vision. Shared vision includes not only an understanding of the group’s goal but also a shared commitment to achieving it. InSa virtual environment, it can be difficult to assess commitment levels. Because virtual members typically interact less frequently and with T less perceptual richness, they do not have the opportunity to observe interpersonal charO acteristics such as vocal tone, body language, and facial expressions. Thus, it is difficult to determine who is invested in the success V of the group. E R Communication is more of a challenge in virtual teams than in F2F teams (Martins, Gilson, , & Maynard, 2004). Since trust is difficult to achieve, members are more reluctant to express Communication Challenges their opinions in virtual discussions (Baltes, Dickson, Sherman, Bauer, & LaGanke, 2002). Contributions in a virtual environment lack C the nonverbal and social context to understand others accurately and to be understood. Teams take longer to make decisions and arrive at A an idea can be acknowledged and agreed upon a shared understanding. In an F2F meeting, through nods, smiles, or verbal R responses. Puzzled looks, shrugs, O and raised eyebrows signal a lack of understanding and a request for L more information. Even the most sophisticated computer-mediated communication channels are not 2 able to capture the richness of F2F 3 exchanges (Driskell, Radtke, & Salas, 2003). 1 Obviously, it is more difficult to 3 communicate complex informaT tion by phone or e-mail than it is in person. Even video conferencing S has its limitations. For example, consider the experience of going to a college football game or hearing an orchestra perform a symphony. Live action includes the sights, smells, sounds, and various intangibles that cannot easily be put into words. Even watching a game or musical performance on TV does not capture all the details of the experience. Listening on the radio or reading a New York Times review does even begin to convey the nuances of a FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 108 Working in Teams live performance. Likewise, virtual environments are limited in capturing all the detail and “feel” of F2F meetings. Virtual teams, by nature, tend to be more diverse than F2F teams since they often span multiple geographic locations. Greater geographical distances can translate into differences in regional, national, and organizational cultures. Diversity introduces the potential for increased creativity and problem-solving, but it also creates a context for miscommunication and misunderstanding. Therefore, in addition to the challenges noted above, virtual teams also have to contend with the lack of a common set of assumptions and social norms that facilitate effective communication (Hinds & Weisband, 2003). Members may not even be communicating in their native language. Yet even with a common language, different words and phrases have different meanings S from culture to culture. It is easy to see that the potential for miscommunication and misunderstanding is great. T O V LEADERSHIP IN ACTION E In many team discussions, there is too much talking and not enough listening. To test this R with friends, family, or colleagues. People hypothesis, try monitoring your next interaction are often more interested in delivering a message than receiving one. This is certainly true , in meetings where emotions are running high. What happened the last time you had a disagreement with someone or were in a tense or stressful situation? Why did your voice rise in volume and pitch? Why did your words Chasten? It was probably because you wanted to make sure you got your point across before it was too late. This chapter emphasizes the A fact that communication is critical when it comes to leading people, working in teams, and facilitating interpersonal dynamics. R Team leaders can model active listening and manage the dialogue so that understanding O takes place and everyone feels heard. It is amazing how much can be accomplished when members are invited to participate and feelLvalidated when they do so. Because leaders want to encourage a high standard on clear, concise, and well-supported dialogue, they might need to push members to explain their position and to develop their ideas more 2 position on various subjects, they should not completely. While leaders will have their own discount the value of open dialogue or minimize 3 the contributions of others. Effective communication involves members verbalizing their ideas clearly and listening carefully to the 1 ideas of others in order to create a fertile environment for understanding, exploration, and innovation. 3 So, the next time members are locking horns with one another, try using an engaged Tto help them explain their perspectives and posture, probing questions, and paraphrases arrive at a mutual understanding. Once all the S information is on the table and understood by the team, members will be closer than they originally thought. This nuanced and challenging skill set can be difficult to master, but with conscientious practice and risk-taking, it can be learned. And there is no better time or place to hone one’s communication skills than when working on a team. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 109 KEY TERMS Self-enhancement 97 SOLER 98 Advocacy 102 Inquiry 102 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Name and describe the eight GDOS categories of verbal communication. Give an example of S each. T O What impact does nonverbal communication have on a conversation? What are some V examples of nonverbal cues? E is this communication strategy designed to do? Name and describe the SOLER acronym. What R a message or were misunderstood in a group Recall a time when you either misunderstood atmosphere. What were the repercussions?, 2. Compare and contrast verbal versus nonverbal communication. 3. 4. 5. 6. What are the three skills of active listening? How can you apply these in group situations? 7. Describe the difference between advocacy and C inquiry. Create three examples of each. 8. What are the benefits and challenges of virtual A teams? As a leader, how would you address some of the inherent challenges? R O G R O U P ALC T I V I T I E S EXERCISE 5.1 THE OLD RUMOR MILL 2 We have all played “Telephone.” This exercise is designed to illustrate distortions that can 3 occur as information is relayed from one person to another. The instructor enlists the help of six1volunteers. The rest of the students remain to act as process observers. Five of the six volunteers are asked to leave the classroom so they 3 can’t hear the class discussion. One remains in the room with the instructor and the T observers. The instructor reads an “accident report” S (or a detailed account of an event) to the first volunteer. One of the volunteers who is waiting outside the room comes back in the room and the first volunteer reports the details of the story to him or her. The process observers record what information was added to the original story, what information was left out of the original story, and what information was distorted. