Astronomy Reflection For Previous Lab Modules

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Over the past five weeks, you have use the Stellarium planetarium software to plan an observation, examine a number of celestial objects, and test astronomical hypotheses for yourself. In a 1-2 page length paper in APA format, please reflect on the past work you have done and answer the following questions:

  • How did the previous laboratory exercises help you to understand the scientific method and how astronomy uses observations to test hypotheses and theories?
  • Which of the five activities did you find to be the most interesting or educational?
  • Did you find the Stellarium program easy or difficult to use? What would you recommend to the programmer of Stellarium to make any changes or add any additional features?
  • If you had to use Stellarium to devise your own new laboratory exercise, what aspect of the program would you use? What astronomical objects would you focus on?

I have included all my projects for this to.

Module 04 – Measuring and Classifying Stars The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is an important tool in the classification of stars and the understanding stellar evolution. The H-R diagram was discovered independently by two astronomers in early 20th century using observations of star luminosity and surface temperature. With this lab exercise, you will use Stellarium to collect stellar information and then form your own H-R diagram and see if you can find how stars are group into different luminosity classes. Background Question – Describe the four major groups of stars and where they are located on the H-R diagram. • • • • Main sequence stars. Located in the upper left to the lower right on the H-R diagram. Most of the stars, including the sun, are in this group, which shine by fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores. Supergiant stars. Located in the upper right on the H-R diagram. This type of stars is more luminous than main-sequence stars of the same surface temperature. They have a larger radius comparing to the main sequence stars. Giant stars. Located in below the supergiant stars. This type of stars is more luminous than the main sequence star but less than the supergiant stars. Their size is also located in the middle of both groups. White dwarfs. Located in the near lower left. The surface temperature is high with dim luminosities and small radii. Object: Explain the purpose of this laboratory assignment in your own words. What do you think you will accomplish or learn from this exercise? To observe and classify stars using the H-R diagram by its properties of luminosity and surface temperature using the Stellarium software. Hypothesis: Write a simple hypothesis connected to different stars and the H-R diagram that you will be able to test up the Stellarium software (for example, most bright stars visible in the night are supergiants) The visibility of the stars is reduced by the luminosity of the sun; the stars that have a higher luminosity than the sun are visible in the night. Procedure: 1) Open the Stellarium software. Open the Sky and Viewing options window (F4). Under the “Sky” tab, uncheck the Atmosphere and Dynamic eye adaption. 2) Select the Landscape tab and uncheck “Show ground”. 3) For this lab, you will need to record the spectral class and absolute magnitude of a group of near stars and a group of the brightest stars in the night sky. For each star, open the Search window (F3) and enter the star’s name. Click on the star and look at the displayed information at the upper right. Record the star’s spectral class and absolute magnitude in the chart. Some information has already been include in the chart. 4) Repeat step 3 for each of the stars on the list. 5) Plot each of your stars on the H-R diagram below. Denote each star by their listed star number and mark the nearest in red and the brightest stars in blue. 6) Using the H-R diagrams in Chapter 12 as a reference, mark out where the main sequence line, giant branch, supergiant’s branch, and white dwarfs region would be on your H-R diagram. Q1: Based on the location of the Sun on your H-R diagram, what luminosity group (main sequence, giant, supergiant, or white dwarf) does the Sun belong to? The sun belongs to the luminosity group of main-sequence stars. It is approximately located at the center of the H-R diagram, meaning that its size and luminosity it is not extreme (comparing to other stars) and its shining is product of the nuclear reactions that transform the hydrogen into helium. Q2: What stars did you find to be supergiants? The stars classified as supergiant’s in the H-R diagram are Hadar, Rigel, Canopus, Betelgeuse, and Antares A. Those stars are easily found in the sky of the Stellarium software. Q3: What luminosity group and spectral classes are most nearby stars? In terms of luminosity, most of the nearest stars from Earth are classified in the H-R diagram as main-sequence stars. The exceptions are Sirus B and Procyon B that are little dwarfs. In terms of spectral classes most of the nearest stars are classified with letters from F-M, meaning that their surface temperature is between intermediary or cold. The biggest exception in this case is the Sirius A star, that could be interpreted as the biggest