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Bacteriacan becomeresistanttoantibiotics, disinfectants and antisepticsas a result of spontaneous changes in theirDNA(mutations) or a gene transfer from anotherbacterium. When different strains ofbacteriaare exposed toantibiotics, those that haveresistancegenessurvive while the others are killed. Over time, this can lead to the selective survival ofresistantstrains, and to an increase of resistance. One method to test bacteria for resistance to antibiotic is: Resistance may also be established through tests that directly detect the existence of a specific resistance mechanism. For instance, beta lactamase detection can be done with the use of an assay for example the chromogenic cephalosporinase test (Cefinase disk by BD Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MD and BBL DrySlide Nitrocefin, Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD) and detection for chloramphenicol modifying enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) may employ commercial colorimetric assays for instance a CAT reagent kit (Remel, Lenexa, Kansas).
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