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. 110 Working in Teams A third volunteer returns to the classroom and the second repeats the story that was reported from the first volunteer. Again, the process observers write down what was added, deleted, or distorted. The process is repeated until all the volunteers are back in the room. The last volunteer will write the details of the event on the board. Compare that version with the original version. Class observers should report their observations and identify where the message went awry. EXERCISE 5.2 HIGH TALKER/LOW TALKER S EXERCISE T groups: high talkers (people who are more Place yourselves into one of two similar-sized expressive) and low talkers (people who areO quieter). Make sure that everyone agrees with who is in which group (some high talkers do not see themselves as high talkers, and vice versa). Adjust groups accordingly and form V a circle with the low talkers in the middle and the high talkers in the outside circle. Note: high E talkers and low talkers are just labels—one group is not better than the other. The goal of this exercise is for low talkers R and high talkers to gain a better understanding of one another’s experience. When one group , is talking (the group in the fishbowl or inner circle) the other group (the group on the outside of the circle) is to remain quiet. Ask the low talkers the following questions:C • What is it like to be a low-talking member A of this class? • What would you like the high talkers R to know about what it is like to be a low talker in this class? O • Have the high talkers paraphrase what they heard. Then have the low talkers L either confirm or clarify. Have students switch places (the high talkers are now in the fish bowl and the low talkers are on the outside of the circle). Remind2the low talkers that they cannot speak while they are on the outside. 3 Ask the high talkers the following questions:1 • What was it like for you not to be able3to speak? • What did you hear the low talkers sayTabout their experiences as low talkers? Sknow about what it is like to be a high • What would you like the low talkers to talker in this class? • Have the low talkers paraphrase what they heard. Then have the high talkers either confirm or clarify. After everyone has returned to his or her original seat, discuss what you learned from this experience. FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. CHAPTER 5  Communication 111 C A S E 5 . 2 : E N E M Y L I N E S A N D F R I E N D LY F I R E It’s the third week of the semester and you have met with your class project team several times. You’ve already noticed that two of your teammates, Sam and Alex, seem to be very friendly with each other. On e-mails, texts, and in person, this duo strikes you as fun, lighthearted, and occasionally flirtatious. After the next team meeting, Sam and Alex are the last two people left in the meeting room. As they are walking out the door, Sam turns to Alex and says, “Hey, Alex, I really enjoyed getting to know you these last couple of weeks. With Homecoming next weekend, I’d love to hang out and grab a bite to eat before we hit S some of the parties together.” After an awkward silence, Alex turns to Sam and says, “Gosh, Sam. That’s so sweet. I’m not sure if myT roommate has anything planned for us, but let me check and see. I’ll shoot you an e-mail.” O doesn’t know what to think, but feels angry and The e-mail from Alex never comes. Sam hurt that Alex didn’t follow through. At V the next meeting, Sam pulls up a chair next to Alex and says, “Hey, what’s up? I never heard from you.” Alex curtly snips, “Yeah, I can’t make it. It’s not going to work out,” just as theEmeeting was beginning. During the meeting, Alex withdrawsR and takes an aloof posture. Sam is visibly agitated and very critical of everyone else’s contributions. The two have spread a negative dynamic , over the team. You, as team leader, pull Sam aside during the break and say, “Hey, Sam, I’ve noticed that you’re not yourself today. What’s going on?” C • Using active listening skills from this chapter, what would you do to find out the source of the tension between SamAand Alex that has affected the team? Please write out a hypothetical conversation that might follow. R • If you were Alex, how could you have O been more assertive in setting boundaries between work relationships and potentially romantic ones? L 2 3 1 3 T S FOR THE USE OF SAVANT LEARNING SYSTEMS STUDENTS AND FACULTY ONLY. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION, SALE, OR REPRINTING. ANY AND ALL UNAUTHORIZED USE IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. Copyright © 2015 by SAGE Publications, Inc. S T O V E R , C A R O L 2 3 1 3 T S

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Five Practices of Effective Leaders
Effective leaders differ from other leaders in some ways. The following are the five ways
that many people use in distinguishing effective leaders from other leaders; effective leaders
challenge the process (Griffith & Dunham, 2015). Leaders change the available status quo by
looking for alternative opportunities. In the process, they can experiment while at the same time
taking risks, and since they are aware that taking risks involves both mistakes and failures, they
accept disappointments that arose in the learning process. Exemplary leaders give others
opportunity to act (Alloubani & Akhu-Zaheya, 2018). Effective leaders encourage collaboration
together with team building spirit. They understand that respect with their followers is what
brings about extraordinary achievements, and thus they actively involve each other in the
leadership model.
Effective leaders also inspire a shared vision. Effective leaders envision about the future
and create images in their minds on how the future could be. They make those around them see
the possible possibilities in the future, hence inspiring the team to focus on the future. Leaders
also encourage the heart (Griffith & Dunham, 2015). In the process of maintaining hope and
determination, leaders usually recognize contributions made by other. Leaders celebrate their
accomplishments as a way of encouraging members to share rewards of their efforts. Leaders
also model the way. Leaders come up with principles on the way that people should be ...

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