and most luminous star nearest to the Earth (we omit from this classification the little dwarf stars due they don’t have any spectral classification). We have to take in account that the classification order from high to low luminosity is OBAFGKM. Q4: What luminosity groups and spectral classes do most of the bright stars belong to? In terms of luminosity, the bright stars are classified in the groups of supergiant stars, giant stars and main-sequence stars. In terms of spectral classes, the brightest stars cover almost the full range of the H-R diagram, from Spica (B1) to Antares A (M1). We have to take in account that the classification order from high to low luminosity is OBAFGKM. Q5: Is there any part of the H-R diagram that you do not find any stars? No. At least one star of the assignment covers one of the four main regions in the H-R diagram. 7) Continue using Stellarium if you need further information to test your individual hypothesis. If you need further direction, please ask your instructor. Conclusion: In 1-2 paragraphs, explain if your observations and data support or conflict with your hypothesis and if you have met your assignment objective. Was there any portion of the assignment that was particularly interesting or difficult? Based on the results collected using the software Stellarium to observe and classify the stars by luminosity and surface temperature, we could conclude that the hypothesis is accepted. Even if the stars are far from the Earth and the sun, its luminosity (and size) are higher than the sun and reduce the effect of interference of the sun (since it is our closest light source), making them visible to humans. The most difficult part of the assignment was to plot the results using the spectral classification due their nature as a discrete variable. It was easier when I took the color index b-v data to make the plot using Microsoft Excel. It should be recommendable to include in the instructions to collect this variable, to minimize any possible error trying to locate one star into the graph using the letter spectral classification. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Brightest Stars in the Night Sky Star Sirius A Canopus Alpha Centauri A Arcturus Vega Capella A Rigel Procyon A Betelgeuse Hadar Altair Aldebaran Spica Antares A # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nearest Stars Star Sun Proxima Centauri Alpha Centauri A Alpha Centauri B Barnard's Star Wolf 359 Spectral Class Absolute Magnitude Spectral Class G2 M6 Absolute Magnitude 4.8 15.6 K1 M4 M6 5.7 13.2 16.7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Lalande 21185 Sirius A Sirius B Epsilon Eri 61 Cyg A 61 Cyg B Procyon A Procyon B M2 10.5 wd use B1 11.2 wd use A6 13 Brightest Stars in the Night Sky No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Star Spectral Class B-V Color Index Absolute Magnitude Sirius A A0 0.00 1.44 Canopus A9 0.16 -5.53 Alpha Centauri A G2 0.60 4.45 Arcturus K0 1.24 -0.11 Vega A1 0.00 0.57 Capella A G1+K0 0.79 -0.54 Rigel B8 -0.03 -6.96 Procyon A F5 0.44 2.68 Betelgeuse M4 1.52 -5.47 Hadar B1 -0.03 -5.48 Altair A7 0.22 2.20 Aldebaran K5 1.55 -0.70 Spica B1 -0.25 -3.47 Antares A M1 1.86 -5.10 Nearest Stars No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Star Spectral Class B-V Color Index Absolute Magnitude Sun G2 0.66 4.80 Proxima Centauri M6 1.80 15.60 Alpha Centauri A G2 0.60 4.45 Alpha Centauri B K1 0.82 5.70 Barnard's Star M4 1.58 13.20 Wolf 359 M6 2.03 16.70 Lalande 21185 M2 1.52 10.50 Sirius A A0 0.00 1.44 Sirius B wd B1 -0.03 11.20 Epsilon Eri K2 0.89 6.16 61 Cyg A K5 1.07 7.49 61 Cyg B K7 1.30 8.28 Procyon A F5 0.44 2.68 Procyon B wd A6 0.00 13.00
Physical Characteristics of Planets The planets of the Solar System can be divided into two major classes, terrestrial and Jovian planets, but each planet has their own interesting characteristics. With the Stellarium planetarium software, you can get a close up view of the planets and see their features for yourself. Background Question From visual observation we could measure the planet’s orbital velocity, the physical size (by the measurement of the angular size) and the rotational velocity (using one surface feature as a reference). Objective: The objective of this laboratory is to know how to use the software Stellarium to characterize the planets by its physical characteristics that could be measured by observation. Hypothesis: Jovian planets have a faster rotational velocity than terrestrial planets. Procedure: • Open the Stellarium software. Open the location window (F6) and change the planet to the Sun. This will change our observing location to the center of our Solar System. • Open the Sky and Viewing options window (F4). Under the “Sky” tab, uncheck the Atmosphere, Stars, and Dynamic eye adaption. Check “Show planet markers” and “Show planet orbits”. • Select the Landscape tab and uncheck “Show ground”. • Open the Search window (F3) and enter in Mercury. The view should shift such that the Mercury is in the center of the screen. As long as Mercury is actively select, it will remain in your field of view as you advance time. • In the table below, make note of the visible features of Mercury. This can include over color, surface features such as craters or ice caps, presence of an atmosphere and cloud structure, and any visible