Ariel is writing a paper about black holes, but he does not know anything about them. Which essential question will be most helpful in getting him started?
What is it?
How does it happen?
Why does it happen?
What is a pun?
a scientific definition
a type of black hole
a humorous play on words
Read the details described in "Black Hole Beginnings."
What is the correct order of the cause-and-effect chain?
Read the details Jamal has gathered about bear hibernation.
A bear will hibernate every year, starting sometime between October to mid-November, depending on the weather.
Based on the information Jamal has gathered, which essential question did he ask?
Where is it located?
Which statement is objective?
The history of black hole detection is very interesting.
The scientists who make discoveries are brilliant.
Albert Einstein is the most famous of all the scientists.
Read the excerpt from A Black Hole is NOT a Hole.
According to Newton, the force of gravity is a two-way tug between any two objects. It works with anything—any matter at all. The matter can be a tiny bit of a thing, as small as a speck of stardust. It can be a huge collection of material, as gigantic as a galaxy. It can be as rigid as rock or as flimsy as flame. No matter what it is, if it's made of matter, then it possesses the power to pull on anything else.
According to context clues, which is the best definition ofgravity?
a pull between objects
a collection of material
a rigid rock
Read this excerpt from "The Big Shot."
In her most recent test, she asked golfers who had just finished playing to find on a chart a black circle that was the same size as a cup on the green. She says, "What we found was that the golfers who scored better selected larger circles," adding that this suggests "that they perceive the hole as bigger." Golfers who didn't score as well chose smaller circles.
Which type of image would best help readers understand the study being described and its conclusion?
a drawing of the study’s black circles, each labeled with the number of players who chose it, and the average score of that group of players
a photograph of a golf ball and the black circles on the chart, each labeled with its size, next to a dot plot showing each player’s score and chosen circle
a drawing of a golf ball and a chart with different size black circles, each labeled with the number of players that chose it and the size of the circle
You can't tell yourself what to see. The world presents itself to you and you think that you're seeing it the way that it is, and even if you tried to change your perception, you're not going to be able to."
This is a gentle warning to athletes everywhere: While you may now better understand your bad days, you’re still going to have them.
Which phrase in the excerpt most reflects the writer's humorous tone?
Jessica Witt – a professor at Colorado State University – has spent her whole career studying the relationship between what the mind sees (perception) and action by the body. She doesn't think the mind is like a camera, seeing exactly what is actually there. "We don't think that perception is just this objective recapture of what's already out there," says Witt. Instead, the mind sees things based on how the person feels at that moment. She has been testing this by asking athletes their impressions of key activities in their sports.
Which words from the excerpt would be most useful while writing a summary of this paragraph?
What is the effect of visualizing the "hole as bigger"?
lower golf scores
selecting larger circles
higher golf scores
Read this excerpt from "Why Are They Called Black Holes?"
Scientists cannot see gravity, but they can see its effects. The gravity of a black hole will swallow matter and light that drift close enough to it. Some light passing by a black hole can be far enough away that it could avoid being sucked in, but the path of the light would still be bent by gravity.
Astronomers can observe these effects. For example, when a black hole passes through a cloud of dust, it pulls the dust inside it like a big gravity-powered vacuum cleaner. When a star passes too close to a black hole, the black hole pulls it in and breaks up the star, spewing giant flashes of high energy called gamma-ray bursts. And when scientists see light bending even though there is no visible matter nearby, they have evidence that there is an invisible black hole.
What must be present for scientists to detect black holes?
a gamma ray burst
the loss of a star
the force of gravity
Read this excerpt from "Types of Volcanoes."
Lava domes are the fourth kind of volcano. They can form near composite volcanoes or on their own. When underground pressure pushes magma toward the surface but there is not enough fluidity for the magma to burst free, a dome of slow-moving lava forms and cools above ground.
Which event could most likely cause a different type of volcano to form instead of a lava dome?
if the magma were able to flow more like a liquid
if the volcano were on flat ground instead of another volcano
if the volcano were to develop in a colder area of the Earth
Shield volcanoes can grow to be both several miles wide and several miles tall. The Hawaiian Islands are a string of shield volcanoes rising high above the ocean floor. One of those shield volcanoes, Mauna Loa, is the world’s largest active volcano, rising 28,000 feet above the ocean floor and 13,677 feet above sea level. A shield volcano is built up over long periods of time as layers of lava flow down the sides and solidify on top of old layers. Lava escapes from the top of the volcano summit either through one vent or a group of vents.
What is the best summary of this paragraph?
A volcano is built up around a vent in the ground where magma from inside the Earth escapes above ground.
Volcanoes that develop over a long time to be many miles wide and tall are called shield volcanoes.
