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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Annotated Bibliography: Doctoral Identity
1. Gardner, S. K. (2009). Conceptualizing success in doctoral education: Perspectives of
faculty in seven disciplines. The Review of Higher Education, 32(3), 383-406.
This study argues that the concept of success in doctoral education is very ambiguous and
needs more clarity to foster the measurement of expected outcomes. Arguably, only about
50% of individuals who enroll for doctoral education end up completing the degree. This
study was conducted to bring an understanding of success as seen by different individuals in
doctorate education. Consequently, it seeks to provide an understanding of how factors such
as student characteristics, grades, test scores and advising influence this concept of success.
Key concepts of this study include an assessment, explanation, and measurement of doctoral
success through graduation or completion of the degree, retention, professional socialization,
and academic achievement. An argument is presented that some of these methods may not be
appropriate measurements f...