moons orbiting the planet. You can also advance time and try to observe in the planet has a faster or slow rotation. • Repeat your observer with each of the eight planets. You can use the Search window (F3) to shift your view to each planet. • We can use the small angle formula to find the physical diameter of a planet. Select one planet and record its angular size in arcseconds and distance from the observer (Distance displayed in units of millions of km). The physical size of an astronomical object is equal to the angular size times the object’s distance divided by 206, 265 (similar formula can be found in the textbook on page 29). • Continue using Stellarium to test your individual hypothesis. If you need further direction, please ask your instructor. Results. Planet Mercury Venus Color Gray Mustard Earth Blue Mars Red Jupiter White and Brown Saturn Beige Uranus Aqua Neptune Blue Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Atmosphere Surface Features No Craters and planes. Yes Craters, mounts, valleys and coronas Cloudy with some mounts and oceans Yes visible but no selectable by the software. No Craters, mounts, and valleys Formed of gas, with many different Yes color layers that could be related with the composition. Yes Homogeneous gas planet. Homogeneous gas planet with little Yes imperfections. Formed of gas, with some significant Yes areas of turbulence. Angular Size (arcsec) 14.65 23.16 17.81 6.35 36.92 16.53 3.55 2.29 Distance (MKm) 69.382 107.605 147.157 220.853 799.025 1504.892 2971.367 4478.711 Physical Size – Radius (Km) 2464 6041 6353 3400 71510 60301 25570 24862 Rotation Speed (Km/s) 0.003 0.002 Moons 0 0 0.465 1 0.241 2 12.572 10 9.871 19 2.588 10 2.683 7 Error (%) 0.98 0.16 0.39 0.08 0.03 0.05 3.25 2.73 Questions 1. In your opinion, which planet had the most distinct appearance? Saturn is the planet with the most distinct appearance due the presence of its rings that are bigger and could double its physical size. Some other Jovian planets have rings, but those rings are not visible in the Stellarium software and I was noticed only in the data sheet that the software shows for every planet. 2. Which group of planets (terrestrial or Jovian) appear to have the most moons? Jovian planets appear to have more moons than terrestrial. Some terrestrial planets don’t have moons, like Mercury or Venus, and some of the Jovian planets have moons with bigger orbits than the terrestrial planets, like some moons of Jupiter and Saturn. It is interesting to notice that the orbital trajectory of the moons is not located in the same plane of the universe, and radii of the orbits could vary significantly from the one moon to its closer moons. 3. Which group of planets (terrestrial or Jovian) appear to have the fastest rotation? Jovian planets appear to have the fastest rotation. There is also some difference between the Jovian planets. The massive gas planets like Jupiter and Saturn have the highest rotation velocity of the solar system. Considering that Saturn have the lowest density of the solar system (0.70g/cm3), one possible explanation is that there is no significant resistant for the rotational movement in the surface, reducing the friction and producing a higher velocity than in the case of terrestrial planets. It is interesting to notice that the planet with the highest rational velocity has the highest gravitational force and the second one, has the one of the lowest. It seems that there are many factors that make that one planet rotate with higher velocity in comparison with another, but it seems that the presence of atmosphere could be the main difference. 4. Did you have any problem observing the rotation of any planet? If so, why do you think this was the case? In the terrestrial planets of Mercury and Venus there was some difficulties to observer any rotational movement because it was slow, also from time to time there was an inversion of the edges during the rotation of the planets, maybe it was an artifice of the software to maintain the attention of the observer on the screen. Planets like Saturn and Uranus are very regular, don´t have craters or some turbulence circles in the atmosphere like Jupiter or Neptune, so it was also difficult to notice how fast was the movement but was evident that those planets have a rotational velocity higher than the terrestrial planets. 5. Compare your calculation with the planet radius information in the textbook (Chapter 6 or Appendix E). Is your calculated radius close to the known value? The calculated radius was almost the same that was reported in the textbook, it was calculated the error between measurements (considering as true value the radius reported in the textbook) and I found an error above 1% only in the furthest planets from the sun: Uranus (3.25%) and Neptune (2.73%). By this data, we could corroborate that the software has accurate measurements of angular size and distance. Conclusion: By the data obtained using the software Stellarium it was possible to confirm that the Jovian planets have a faster rotational velocity than the terrestrial planets. The presence of atmosphere reduces the friction and makes easier the movement around its own axis. Planets like Earth that was visible to have atmosphere also have a decent rotational velocity but not as much as the Jovian planets.
