Social Media Addiction Research Paper

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Question Description

Research prompt: Is Social Media addiction? (If after reading the articles, and you believe you could think of a better prompt with these articles, let me know we can brainstorm together :) )

(I HAVE PROVIDED THE ARTICLES, PLEASE ONLY USE THOSE ARTICLES ONLY)

The articles will be attached as a file all together with the titles and authors.

Argumentative Persuasive Research Paper

Task: Argue your side effectively on a debatable topic of your choice. I prefer if you choose a topic that is of interest to you, or to your future academic studies, or to a career path you have chosen, so that what you write for my class can then be used as sample work when you move on.

Since it’s a debatable topic you have to take a stand/ position – are you pro or con? Then explore the opposition’s arguments and prove that opposition wrong.

If you cannot come up with a topic, I have some debate topics with articles (but these articles are old), so I will expect you to get more recent articles from the library databases: ProQuest, Opposing Viewpoints, and or Kanopy) to add to your store of articles to be used as sources for your research.

Here are the 8 topics you may choose (but I truly admire if you come up with a topic of your own), but if you cannot come up with your own topic you may use one from the suggested list of debates. This is to make it easier for you):

  • Athletics benefits the academic environment
  • Technology’s impact on human relationships
  • Dress code impacts the learning environment
  • Impact of helicopter parenting
  • Oscars represent America’s diversity
  • What’s better? Trade School or College
  • Tuition free college benefits all
  • Wage increase benefits do not justify benefits for all

As you can see the above topics are debatable. Some may say it is beneficial and some may say it is not beneficial. You have to take a stand on whatever topic you choose.

Then come up with a list of Question (after accessing prior knowledge), read the articles to see if your questions are answered, if go online and look up the databases to find articles.

There are two rough drafts needed for this, but if these rough drafts are in bullet points, I am ok with that too.

Rough Draft 1: Argument

You will choose a debatable topic as your subject. You may argue either side of the issue. Define the topic in terms of your argument. Describe in detail the issues related to your topic that supports your claim. Present evidence that supports your claim.

Rough Draft #2: Refutation

You will argue the same topic/side as you did in RD #1. Imagine you have presented your paper to a committee. What might the opposition say to counter your ideas? Your goal is to prove this opposition wrong. Write it in a way that refutes any opposition to the argument you made in Rough Draft #1.

Final: Combined Argument and Refutation: For the final, you will edit Rough Draft #1 and 2 that you wrote earlier. Combine the body paragraphs of these two Rough Drafts to form your final (6-8 pages total). Be sure to transition between these paragraphs. The final will have an entirely new intro/conclusion as well as a thesis.

Summarize at least 3 arguments that the opposition to your proposed solution might make. Will they argue with your data? Do they see the issue differently? Do they think another solution would be better? Using academic tone, deconstruct the argument. Show why their arguments are wrong. Show why their data are skewed. Show that their conclusions are inaccurate.

1. Your thesis should: a) give the topic, b) state the side you are on c) tell why you are right and your opposition is wrong. This thesis is NEW.

2. Include a new intro strategy/new introductory paragraph for the final. This intro is NEW (not the same as in your Rough Drafts).

3. Edit and then cut and paste the BODY PARAGRAPHS from Rough Draft 1 into the final.

4. Include a transitional paragraph to join these two halves together for your reader. This paragraph is NEW

5. Edit and then cut and paste the BODY PARAGRAPHS from Rough Draft 2 into the second half of the final. These paragraphs should prove your opposition wrong. Will the opposition argue with your data? Do they see the issue differently? Do they use argumentative fallacies? Using academic tone, deconstruct the argument. Show why their arguments are wrong. Show why their data are skewed. Show that their conclusions are inaccurate. Remember, you must avoid argumentative fallacies when proving your side!

6. Conclude by summing up the weakness (eg) of the opposition and reaffirming the strength of your side. Your readers should put down the paper and believe your side is correct. This conclusion should be NEW.

7. When you combine your sources for Rough Draft 1 and 2, you will have a minimum of 5 sources and a maximum of 10 sources. The list of sources must be varied. However, you may not use: encyclopedias, Wikipedia, blogs, chatrooms, or discussion forums.


8. Following MLA citation guidelines, use parenthetical in text citations and include a works cited page in which you list the sources that you’ve used in your paper.

Research Paper Length

  • • 2,500 words/7-8 pages

    Number of outside sources required

    You must use a minimum of five sources in your research paper, and no more than ten sources total.
  • These sources can be:
  • • Books
    • Articles from magazines, newspapers, and journals
    • Reports from databases
    • Reputable web sites
    • Documentaries
  • And remember - you must correctly cite all sources used. Counter arguments and rebuttals must also be cited correctly in MLA 8.

