Case Study of Hurricane Sandy

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Describe the training and function of a federal Urban Search and Rescue team. APA Format, Please see the attachments below.

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Case Study Options

You must select one topics from the options below. Your paper should connect the course material with the case study topic. As this is a case study, you should pick a specific example or event as it relates to the broader topic you select from the list. For example, if you choose topic #1 (“Choose one landmark document, theory, or system…”), and you select the NRF or Volunteer Protection Act, do not just describe the document. You need to apply the document to a specific group or event and present an in-depth critical analysis of the topic. You do not need to cover every single aspect of the document; rather focus on explaining those that apply. 

For another example, if you choose topic # 4 (“Discuss the roles of individuals and organizations, as well as their relationships with one another, in emergency management”), identify and research a specific group (e.g., a type of volunteer group) or a specific event (e.g. Hurricane Sandy) and discuss elements of the group or event in relation to the field of emergency management as reviewed in the course readings.

Topic: 

6. Describe the training and function of a federal Urban Search and Rescue team.

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Case Study Options You must select one topics from the options below. Your paper should connect the course material with the case study topic. As this is a case study, you should pick a specific example or event as it relates to the broader topic you select from the list. For example, if you choose topic #1 (“Choose one landmark document, theory, or system…”), and you select the NRF or Volunteer Protection Act, do not just describe the document. You need to apply the document to a specific group or event and present an indepth critical analysis of the topic. You do not need to cover every single aspect of the document; rather focus on explaining those that apply. For another example, if you choose topic # 4 (“Discuss the roles of individuals and organizations, as well as their relationships with one another, in emergency management”), identify and research a specific group (e.g., a type of volunteer group) or a specific event (e.g. Hurricane Sandy) and discuss elements of the group or event in relation to the field of emergency management as reviewed in the course readings. Topic: 6. Describe the training and function of a federal Urban Search and Rescue team. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response The Role of the Military in Disaster Response: A Case Study of Hurricane Sandy Alita Ostapkovich September 12, 2016 [1] The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [2] The rise in large scale disasters has begun to increase the role of the military in response activities. To some, this is not a trend they want to see continued. It has been argued that military forces have too much to worry about already, and that if allowed, states will begin asking for federal military assistance for disaster events which could easily be taken care of using state supplies (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). However, this controversy is not the focus of this paper. This paper discusses the types of military able to be called upon for disaster response operations and the capabilities and resources they bring with them. Using Hurricane Sandy, it discusses the role of the military in modern disaster response. Definition of Types of Military There are two different military types that can be called into action in responding to a disaster—Active and Reserve forces and the National Guard. The active and reserve forces cover the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corp, and Coast Guard (Cieply, 2008). These soldiers can only be called into action by the President, and fall under the category of Title 10 forces (Burke & McNeil, 2015). The National Guard, also referred to as Title 32 forces, are the state’s militia (Cieply, 2008). The National Guard can be called in by either the state governor or the President. Their status changes depending on who called them into action (Cieply, 2008). Capabilities and Resources Supplied by Military When local resources have become overwhelmed, a community can look to the state and federal government to support the disaster relief operations. Often times, help comes in the form of the military (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). The military is able to provide significant capabilities to communities in need. There are four main types of military response available to states in need (IS 75, 2011). These are: Mutual Aid Assistance Agreements, Immediate Response Authority, deployment of The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [3] state military resources and federal military forces. Mutual Aid Assistance Agreements are established between states, prior to a disaster striking, that arrange for supplies and personnel to be given in times of need (IS 75, 2011). One example of a Mutual Aid Assistance Agreement is an Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC). EMACs are “nonbinding collaborative arrangements that create a legal framework for states to assist one another in managing a disaster or emergency declared by a governor” (IS 75, 2011). Through EMACs a governor from one state can send his/her National Guard to aid in response activities. Food, water, transportation, fuel, and