Stress Strategies & Smoking Addiction Cessation

timer Asked: Feb 1st, 2019
account_balance_wallet $60

Question Description

PART 1 - The Stress Response

The human body responds to stress in a variety of ways. The effects of the stress response differ depending on whether the stress is short-term or prolonged. Individual differences can impact how a person will respond to stress from both a physiological and psychological level. Consider how you respond to stress and what strategies you use to cope with stressful situations.

Please examine both the body’s normal response to short-term stress, as well as the effects of prolonged stress. With these thoughts in mind:

Post a description of the body’s response to stress. Then, explain two ways these responses are normally counteracted, and what happens if the responses are prolonged. Finally, explain how individual differences in recovery from stress can affect biological and psychological resilience. Support your postings and responses with specific references to the literature and Learning Resources.


  • Breedlove, S. M., & Watson, N. V. (2018). Behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.) New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    • Chapter 15, “Emotions, Aggression, and Stress”
  • Lehmann, M., & Herkenham, M. (2011). Environmental enrichment confers stress resiliency to social defeat through an infralimbic cortex-dependent neuroanatomical pathway. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(16), 6159–6173. Retrieved from
  • Sapolsky, R. M. (1998). Depression, antidepressants, and the shrinking hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 98(22), 12320–12322. Retrieved from
  • Stress-Defeating effects of exercise traced to emotional brain circuit. (2011). Bethesda, Maryland, US: US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
    Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.



On this week’s Assignment, you select one of the topics below and synthesize the research related to the topic. The first topic asks you to examine smoking addiction and cessation. The second topic asks you to evaluate the biopsychology of emotions.

The Assignment:

Write a 10-page paper using the current literature to support your paper. Cite at least ten peer-reviewed references in APA style.

  • Smoking Addiction and Cessation
    Using the Walden Library research at least ten articles related to smoking addiction and smoking cessation. Explain the potential effects of smoking addiction on appetite, stress, and health. Also explain how smoking cessation affects appetite, stress, and health.

Tutor Answer

School: Purdue University

you will have part two as soon as I am through..I hope i still have currently working on it


Smoking Addiction and Cessation
Professor’s name
Student’s name




After the discovery of America, Tobacco became common all over the world. Tobacco is
a plant that carries alkaloid called nicotine in his leaves. The nicotine is responsible for both
pathophysiological changes in the human body and developing tolerance to own action in
repeated use. According to several studies, the main receptor that mediates nicotine addiction is
the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor subtype. The nicotine absorbed in the receptors
facilitates neurotransmitter release such as dopamine to produce mood and pleasure modulation.
Repeated exposure to nicotine develops a neuroadaptation of the receptors, and this leads to
tolerance of a lot of nicotine effects. The withdrawal effects seem to be on stoppage on tobacco
use characterized by anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, hedonic and increase eating among others.
Smoking is increased by conditioning. Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation is supposed to
reduce a withdraw symptoms as well as block the reinforcement of nicotine that has been
obtained from smoking without leading to adverse effects.



Tobacco smoking shows a very strange behavior to human beings. About a third of the
adult population in the world is smokers. This is neither for maintenance of life nor for the
satisfaction of cultural, social or spiritual needs. This act of smoking is acknowledged by the
supporters to be harmful to human health. People forget that tobacco use as well as its
persistence in the face of vigorous prohibitions and in our own time, despite the wide range talk
according to health risk is a notable phenomenon. According to Christopher Columbus who
discovered the drug, he observed the strange behaviors among the smoking Natives of America
in the year 1492 after which the strange act spread worldwide as well as assumed a major social,
industrial as well as political and medical importance. Strange behaviors in the tobacco are as a
result of pharmacological effects of nicotine which is present in the tobacco leaves and the
tobacco smoke. Tobacco use is harmful to the body and causes a lot of diseases compromising
the use in general shortening one’s lifespan thus leading to premature death. Cigarette smoking
is the most common regarding health and prevalence consequences.
Smoking cessation is also known as quitting smoking and is the process of discontinuing
tobacco smoke. As discussed above tobacco smoke has nicotine which is addictive. The Nicotine
withdrawals make the process of quitting to be a difficult journey and a very prolonged one. A
lot of smokers would like to stop smoking, but it becomes a difficult journey once they start.
Tobacco cessation has significantly reduced the risks of persons dying due to tobacco-related
diseases like coronary heart disease, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. For
this reason, smoking is prohibited in many public areas.
Potential effects of smoking addiction on appetite, stress and health



It is believed as well accepted that smoking reduces one’s appetite and this helps in
weight gain. The presence of nicotine in tobacco smoke acts like an appetite suppressant which is
common knowledge among the smokers. Adolescents and teenagers have a high rate of
restrained dietary and smoking habits. The caloric intake and energy expenditure are determined
by body weight. The daily expenditure is largely determined by the metabolic rate, thermic
effects of food as well as physical effects of the body (National Academies Press, 2015).
Nicotine has several effects on the nervous system regulation on eating as well as energy
expenditure. The regulation aspect on eating behavior as well as the metabolic rate by the human
brain happens in the hypotha...

flag Report DMCA

Thanks, good work

Similar Questions
Hot Questions
Related Tags
Study Guides

Brown University

1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology

2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University

982 Tutors

Columbia University

1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University

2113 Tutors

Emory University

2279 Tutors

Harvard University

599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2319 Tutors

New York University

1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University

1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University

2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University

932 Tutors

Princeton University

1211 Tutors

Stanford University

983 Tutors

University of California

1282 Tutors

Oxford University

123 Tutors

Yale University

2325 Tutors