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Week 1 - Journal

Reflection and Response

Using the examples from Chapter 5 in your primary text as models, write a poem that incorporates repetition, either as anaphora or otherwise. You might begin by freewriting from a single, repeated word. That word might be “You,” “We,” “If,” or “Who;” it might be “Don’t” or “Please,” but whatever it may be, consider its effect when it becomes the hub for each line of your poem. What does that word evoke as it compounds?

This journal should be at least one full page in length, and formatted in double-spaced text, APA style. For APA style guidance and information, visit the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

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2/2/2019 Print 5 Poetic Forms and the Page Beba73/iStock/Thinkstock Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following: Describe the elements of various poetic forms. Prepare a work according to the elements of poetic form. Assess the possible intentions of using various poetic forms. Discuss contemporary innovations in poetic form. https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 1/34 2/2/2019 Print Introduction A conversation about poetry has to acknowledge poetic form. A form is the physical pattern or structure, the how, of a poem. The form of a poem is dictated by the content of the poem—it is a structure that re lects an origin, a tradition, and, perhaps more importantly, a purpose. Poetry originated as an oral tradition—it was sung or performed—so poets had to memorize their poems. To a large extent, forms began as mnemonic devices to make poems easy to memorize and recite. Over the ages, the purposes of form began to change. Some forms, such as the sestina, were intentionally developed to be complex. Others, like the ghazal, were developed to address multiple themes, particularly spiritual love. The most famous form in English poetry is the sonnet. This form has retained its relevance for centuries, and it serves as a foundation that allows some writers to break from tradition. This chapter discusses a number of formal poetic structures, but it also delves into contemporary traditions that broke from form. In poetry, as in many other arts, some have embraced form for reasons of order and tradition, but others have viewed form as limiting or rigid. Since the 19th century, signi icant contemporary literary movements that are partially de ined stylistically raise new considerations about physical space, typography, methods of composition, and the physical and tactile processes of reading. https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 2/34 2/2/2019 Print 5.1 Traditional Forms Some newer writers seem to suggest a knee‐jerk resistance to the study of traditional poetic forms, as if they’re stale or have somehow gone bad. However, the stronger case to be made is how an understanding of time‐tested traditional forms is the foundation for creating a poem that will be able to stand with the classics. To fall back on a metaphor, a carpenter does not just start nailing wood together and call the structure a house. Rather, he studies how walls are constructed and where certain pieces must be inserted to hold the weight of other pieces. Using poetic forms effectively requires understanding how a poem with certain rules is functioning, why the form is used, and what the poem does to move a reader. Many poetic forms originated as mnemonic devices so that poets could memorize and perform their poems. The term sonnet, for instance, comes from the Italian sonetto, which means “little song.” If a poem is a type of song, it makes sense that there are certain established structures and features that help guide the work. The rhythms, meters, and rhymes of poetic forms create a set of expectations that allow both the poet and the audience to anticipate what sounds will follow. Though poems rely on the musical conventions to a much lesser extent today—most poems are spoken or read from printed pages—it is these forms, and the mastery of them, that allowed poets to break from tradition. After all, the knowledge and mastery of a craft is necessary to the innovation that advances the conversation in literature. Meter and Rhyme We cannot discuss poetic form without irst discussing meter and rhyme. The practice of identifying a poem’s meter and rhyme schemes is called scansion, scanning each line to igure out its metric pattern and rhyme scheme. Before we discuss scansion, however, we must break down the basic elements of meter and rhyme. The two elements of meter and rhyme combined are referred to as a poem’s music. Meter is the measurement of stressed and unstressed syllables in a poetic line. Stress in poetic terms means the rising or percussive sound in the utterance of a syllable, while unstress means the falling downbeat in the utterance of a syllable. For instance, the famous phrase from Shakespeare’s (1603/2004) Hamlet, “To be / or