Hawaii is a US state built on volcanoes that rise out of the Pacific Ocean.
Cinder cones are formed when small pieces of lava, called cinders, fly out of a vent and land around it. The cinders then cool from molten rock into solid rock.
According to the context clues, which term best defines the underlined word?
The Hawaiian Islands are a string of shield volcanoes rising high above the ocean floor. One of those shield volcanoes, Mauna Loa, is the world’s largest active volcano, rising 28,000 feet above the ocean floor and 13,677 feet above sea level. A shield volcano is built up over long periods of time as layers of lava flow down the sides and solidify on top of old layers.
After reading this excerpt, Darren makes a text-to-text connection. Which example is a text-to-text connection?
Darren remembers seeing a movie in which scientists warn a town to evacuate because a volcano is about to erupt for the first time in centuries.
Darren remembers his mom telling him about how his great-grandparents lived in Hawaii during World War II.
Darren remembers playing a video game in which his character goes on an adventure through the Hawaiian Islands.
Read this excerpt from "Four Types of Volcanoes"
Volcanoes are structures formed around openings (vents) in the ground where molten lava, ash, or gas escape from inside the Earth. We have all heard of lava, but not everyone knows how it forms. Deep inside the Earth, rock that melted long ago beneath the Earth's crust forms magma, a very hot liquid that mixes with dissolved gases and crystals. When this magma flows up above Earth’s surface, it is called lava. Volcanoes can erupt continuously or only once in a while. They can erupt violently or slowly. As lava spews out of an opening, it lands, cools, and builds up hills or mountains around the vent. Therefore, volcanoes are usually found on top of hills or mountains.
What is the connection between magma and the hills or mountains around a volcano vent?
Lava is part of magma, and it destroys the mountains and hills that are around a volcano vent.
Magma comes out of a volcano vent, becomes lava, and then cools and becomes part of the land around the vent.
Lava rises up above ground, cools into magma, and then fills the volcano vent so that a hill or mountain forms.
Read this excerpt from "Mars: Lanscape of the Red Planet."
Mars is known as the red planet. It is smaller than Earth, but it boasts as many dramatic landscapes. Since the invention of the telescope, people have been fascinated by the geological features of Mars, but given the limitations of their technology, these early scientists could only guess what it truly looked like.
What has most likely allowed people to have a better understanding of the landscape of Mars in recent times?
more limited methods
increased interest in space
movies and books about Mars
Read this excerpt from "Mars: Landscape of the Red Planet."
Recent evidence may point to the existence of great bodies of water that once covered the planet. The discovery of water on Mars could aid scientists in determining whether life ever existed on the planet or whether it could exist in the future. For now, it remains clear that, given the inhospitable conditions of the planet's surface, no life currently exists there.
What is the effect of the nonexistence of water on the planet Mars?
Scientists have taken water samples from the planet.
Research about the planet cannot be developed.
Life cannot survive there.
These pieces have been examined and determined to be of Martian origin based on verified samples. The information these samples provide gives scientists an even greater understanding of the vast landscape of the red planet.
This excerpt is most likely to appear in which part of a scientific text?
Mars's complexity goes well beyond its surface. Much of the red planet was formed from volcanic material. The southern part of Mars appears to have formed from volcanic activity. This part of Mars has an ancient crust that is mainly mafic in composition and contains high levels of iron and magnesium. The lowlands in the northern parts of Mars are younger and consist mostly of felsic rock, which is high in potassium, silicon, and aluminum.
What is the best description of the geology of Mars?
It is like Earth, with volcanoes, ocean valleys, and thick crust.
It is simple, containing the same type of material and appearance everywhere.
It is like the moon, because it is made of rock inside and on the surface.
NASA and its European equivalent, ESA, currently have spacecraft orbiting Mars, delivering pictures and weather reports back to Earth. On January 3 and 24, 2004, NASA landed two robotic rovers named Spirit and Opportunity on the Martian surface. The twin rovers have spent the last nine years exploring Mars, taking pictures, video, and geological samples.
In addition to its volcanic landscape, Mars also has an amazing system of canyons known as the Valles Marineris. Scientist have ruled out water as the reason for the formation of these canyons. Instead, they theorize that the canyons were formed from the splitting of the Martian crust due to the cooling of the planet. Valles Marineris runs 2,500 miles long at a depth of 4 miles, dwarfing the Grand Canyon back on Earth, which is only 500 miles long and 1 mile deep.
Canyons on Mars appear to have been formed by the splitting of the Martian crust. However, canyons on Earth were most likely formed by
water flowing through rivers over long periods of time.
earthquakes causing parts of Earth’s crust to rise up.
the rising of hot magma from deep inside Earth’s core.
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