Module 02 – Kepler’s Laws Lab / Understanding Planetary Motion Johannes Kepler, a 17th Century astronomer and mathematician, published three laws of planetary motion that improved upon Copernicus’s heliocentric model. These laws were made possible by years of accurate planetary measurement collected by Kepler’s predecessor, Tycho Brahe. Kepler’s laws were a radical change from previous astronomical models for the Solar System which maintained the ancient Greek idea of perfect circular motion. With the Stellarium planetarium software, we are able observe the orbit of the planets and test some of his ideas. Background Question – Describe Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion. All plants move about the Sun orbits in equal lengths of time. Object: Explain the purpose of this laboratory assignment in your own words. What do you think you will accomplish or learn from this exercise? Figuring out if Kepler’s law is true to what the plants do in orbit. I learned that the orbits are different then Earth and it takes more years to get to them. Hypothesis: Write a simple hypothesis connected to Kepler’s laws of motion that you will be able to test using the Stellarium software (for example, if Kepler’s laws are correct, Mercury should move fastest in its orbit when it is closest to the Sun). Procedure 1) Open the Stellarium software. Open the location window (F6) and change the planet to Solar System Observer. This will change our observing location to a position outside our Solar System. 2) Open the Sky and Viewing options window (F4). Under the “Sky” tab, uncheck the Atmosphere, Stars, and Dynamic eye adaption. Check “Show planet markers” and “Show planet orbits”. 3) Select the Landscape tab and uncheck “Show ground”. 4) Open the Search window (F3) and enter in the Sun. The view should shift such that the Sun is in the center of the screen. 5) With the mouse wheel, zoom in toward the Sun and you should be about to see the orbits and position of each of the planets. If you left click on one of the planets, then only that particular planet’s orbit will be displayed. With the time control at the bottom right, accelerate the flow of time until you see the planets moving in their orbits. Q1. List the visible planets in order of increasing distance from Sun. Sun, Mercury. Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto but Pluto is not a planet. Q2. Are the planets moving at the same speed? No If not, which planet is the fastest and what planet is the slowest Jupiter has the shortest day of all the planets in the solar system and Venus is the slowest, it rotates once every 243 days. 6) Zoom down until you see Mercury orbit. Left click on Mercury so you only see Mercury’s orbit and information on the left. Q3. Is Mercury orbit perfectly circular or is it slightly egg shaped? It is slightly egg shaped / oval shaped Q4. Is the Sun at the exact center of Mercury orbit? No it is not in the exact center of Mercury orbit. 7) Click somewhere off a planet so all the planets’ orbits are displayed. Zoom out until you see the orbit of Mars. Open the Search window and type in 2P/Encke. Stellarium will center on a comet that has a very elliptical orbit. Increase the flow of time enough so you can see Comet Encke move in orbit around the Sun Q5. When does Encke move the fastest? Is this in agreement with Kepler’s second law? Universal gravitation implies that when a planet is closer to the Sun in its orbit, it will move faster than when it is farther from the Sun. Mercury with the higher orbit should be changing it orbital speed more than do Venus or Earth. This is per Kepler’s second law. 8) When you click on a planet, a display of information is show on the upper left. This include the planet’s distance from Sun and its sidereal period. According to Kepler’s third law, the square of a planet’s sidereal period is equal to the cube of planet’s average distance from the Sun. We can test this law with information from Stellarium. 9) Select three planets. Click on each planet and record their sidereal period in years (this will be the second value displayed with the unit “a” meaning Earth years. 10) The average distance of each planet from the Sun is not directly displayed, only its current distance from the Sun. The average distance can be calculate by adding the perihelion (closest distance a planet gets to the Sun) and aphelion (furthest distance a planet get from the Sun) and dividing by two. To obtain the perihelion and aphelion, you will need to select your chosen planet and advance time until you get the smallest and largest distances (in units of AU) from the Sun values listed in the information display. Remember you can always pause the flow of time with the play/pause button in the software time controls. 11) Record your period and distance data in the table below average distance (a) Planet Earth Period (p) 1.00 Mercury 0.241 yrs Mars Saturn = (perihelion + aphelion) / 2 p2 (0.983 + 1.017) / 2 1.00 (0.308 + 0.467) / 2 0.3875 (1.666 + 1.381) / 2 1.5235 (10.046 + 9.031) / 2 9.5385 a3 1.00 1.881 yrs 29.459 yrs Q6. Does your data support Kepler’s third law (p2 = a3) From what I have done so far no it does not support Kepler’s third law. 12) Continue using Stellarium to test your individual hypothesis. If you need further direction, please ask your instructor. Conclusion: In 1-2 paragraphs, explain if your observations and data support or conflict with your hypothesis and if you have met your assignment objective. Was there any portion of the assignment that was particularly interesting or difficult? What I had the most issue is figuring out the math problems with the table we had to do and do not get it. I am having a lot of trouble with figuring it out. Need help to make sure I am doing it right. With that I did find it hard for me because math is not my subject I like and it is very hard for me to do sometimes like is.