    Format Style
  • You are required to submit your research paper in MLA 8 format, which means in-text citations must be used in the body of your paper, and a Works Cited list must appear at the end of your paper.


  • It is strongly advised that you speak to a reference librarian when you embark on your research paper. It is advised that you may use sources found through the College Library, such as subscription databases, the library catalog (books), and electronic book databases. When using open web or non-library sources, make sure they are reliable, authoritative, objective, current, and accurate.

PLEASE ADD AN OUTLINE

I will attach a youtube video link that explains how to make one for this assignment:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAAgVKNtZJE

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Technology Addiction April 20, 2018 – Volume 28, Issue 15 Is obsessive computer use a mental health disorder?​By Susan Ladika Some addiction specialists contend that the overuse of video games, social media or other online technology can affect the brain in the same way drug or alcohol dependency does. But other experts question whether an obsessive use of technology meets the clinical definition of addiction. They argue that overuse of technology typically stems from an underlying condition, such as anxiety, depression or attention deficit disorder. Some industry insiders say technology companies such as Facebook design their products to be addictive, which company executives deny. Child advocates and some politicians want the government to do more to address the potential harm of technology overuse, and countries such as South Korea and China have established government-sponsored treatment centers for teens and young adults considered tech-addicted. The American Psychiatric Association has not linked technology overuse with standard medical definitions of addiction but says internet gaming needs further study. The National Institutes of Health, meanwhile, is funding a study on whether online gaming is addictive. Go to top Overview After spending much of his childhood playing video games, Charlie Bracke realized that his constant gaming as an adult was out of control: He says he had flunked out of three colleges, lost a girlfriend and washed out as a real estate agent. Twice, recalls the 29-year-old from Redmond, Wash., he tried to quit gaming. Then, one day as he contemplated suicide, he says, his parents showed up unannounced and found him and his apartment a wreck. They began calling treatment centers and help lines and found reSTART, a rehab center for internet, gaming and virtual reality addiction based in Fall City, Wash. After more than a year in treatment, Bracke now has a full-time job as a Costco merchandiser and is studying accounting. He attends 12-step support groups, meets with a therapist and shares his story about battling technology addiction with others at reSTART. Before he went to rehab, Bracke says, “I didn't know how to deal with my feelings of failure. I was intentionally medicating my emotions with gaming.” Some addiction specialists say people like Bracke are addicted to technology, which they say can affect the brain in the same way an over-dependence on alcohol or drugs does. Others say tech overuse is not an addiction in the medical sense but rather is a manifestation of underlying conditions such as anxiety or depression. The debate is occurring as several former technology industry insiders have accused software companies of intentionally creating addictive products, although defenders of the companies say they should not be blamed for making products that keep users engaged. Several parent groups and child development experts want the government to address the potential negative effects of technology overuse, especially on young children. Charlie Bracke, a gamer from Redmond, Wash., entered a rehab center after he realized his addiction to online video games was out of control and ruining his life. Now, after more than a year in treatment, he has a full-time job and is studying accounting. As part of his treatment, Bracke attends 12-step support groups, meets with a therapist and shares his story about battling technology addiction. (Courtesy Charles Bracke) There is “a fairly even split in the scientific community about whether tech addiction is a real thing,” said Michael Bishop, a psychologist and director of Summerland Camps, which runs summer camps in North Carolina and California for children with what Bishop calls “screen overuse” habits. Bishop says he prefers the term “habit” over an “addiction,” because, “When teens think about their behavior as a habit, they are more empowered to change.”​1 Addiction occurs when something becomes all-consuming and has a negative impact on one's life, such as interfering with relationships, sleep patterns, work, hobbies or eating habits. “Technology, like all other ‘rewards,’ can over-release dopamine [a neurotransmitter], overexcite and kill neurons, leading to addiction,” said Robert Lustig, a University of California, San Francisco, emeritus professor of pediatric endocrinology and author of ​The Hacking of the American Mind​, a book about what he says is a corporate scheme to sell pleasure that is creating an international epidemic of addiction, depression and chronic disease. Technology is “not a drug, but it might as well be,” Lustig said. “It works the same way…. It has the same results.”​2 But Michael Rich, an associate professor of pediatrics at Harvard University, says, “we don't think the word ‘addict’ is the correct word to use. There's not a measurable physiological change when you're using or withdrawing, unlike alcohol, heroin or tobacco.” The American Psychiatric Association (APA), a professional organization representing psychiatrists, academics and researchers, did not define technology addiction as a diagnosable disorder in its latest edition of the ​Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5),​ published in 2013. However, the manual, used by health professionals to make diagnoses and by insurance companies to determine medical coverage, did say that internet gaming disorder needs further study.​3 But Dan Hewitt, a vice president of the Entertainment Software Association, a trade group of gaming software companies, in Washington, says in an email interview that “legitimate science, objective research and common sense all prove video games are not addictive. By misusing the word addiction, which is a medical term, society demeans real compulsive behaviors, like alcoholism and drug abuse, which deserve treatment, compassion, and care.” The World Health Organization (WHO), which held its fourth annual meeting on tech addiction in 2017, wrote that the increased use of technology is associated “with documented cases of excessive use, which often has negative health consequences.” In a growing number of countries and jurisdictions, said the WHO, “the problem has reached the magnitude of a significant public health concern.”