not / to be,” is an example of iambic meter. An iamb is one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable: “To BE / or NOT / to BE.” The opposite of an iamb is the trochee; it is a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. The trochee is prominent in William Blake’s (1789/2015) “The Tyger”: “Tyger tyger, burning bright.” The words “tyger” and “burning” each form a trochaic foot. The way of noting a poem’s meter is to use the following diacritical marks: – ^ – ^ (iambic) or ^ – ^ – (trochaic). The number of syllables in a given line gives us its line length or feet per line. For instance, if a line is in iambic pentameter, this tells us two things: that the line uses iambic feet (an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable) and that the line comprises ive feet (10 syllables). Iambic pentameter is the standard meter used in the sonnet. But a poem that uses trochaic hexameter tells us that the poem employs lines of six trochaic feet (12 syllables). See the table below for speci ic metric feet and line lengths. Metric feet and line lengths in poetry Metric feet Metric line Iambic: da‐DA (unaccented/accented): en·joy Monometer: one foot https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 3/34 2/2/2019 Print Metric feet Metric line Trochaic: DA‐da (accented/unaccented): ty·ger Dimeter: two feet Anapestic: da‐da‐DA (unaccented/unaccented/accented): re·con·vene Trimeter: three feet Dactylic: DA‐da‐DA (accented/unaccented/accented): care·ful·ly Tetrameter: four feet Pentameter: ive feet Spondaic: DA‐DA (accented/accented): now go Hexameter: six feet Heptameter: seven feet Octameter: eight feet Rhyme is quite a bit easier to grasp than meter. When we think of rhyme, we most commonly think of end rhyme, which is when the ends of two words—everything that follows the word’s last stressed syllable— sound alike, as in rhyme / time and I / sky. The latter example comes from T. S. Eliot’s (1920) “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” which begins “Let us go then, you and I, / While the evening is spread out against the sky.” You’ll notice, however, that there isn’t a consistent meter in these lines. Though many forms do require the integration of rhyme and meter, the two are not always found together. This is especially true in free verse or blank verse, poetry without rhyme that uses iambic pentameter. Rhyme also isn’t just relegated to the end of the line. Internal rhyme is when a word from the middle of the line rhymes with the last word of the line. For instance, in the line “for image to invade us like a village,” we hear image and village, words that rhyme. Often, internal rhyme creates a melodious quality— often referred to as sing‐song—that we associate with ballads and nursery rhymes. You might remember “Hickory dickory dock, the mouse ran up the clock.” One thing to keep in mind is the nature of rhyme, which does not have to be direct, as in bat and cat. Slant rhyme, also called near rhyme, is a rhyme that isn’t exactly “true”: house and sprouts. In depicting the rhyme scheme of a poem, letters are used to notate the rhymed sounds: A, B, C, D, and so on. The letters in a rhyme scheme denote lines that rhyme, so “A” rhymes with “A,” “B” rhymes with “B,” and so forth. For instance, Sir Thomas Wyatt’s (1557) famous sonnet “Whoso list to hunt” is about the poet’s love for Anne Boleyn—despite her being the mistress, and then wife, of King Henry VIII. Wyatt adopts a hunting metaphor throughout, but it isn’t a deer (here a hind) that he stalks; it’s his love. The rhyme scheme of the poem is ABBA ABBA CDDC EE. “Whoso list to hunt” Sir Thomas Wyatt Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind, (A) But as for me, hélas, I may no more. (B) The vain travail hath wearied me so sore, (B) I am of them that farthest cometh behind. (A) Yet may I by no means my wearied mind (A) Draw from the deer, but as she leeth afore (B) https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 4/34 2/2/2019 Print Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore, (B) Sithens in a net I seek to hold the wind. (A) Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt, (C) As well as I may spend his time in vain. (D) And graven with diamonds in letters plain (D) There is written, her fair neck round about: (C) Noli me tangere, for Caesar’s I am, (E) And wild for to hold, though I seem tame. (E) Other common rhyme schemes will be discussed in greater detail as we move deeper into the exploration of individual forms and examples of them. Language, whether written or spoken, has music in it; it rises and falls and follows a natural rhythm. This is what we call its cadence. Whether you’re writing a sonnet or a free verse poem or a short story or an essay, you’ll ind that your language has music, has a cadence. Understanding poetic form, rhythm, and meter will better enable you to identify and manipulate the cadence of your work. Virtual Trip: Rhyming Dictionaries Entire dictionaries