medical teams can also be acquired through an EMAC. The second way to receive aid is through an Immediate Response Authority (IRA) (IS 75, 2011). IRAs are a way to get Department of Defense help at a municipal, county or tribal level (IS, 2011). These are especially helpful when time does not permit prior approval from higher headquarters (IS 75, 2011). IRAs are helpful since the community in need is able to receive support during imminently serious conditions and not have to worry about the red tape slowing down their response activities. One fallback to requesting support via an IRA is that DoD responses are limited based on the availability of their resources and the circumstances of the event (IS, 2011). Thirdly, the governor may choose to activate the state military resources. National Guard forces can serve in three different duty statuses, each having their own benefits and pitfalls (Burke & McNeil, 2015). If activated by the governor, the National Guard units may act as law enforcement, supply heavy duty equipment and participate in search and rescue, triage operations, evacuations, and damage assessment (IS 75, 2011). The final way to receive military assistance is through Presidential activation of military forces. This usually follows the The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [4] declaration of a major disaster or emergency by the President under the Stafford Act (IS 75, 2011). Military help is requested through Mission Assignments by FEMA (IS 75, 2011). The military brings a unique set of capabilities and supplies that are extremely valuable during emergency situations. They can contribute situational awareness capabilities, set up joint logistic bases, and deploy chemical-biological weapons of mass destructions (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). Additionally, they can assist in medical and public health endeavors. With the use of transport helicopters, navy hospitals and trained medical personnel, the military can respond to any size disaster with skilled efficacy and aid in saving hundreds of lives (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). If needed, the military can also bring in large pieces of equipment such as D7F Bulldozers, M1977 Common Bridge Transporters (IS 75, 2011), power restoration vehicles, large water pumps, and transport vehicles (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). However, for as many skills the military brings, they also bring problems. Problems with Military/National Guards Responding Coordination and law restriction are the two biggest issues. With National Guard forces and reserve forces working alongside each other, there is a potential for confusion in the chain of command (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). Because each set of forces have their own chain of command, and incident commander, differing orders may arise. This can also lead to a misuse of resources, as well as an overlap or gap in resources. The second issue deals with restrictions put in place by the Constitution. Active Duty military resources have limitations on how they may be used during an emergency (IS 75, 2011). The biggest restriction is their inability to act as law enforcement (IS 75, 2011). When called in by a governor, the National Guard may act as law enforcement (Burke & McNeil, 2015). However, this is not the case when the National Guard is deployed by the President. Under Presidential declaration, the Guard can no longer act as law The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [5] enforcement, and instead can only assist in response efforts. While important, these law restrictions are not of major concern to the US government. The lack of coordination during response efforts is what has led to changes in military assistance. 2012 National Defense Authorization Act Because of the many mismanaged response efforts, Congress created the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act. This act worked to remedy the potential confusion in the chain of command during military response activities (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). It enabled individual states and the DoD to coordinate their response efforts through one single commander (Jacob & Grass, 2013). This commander, who is given control of all military forces, is usually a National Guard officer, since he/she has the ability to be deployed as either National Guard or Active Military. The position is called the Dual-Status Commander (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). Even though the Dual-Status Commander leads all military forces and directs response efforts, the state and federal forces maintain separate chains of commands (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). This allows for coordination between response forces without the creation and disruption of a new, integrated chain of command. While this position had been deployed for many small disaster responses, Hurricane Sandy was the first large-scale, no notice/limited notice event that tested the Dual-Status Commander role. Dual Status during Hurricane Sandy In October 2012, a category one hurricane hit the eastern shore of the United States (Burke & McNeil, 2015). The storm touched down less than 100 miles south of New York City, laying waste on homes, transportation systems and infrastructure. Days before landfall, President Obama declared state of emergencies for many of the eastern states (Burke & McNeil, 2015). This allowed for military resources to begin preparation for their response efforts. