Thesis: Realism and fascisms in just war.
1. Part I. Questions on Catholic Natural Law Tradition, Nardin, Chapter 1.
2. Part II. Questions on Realism and the issues of War and Peace, based on Nardin, chapter
Part I. Questions on Catholic Natural Law Tradition, Nardin, Chapter 1.
1. Identify the six preconditions for a just war developed by Alexander of Hales (c.
1240), Catholic medieval philosophical theologian in the Natural Law Tradition
(see Nardin, p. 18).
The six preconditions for a just war include firstly, the person declaring war is
supposed to be in the right state of mind and secondly, he must have the authority to
declare war. Thirdly, clerics must not engage in the war. Fourthly, those engaging in the
war must have good intentions and fifthly, those being warred must deserve it. Sixthly,
the war should be about the peace for all and generally support for the good while
coercing the bad.
2. Identify the three major preconditions for a just war developed by the major
Catholic Medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas (c. 1270). Which preconditions of
Alexander Hales did Aquinas exclude from his list? (Nardin, pp. 18-19)
According to Aquinas, the three major preconditions for a just war include firstly,
the authority to declare war, secondly, that those warred deserve it and thirdly, the
intention of war must be to correct or right the wrong. In that case, Aquinas precluded
three preconditions from Alexander Hales’ list which include firstly, the need to be in the
right state of mind for the person declaring war. Secondly, that clerics should not be
engaged in war, and thirdly, that the war should be about coercing the bad and for the
peace of all.
3. Explain how such Catholic scholastics as Vitoria (c.1535) and Suarez (c. 1610)
explain the difference, in their estimation, between defensive and offensive wars?
(Nardin, pp. 20-21) On which statement by Aquinas did they base their views?
(Nardin, p. 20, last paragraph).
Vitoria and Suarez seek to explain that war can be referred as defensive if the aim
is to avert and eminent injustice that is about to take place. Regarding offensive war,
they argue that a war is offensive in the event that the damage has occurred and there the
purpose of the war is for redress andthat it is justified for retribution.
The statement by Aquinas they used to base their views is that “just as rulers
rightly use the sword in lawful defense against those who disturb the peace within the
realm, when they punish criminals…so too they fightly use the sword of war to protect
their polity from external enemies.”
4. Why does the author of the chapter 1, that is John Finnis, believe that the rulers of
any world government have no right ...