are devoted to rhyme. One online tool you might play around with is http://www.rhymezone.com. (http://www.rhymezone.com) Sonnet The sonnet is one of the most common poetic forms, with a history that has endured and evolved over the course of more than 500 years in English. A sonnet is a poem of 14 lines in iambic pentameter that incorporates a speci ic rhyme scheme. Traditionally, there are three types of sonnets: The Petrarchan sonnet is the Italian variation, brought to England by Sir Thomas Wyatt, and it is typically divided into an eight‐line stanza (octave) followed by a six‐line (sestet), with a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA, CDCDCD, or CDECDE. The Shakespearean sonnet, which has become the most widely used, has 3 quatrains (stanzas of four lines) with a couplet at the end and a rhyme pattern that goes like this: ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG. The Spenserian sonnet, similar to the Shakespearean, uses a different rhyme scheme: ABAB, BCBC, CDCD, EE. Poems that are 14 lines regardless of rhyme or meter are sometimes considered “sonnets” but are not recognized as such by purists or formalists. However, 14 lines of 10 syllables (give or take here or there) could be reasonably regarded as a blank verse sonnet, provided it contains a volta, which is the “turn” of the poem, or where the idea or feel of the poem changes between the eighth and ninth line. https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 5/34 2/2/2019 Print English poets Shakespeare, Milton, and Spenser wrote sonnet sequences, or groups of sonnets over time. Though each sonnet stands as an individual poem, when taken together a narrative emerges. For example, Shakespeare wrote at least 154 sonnets, identi ied only by numbers. In the case of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, distinct themes emerge. In the opening 17 sonnets, the speaker addresses a handsome young man and suggests that he ind a bride and bear a child. The subsequent 109 sonnets seek to capture the beauty of the beloved—whether it be this same young man, a woman, or a variety of people—and preserve that beauty within the poems themselves. The sequence inishes with the sonnets to a “dark lady,” whom critics still argue about. Scholars generally agree that this narrative is present in Shakespeare’s sonnets, despite the lack of factual details in the poems. Perhaps that’s the best thing about poetry: It’s a useful tool for expressing emotion while retaining some sense of privacy. All of Shakespeare’s sonnets are available online and can be found easily. Read several together and try to identify the narrative thread in some of them. “Sonnet 124” William Shakespeare If my dear love were but the child of state, It might for Fortune’s bastard be unfather’d, As subject to Time’s love or Time’s hate, Weeds amoung weeds, or lowers with lowers gather’d. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls Under the blow of thralled discontent, Whereto th’inviting time our fashion calls: It fears not policy, that heretic, Which works on leases of short number’d hours, But all alone stands hugely politic, That it nor grows with heat, nor drowns with the showers. To this I witness call the fools of Time, Which die for goodness, who have lived for crime. (1609) “Sonnet 7: How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth” John Milton How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth, Stol’n on his wing my three‐and‐twentieth year! My hasting days ly on with full career, But my late spring no bud or blossom shew’th. https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 6/34 2/2/2019 Print Perhaps my semblance might deceive the truth That I to manhood am arriv’d so near; And inward ripeness doth much less appear, That some more timely‐happy spirits endu’th. Yet be it less or more, or soon or slow, It shall be still in strictest measure ev’n To that same lot, however mean or high, Toward which Time leads me, and the will of Heav’n: All is, if I have grace to use it so As ever in my great Task‐Master’s eye. (1645) “She goes, she is, she wakes the waters” Karen Volkman She goes, she is, she wakes the waters primed in their wave‐form, a lux of urge struck into oneness, the solid surge seeking completion, and strikes and shatters and is its fragments, distinction’s daughters and now, unholding, the cleave and merge the hew and fusing, plundering the verge and substance is the scheme it scatters and what it numbers in substantial sun. Her hands hold many or her hands hold none. And diving the salt will kiss a convex eye and be salt fact and be the bodied sky and that gray weight is both or beggared one, a dead dimensional, or blue begun. Karen Volkman, “She goes, she is” from Nomina. Copyright © 2008 by Karen Volkman. Reprinted with the permission of The Permissions Company, Inc., on behalf of BOA Editions, Ltd., www.boaeditions.org. https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 7/34 2/2/2019 Print Pen