Astronomy Module 01 – Observation Project Basic Sky Objects Use the following chart to record your observations, based on your use of Stellarium or an online sky chart. Object Moon Date Time General Location 1/05/2019 Was not able to see the moon during the day or at night. It looks like that it would be big and bright if it was at night. It rises in the SE at 6:59am to sets in the NW at 5:38pm Phase: New Moon Planet 1/06/2019 Notes 7:20 PM SSW horizon Was using my telescope South and look to SSW area right in the low horizon Was using my telescope Name: Mars Constellation 01/06/2019 7:20 PM Name: Phoenix Constellation Name: Aquarius 01/06/2019 7:20 PM Was using my telescope I had a hard time doing this assignment because where I live I either had sea fog to deal with or had storms come in and it was cloudy. I took my telescope out to help me find the items I need to find. At first it was hard finding them but with help from the Stellarium software it helps me find them. I was with my family and we all were looking at what we could find. My kids like that we are going to be able to use the telescope to look at the sky at night and learning.
Module 05 – A Universe of Galaxies Edwin Hubble’s observations of the Andromeda “nebula” in 1924, using the then new 100 inch telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory, lead to the understanding that the Milky Way was not the only galaxy, but one of a countless large groups of stars in our Universe. Within this new field of astronomy, Hubble devised a classification system for galaxies based on their observed shape and structure. In this laboratory exercise, you will use Stellarium to observe a number of galaxies and attempt to classify them using Hubble’s system. Background Question – Describe the major Hubble galaxy classifications and how they are organized on Hubble’s “turning fork”. The classification system of galaxies, invented by Edwin Hubble, is shaped like a turning fork and it's divided in two major categories: • Elliptical galaxies look like a football, are red and rounded with one part longer than the other. They contain very little cool gas and dust. They often contain very hot ionized gas. They appear on the "handle" at the left, designated by the letter E and a number. The larger the number, the flatter the elliptical galaxy: An E0 galaxy is a sphere, and the numbers increase to the highly elongated type E7. • Spiral galaxies look like flat white disks with yellowish bulges at their centers. The disks are filled with cool gas and dust, interspersed with hotter ionized gas, and usually display beautiful spiral arms. They appear on the two forks and are designated by the letter S for ordinary spirals and SB for barred spirals, followed by a lowercase a, b, or c: The bulge size decreases from a to c, while the amount of dusty gas increases. Lenticular galaxies are designated SO, and irregular galaxies are designated Irr (not rounded galaxies). Object: Explain the purpose of this laboratory assignment in your own words. What do you think you will accomplish or learn from this exercise? To observe and classify galaxies using the Hubble’s classification system of galaxies by its shape using the Stellarium software. Hypothesis: Write a simple hypothesis connected to observed properties of galaxies that you will be able to test using the Stellarium software (for example, most galaxies are spiral in shape like our Milky Way). Most galaxies are barred spiral galaxies due it's continuous expansion since they were created. Procedure 1) Open the Stellarium software. Open the Sky and Viewing options window (F4). Under the “Sky” tab, uncheck the Atmosphere. 2) Select the Landscape tab and uncheck “Show ground”. 3) Open the Search window (F3) and enter Andromeda Galaxy. The view should shift to center on the Andromeda Galaxy. Scroll your mouse wheel forward to zoom in until you can see the Andromeda Galaxy in detail. 4) Based on the Andromeda Galaxy’s shape and appearance, record on the lab data table which major type of galaxy you think it is (Spiral, Elliptical, Irregular). Make a note if you see any particular interesting features (color, if spiral is there a bar, if a galaxy is interacting with another galaxy) 5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each galaxy listed on the data table. You make need to zoom in or out to see the selected in detail. Q1: From the list of galaxies given, did you find more of classification group then the other? The spiral galaxies are the most predominant type of galaxies found in the group of galaxies searched. Form this type, the subdivisions (ordinary spirals and barred spirals galaxies) have similar quantities of galaxies. From the spiral galaxies type it was reported also two other groups (lenticular and irregular galaxies) which frequency is lower compared to the other two types and possibly could be described as extraordinary cases. Q2: Did you observe any spiral galaxies with a bar structure? Yes. The barred