​4 Several former employees of companies such as Google and Facebook say tech companies intentionally created technology designed to hook users in order to make money by selling their data. “We talk about addiction and we tend to think, ‘Oh, this is just happening by accident,’” said Tristan Harris, a former design ethicist at Google who has accused the companies of creating addictive software. “This is happening by design. There's a whole bunch of techniques that are deliberately used to keep the auto play [going] on YouTube to keep you watching the next video.”​5 Some scientists and child advocates worry that children and young adults may be particularly susceptible to tech addiction. Adolescents, says Lustig, are particularly vulnerable to almost every psychiatric disease — schizophrenia, anxiety, addiction, depression — in part because their prefrontal cortex, which controls executive function and decision-making, is the last part of the brain to fully develop. Thus, “teens exposed to addictive substances or behaviors are more likely to become addicted” than adults, Lustig says. Long Descriptio n According to an open letter to Apple by a group of concerned investors, the average American child receives his or her first smartphone at age 10, and teens spend more than 4.5 hours per day on their smartphones, not counting time spent texting and talking. Nearly 80 percent of teens said they check their phones at least every hour.​6 But Stanford University communications professor Byron Reeves said his research has found that some college students turn their phones on and off 300 times in a 24-hour period. “And that's just the average,” he said. “There are a lot of people that are turning it on and off 500, 600, 700, 800 times a day. So it's going on, going off for an average of ten seconds.” Reeves said he worries that such habits could lead to shortened attention spans.​7 Regardless of what experts say about whether tech addiction exists, a January poll found that nearly half of parents with children under 18 feared their kids were addicted to their mobile devices. About 20 percent of the parents said they were extremely or very concerned that the devices were affecting their children's mental health, and more than a quarter said they considered themselves addicted to their devices.​8 The poll was sponsored by Common Sense Media, which advocates for safe technology and media use by children. “We are not anti-tech,” said James P. Steyer, founder of the group. “We are into the appropriate and balanced use of technology. We are calling out the industry for their excesses and their intentional effects to manipulate and addict.”​9 Another survey, of 400 parents published in March by ​Fast Company​ magazine, found that they were more concerned about their children being harmed by tech addiction than about online bullying, data privacy or sexual predators.​10 A smartphone “takes over a child's daily consciousness,” a father of three from Chicago said in response to the survey. Children who are naturally “voracious, inquisitive curiosity seekers slowly, invariably and inevitably become …indifferent to discovery in favor of scrolling. Smartphones numb creativity, intellectual critical thought and social growth.”​11 The mother of a 1-year-old from New York City wrote: “I see myself reaching for my phone out of habit anytime I'm the least bit bored or have a moment to spare. I hate this and yet can't seem to stop myself. I figure at least my brain patterns were formed without this influence and am terrified of what growing up with smartphones and tech will do to my daughter.”​12 Rich, director of the Center on Media and Child Health at Boston Children's Hospital, says the center has dealt with a few hundred cases of children and young adults whose families were worried about their internet use. “Every case so far has underlying psychological issues driving behavior,” such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or anxiety, he says. The center, which educates families on healthy media use, recently opened the Clinic for Interactive Media and Internet Disorders to treat children with internet use issues. Boys, according to Rich, who teaches social and behavioral sciences in addition to pediatrics, are more likely to overindulge in gaming; girls to overuse social media. Gamers tend to have attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, while those who overuse social media tend to have anxiety, he says. The genders are evenly split, though, when it comes to binging on information and viewing pornography, he says. Some politicians and religious leaders have raised concerns about the excessive use of online pornography in recent years, especially violent porn. Some tech insiders and politicians say the government should help to combat the potential for tech addiction. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is funding its first study on technology addiction — an examination of online gaming.​13 Several other countries recognize tech addiction as a disorder, and some have declared it a public health crisis. In France, for instance, proposed legislation would require children under 16 to obtain parental approval to open accounts on social media sites such as Facebook, Snapchat or Instagram. And the government plans to ban mobile phone use at primary and junior high schools, starting this fall.​14 As researchers, technology company executives and parents examine tech addiction, here are some of the questions they are asking: Can technology use be addictive? Addiction occurs when the brain recognizes substances or behaviors that create pleasure by releasing dopamine, a chemical that passes information from one neuron to the next — signals that the brain associates with anticipation of a reward. Being repeatedly exposed to the substance or behavior can make a person want more. Eventually, the person builds up tolerance, needing more of the substance or activity to feel the pleasurable effect.