to Paper: Iambs, Youambs Youambs isn’t a word. But iambs, as you know, are measures of poetic meter. Practice identifying the meter in some of the sonnets in this chapter. Read the poem aloud, and then mark the stressed and unstressed words or syllables in a printed copy. You can ind more sonnets at Poetry Founda‐ tion: Verse Forms (http://www.poetryfoundation.org/browse/#poetic‐terms=25) and scan those. After you have scanned a few, try your hand at writing a sonnet using iambic pentameter. For centuries the sonnet has retained its place as the most common poetic form in the English language. But in the 1960s, young New York poets Ted Berrigan, Bernadette Mayer, and Ron Padgett, among others, appropriated the form and, taking cues from the visual art movements of the same time, scrapped some of the formal elements in favor of collage and repetition. Ted Berrigan published his book The Sonnets in 1964. Like Shakespeare’s Sonnets, each poem is simply identi ied by a roman numeral, though we often use the numeral and the irst line to identify such poems. Using the technique of collage, Berrigan wove together lines he overheard, lines stolen from his friends’ poems, and lines he made up and used interchangeably. Many of the lines and images repeat throughout the book’s 88 sonnets. Alice Notley (2000), poet and Berrigan’s wife, writes in her introduction to the Penguin edition of The Sonnets, “One of its themes is time, the incorporation of the past into the present becoming the future, and so each sonnet seems to have invisible arrows point out from it backwards, forwards, and sideways too, creating a long complex moment” (v). Because these sonnets, like Shakespeare’s, are part of a whole, they continuously speak to one another; they form a narrative. “The Sonnets: III” Ted Berrigan Stronger than alcohol, more great than song, deep in whose reeds great elephants decay, I, an island, sail, and my shoes toss on a fragrant evening, fraught with sadness bristling hate. It’s true, I weep too much. Dawns break slow kisses on the eyelids of the sea, what other men sometimes have thought they’ve seen. And since then I’ve been bathing in the poem lifting her shadowy lowers up for me, and hurled by hurricanes to a birdless place the waving lags, nor pass by prison ships O let me burst, and I be lost at sea! https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 8/34 2/2/2019 Print and fall on my knees then, womanly. “Sonnet III,” from THE SONNETS by Ted Berrigan, copyright (c) 2000 by Alice Notley, Literary Executrix of the Estate of Ted Berrigan. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Group (USA) LLC. Bernadette Mayer’s (1968) “[Sonnet] You jerk you didn’t call me up” uses the Petrarchan form as its starting point. But rather than using the traditionally elevated language we expect from sonnets, she writes about the traditional subject of the sonnet—love or lust—in conversational language. The concerns of Mayer’s sonnet are really no different from those of a traditional sonnet. They simply break from tradition in deliberately avoiding iambic pentameter and using diction suiting a modern time and the mood. She even makes reference to G.I. Joe, the popular toy and cartoon show, contrasting Cobra Commander with the Latin poet of the late Roman republic, Gaius Valerius Catullus. Contrasting this poem with Milton’s “How soon hath Time,” what are some less obvious differences? Do you prefer one over the other? Which poem are you more readily able to connect to as a reader? Why? “[Sonnet] You jerk you didn’t call me up” Bernadette Mayer You jerk you didn’t call me up I haven’t seen you in so long You probably have a fucking tan & besides that instead of making love tonight You’re drinking your parents to the airport I’m through with you bourgeois boys All you ever do is go back to ancestral comforts Only money can get—even Catullus was rich but Nowadays you guys settle for a couch By a sopori ic color cable t.v. set Instead of any arc of love, no wonder The G.I. Joe team blows it every other time Wake up! It’s the middle of the night You can either make love or die at the hands of the Cobra Commander To make love, turn to page 121. To die, turn to page 172. By Bernadette Mayer, from A BERNADETTE MAYER READER, copyright ©1968 by Bernadette Mayer. Reprinted by permission of New Directions Publishing Corp. https://content.ashford.edu/print/AUENG318.15.2?sections=ch05,ch05intro,ch05sec5.1,ch05sec5.2,ch05sec5.3,ch05summary&content=all&clientToken=2f1c2c54-… 9/34 2/2/2019 Print On a somewhat different note, Ron Padgett’s (2014) memorable sonnet “Nothing in That Drawer” deconstructs the formal elements, retaining only the ...
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School: Boston College






Poem about love
To love involves encouraging and helping,
With since praise words and smiles,
To take time and share,
To listen and care
In an affectionate and tender...

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