spiral galaxies are quite common, almost in the same proportion as the spiral ordinary galaxies. Q3: Where all the elliptical galaxies all the same exact shape? No. The elliptical galaxies have some differences in shape. The observable element that could differ one elliptical galaxy from another is the presence of a halo around the center of the galaxy. This is supported by the Hubble’s classification of galaxies where the elliptical galaxies are divided in seven sub-types of galaxies using the shape as criteria of classification. Q3: Did you notice a difference in general color between elliptical and spiral galaxies? Yes. The elliptical galaxies normally have a bright and luminous center that eclipse the other components of the galaxy; the color of these type of galaxy is related with the center and varies from light yellow to blue. In the other hand, the spiral galaxies have many different colors than the colors presented in the elliptical galaxies and that could be explained with the size of the center that is smaller than the elliptical galaxies’ center, giving the possibility to develop colors from light scattering, light emission or other optical phenomena. Q4: Which classification group showed evidence of ongoing star formation (visible new O and B blue stars)? The ongoing star formation appears in some spiral galaxies. From this group, the irregular subtype (like the LMC and M82) presents some little points of light in its form that could be indicator of a new star formation. 6) Continue using Stellarium if you need further information to test your individual hypothesis. If you need further direction, please ask your instructor. Conclusion: In 1-2 paragraphs, explain if your observations and data support or conflict with your hypothesis and if you have met your assignment objective. Was there any portion of the assignment that was particularly interesting or difficult? Based on the classification of galaxies reported from the twenty-one galaxies researched, we could conclude that the number of spiral barred galaxies is similar than the number of ordinary spiral galaxies, and bigger than the number of elliptical galaxies. The similarities between both types of spiral galaxies in an indicator that the pattern that follows the galaxies when they are expanding could be probabilistic instead of deterministic; that statement is also supported with the variety in colors, patterns, sizes, and complexity of the galaxies, meaning that there is not a unique pathway. Galaxy Classification Type Andromeda M33 LMC SMC S-b S-c Irr Irr M51 M58 S-b SB-b M60 M63 E2 S-b M81 S-a M82 Irr M86 E3 M87 M88 E0 S-b Interesting Features Bright in the center with colored well-defined spirals around and dust particles Bright in the center with blur spirals and dust particles Irregular form with blur definition and opaque center Irregular form with blur definition and opaque center Bright in the center with colored well-defined spirals around Bright in the center with blur spirals Spherical galaxy, with high luminosity, a white halo and blur definition Bright in the center with colored blur spirals Small bright center with colored, big and well-defined spirals and some dust particles Elongated form with some luminosity but without a defined center Spherical galaxy, with high luminosity with an orange halo and blur definition Spherical galaxy, with high luminosity with a yellow halo and blur definition Small bright center with colored, big and well-defined M90 SB-a M91 Sb-b M94 S-a M99 S-c M100 SB-b M102 SO M106 SB-b spirals and some dust particles Bright center with blur spirals and a considerable number of dusty particles Small bright center with colored, big and well-defined spirals and some dust particles Big and luminous center with blur spirals that have definition when they are close to the center Small bright center with colored, big and well-defined spirals and some dust particles Small bright center with colored, big and blur spirals and dust particles Big and luminous center with some deformation that makes it more elliptical Small bright center with colored, big and blur spirals and dust particles Small and luminous center with colored and blur spirals M109 SB-b

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Prof_Holley
School: Rice University

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Running head: REFLECTION ON ASTRONOMY

Reflection on Astronomy
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REFLECTION ON ASTRONOMY

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Reflection on Astronomy

How did the previous laboratory exercises help you to understand the scientific method
and how astronomy uses observations to test hypotheses and theories?
My understanding of scientific methods was considerably enhanced by the laboratory
exercises that we undertook. Also, those exercises improved m...

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Anonymous
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