​15 Some experts say the still-developing brains of children and young adults, in particular, can respond to technology similarly to how they would respond to other addictive substances, such as drugs and alcohol. “From a central nervous standpoint, there's no difference,” says Lustig, at the University of Southern California. MRIs and PET scans have found changes in the brains of those with internet addictions similar to those with other addictions, he says, adding, “If it looks like a duck and walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it's a duck.” Larry Rosen, a professor emeritus of psychology at California State University, Dominguez Hills, also believes technology can affect the brain. With addiction, the brain releases, besides dopamine, the mood-affecting neurotransmitter serotonin. With anxiety, the brain releases hormones that react to stress by producing a surge of energy and heightened mental focus. People can feel compelled to do an activity, such as check Facebook, to reduce their anxiety, Rosen says. “We act like Pavlov's dog when we get a notification on our phones,” he says. “Technology can impact” anxiety or addiction, or both. With technology, as with other types of addictions, he said, problems arise if a person requires more of the addictive substance to feel the same level of satisfaction. And being away from the substance or activity can prompt depression, stress or anxiety, typical symptoms of withdrawal.​16 Long Descriptio n The Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation, which operates drug and alcohol addiction treatment centers, defines teen technology addiction as “frequent and obsessive technology-related behavior increasingly practiced despite negative consequences to the user of the technology.” In addition, the foundation says, teen dependence on technology can lead to consequences ranging from “mild annoyance when away from technology to feelings of isolation, extreme anxiety and depression.”​17 Researchers in South Korea, one of several countries that recognize tech addiction as a disorder, have found that teens obsessed with their smartphones or the internet experience changes in their brain chemistry similar to those found in other types of addiction. Using a type of MRI that measures the brain's chemical composition, researchers examined 19 young men diagnosed as addicted to technology and compared them with 19 young men who were not. The teens diagnosed with tech addiction had more neurotransmitter activity in the region of the brain tied to rewards, mood regulation and control of inhibition and rated higher for depression, anxiety and impulsivity. The researchers also found that the psychotherapy treatment known as cognitive behavioral therapy could help normalize the chemical imbalance.​18 Christopher Whitlow, chief of neuroradiology at the Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, N.C., said the area of the brain where the imbalance was found — the anterior cingulate — has been found to play a role in addictive behavior. “In that way, smartphone and internet addiction appears to have some similarities with addiction to other things,” he said.​19 Max Wintermark, chief of neuroradiology at Stanford, said of the South Korean findings: “It's a very small study, so you have to take it with a grain of salt.” However, he added, “It's the first study that I read about internet addiction, but there are many studies that link alcohol, drug and other types of addiction to imbalances in various neurotransmitters in the brain.”​20 However, professor of psychology Christopher Ferguson at Stetson University in DeLand, Fla., said, “Sometimes with new technology you see these heightened claims of harm…. In my opinion, they're not comparable to, say, methamphetamine addiction or heroin addiction.” Technology “is a tool,” he adds. “It's really about how you use it. It's not heroin. That's not to say you can't overdo it.”​21 Harvard's Rich agrees that tech overuse is not a classic type of addiction. But, he says, computer applications “are designed to continually grab and re-grab information and give us just enough frustration, followed by satisfaction, to give us the little shots of dopamine we so crave. We need to learn how to develop self-regulation and encourage tech companies to design more human-friendly apps.” Michael Robb, director of research for Common Sense Media, acknowledges that it is impossible to gauge whether tech addiction actually exists. “There is no way to measure it right now,” he says. “There's no agreement on a definition. There needs to be less ambiguity.” But for some kids, he says, their tech use “is so disruptive it causes significant harm in other parts of their lives” such as sleep, school and social relationships. Dean Eckles, a communications and technology professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said that because nearly everyone uses technology and each person uses it in different ways, “it's really hard to do purely observational research into the effects of something like screen time or social media use.” Rather than dividing participants into those with smartphones and those without, for example, researchers must compare differences in use, while considering differences in race, income and parental education.​22 Even expert organizations are not sure technology addiction is real. While the APA has not said internet or social media overuse is an addictive disorder, it has said internet gaming disorder needs to be studied further. The organization cited studies indicating that when some individuals are engrossed in internet games, certain brain pathways are triggered “in the same direct and intense way that a drug addict's brain is affected by a particular substance.”​23 The WHO plans to list “gaming disorder” as a mental health disorder in its next edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), scheduled for release this year. The ICD sets international standards for reporting health conditions and diseases.​24 Hewitt, of the Entertainment Software Association, said his organization rejects the WHO's conclusion but supports the APA's call for more research into computer and video games. “Video game ‘addiction’ is a colloquial, loaded term with no real scientific or medical definition or broad support,” he said. “And it is important to remember that video game enthusiasm is often misinterpreted as ‘addiction.’”​25 Nancy Petry, a University of Connecticut professor of medicine, is leading the two-year, $416,000 NIH study that may ultimately help determine whether online gaming is a disorder. “Tech addiction is a hot topic,” she said, “but we need to clearly define and differentiate what constitutes a mental disorder that is causing major adverse consequences and distinguish it from just a bad habit that people just wish they weren't doing.”​26 Given the dearth of research on tech addiction, and the lack of a clear definition of the problem, experts are hoping for more clarity and consensus in the coming years. The APA and WHO “don't even agree on how to conceptualize this thing,” says Stetson's Ferguson. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the links between technology and its effects. “That's where longitudinal studies come in,” said Twenge, of San Diego State University.​100 Harvard's Rich has helped to establish the Clinic for Interactive Media and Internet Disorders (CIMAID) in Boston, which he hopes will pre ...
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Tutor Answer

EinsteintheProf
School: University of Virginia

Hello, review the attached document and contact me in case you need any changes. Otherwise, good luck in your study and if you need any further help in your assignments, please let me know. Always invite me to answer your questions.

Surname 1
Name
Instructor’s name
Course code
Date
SOCIAL MEDIA ADDICTION

Introduction
The use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs), which is the cumulative reference to social media
sites, and they refer to “virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles,
interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests” (Bányai, 12). The
use of social media has been seen as a global phenomenon because of the exponential growth
which has been experienced over time in its use. There have been studies to indicate that the
‘addiction’ to the social media and the use of the internet is a mental problem that could pose
risks to the consumers. Some studies have also refuted the addiction of social media and using
terms such as ‘normalcy’ and social traits as some of the justifications for these refutations, but
there exists a need to dig deeper to try and come up with an objective position that can elaborate
on this debate. Social media is an addictive tool due to its diverse activities that can be habitually
acquired, and there has been the depiction of “neglect of personal life, mental preoccupation,
escapism, mood modifying experiences, tolerance and concealing the addictive behavior” which
can be traced to excessive use of social media.
Use of social media

Surname 2
The social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp among others. Statistics indicate
that more than 500 million people are active on these sites and others on a daily basis.
Interestingly, out of this number, estimates show that between 55% and 82% of social media
users are young adults and teenagers. Consumer and research studies that have been carried out
indicate that over the last few years, there has been a surge in the number of people who use
social media. It validates the findings that there has been increased access and opportunities to
use social media sites. It also shows why “the average American child receives his or her first
smartphone at age 10, and teens spend more than 4.5 hours per day on their smartphones, not
counting time spent texting and talking” (Ladika, 3) and this only serves to show that there has
been an increase in the number of people with smartphones has increased, and the access, even
among the children. Therefore, it would also imply that there has been an increase in the number
of people who use social media sites. Age groups have also been one of the main differences
when it comes to the use of social media. A study that sought to compare teenagers between ages
15-19 and those above 60 years and above showed that there was a difference in the number of
friends, the use of the sites and the homogeneity of shared features. Gender also plays an
imminent role with research findings indicating that “females use social media to communicate
with members of their peer group, whereas males use them for social compensation, learning,
and social identity gratifications” (Cohen, 4). Furthermore, males are more likely to release
personal information on social media than the females.
Addiction to social media
One of the reasons why social media is addictive is its reinforcement of egocentrism. The idea of
egocentrism is one that seeks to underline the perspective that it encourages people to continue
enga...

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Anonymous
Goes above and beyond expectations !

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