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [6] Two days after the hit, command structure had been established, and bordering states were sending their troops and supplies (Burke, 2015). New York had around 5,000 military men and women responding (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). Help, in the form of EMAC forces, came from Delaware, Kansas, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Ohio (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). They brought with them medical assessment teams, air national guard fueling teams, a liaison officer team, a power assessment team and the 1049 truck company (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). The dual status commander of the storm response was Brigadier General Michael Swezey (Burke, 2015). Under BG Swezey, the National Guard and EMAC forces were given ten mission sets. Examples of these included: aerial and ground transportation support, HAZMAT identification and response, communications and support, law enforcement and search and rescue (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). In the 110 days that the National Guard and US Military forces were responding they accomplished all ten mission sets and carried out 224 missions, completed 538 flight hours to support operations, rescued 738 civilians and moved more than 92,000 tons of commodities (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). Additionally, troops were deployed to do door to door wellness checks, and distributed over 3,000 turkeys to families in need for Thanksgiving (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). Due to political pressure, the President ordered responders to worry less about paperwork and focus on executing missions (Burke, 2015). This helped by unburdening the military forces, and allowing them to do the greatest good in a timely manner. Hurricane Sandy showed the nation that implementing a Dual Action Commander to direct both Title 10 and Title 32 troops is the next step in a fully coordinated disaster response. Additionally, the use of Emergency Planning Liaison Officers throughout the joint military operations also proved beneficial during response activities (Burke, 2015). These officers aided The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [7] in coordinating communications, operational decision making and increased important staff elements in the joint field office (Burke, 2015). Without these liaison officers, the dual action commander’s position and coordination of the military forces would have been near impossible (Burke, 2015). However, while there were many successes seen during the response to Hurricane Sandy, there is much room for improvement. The largest shortfall was the differing of preparation level between military forces and civil authorities (Burke, 2015). If the military are going to be involved in more disaster response efforts, an increase in joint training and exercises is needed to bridge the gap between military and civilian response preparation. Additionally, the call to ignore mission paperwork came from impatient political heads. This, while not a major problem, should not become standard practice for future events. Conclusion Over the past few decades, disaster response efforts have been increasingly supported by military actions. This has caused a large amount of controversy as well as glaring problems in response coordination. Small steps toward total coordination occur after every large event the United States faces. The most current disaster, Hurricane Sandy, was no different. This disaster allowed the government to test the position of a Dual Status Commander on a no notice/limited notice event, and ended with positive results. While there are some kinks that still need to be worked out, the position has proven to be a powerful tool for improving coordination between military types in disaster response efforts, and will surely be used in response activities to come. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [8] References Burke, R. (2015). The Dual Status Commander and Hurricane Sandy: Maturing Military Response with Process Improvement. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Delaware) Retrieved from: Proquest. Number: 3718321 Burke, R & McNeil, S. (April, 2015). Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander. Strategic Studies Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB1263.pdf Cieply, K. (2008). Charting a New Role for Title 10 Reserve Forces: A Total Force Response to Natural Disasters. Military Law Review. Volume 196. Pages 2-46. DoD. (1 November, 2012). Coast Guard Responds to Superstorm Sandy Damage. Retrieved from: http://archive.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=118407 Funkino, S., & Miklos, M. (2013). The Role of the Military in Disaster Response and Superstorm Sandy. Lecture presented in Maxwell School of Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C32P5JvgQBw IS 75. (May 2011). Military Resources in Emergency Management. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved from: https://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is/is75/student%20manual/student%20manual.pdf Jacoby, C & Grass, F. (11 March, 2013). Dual-Status, Single Purpose: A Unified Military Response to Hurricane Sandy. Retrieved from: http://www.ang.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123339975 Purpura, P. (8 January, 2013). New Federal Law, First Used in Superstorm Sandy, Streamlines Federal Military Response. The Times-Picayune. Retrieved from: http://www.nola.com/hurricane/index.ssf/2013/01/new_federal_law_first_used_in.html Roulo, C. (27 August, 2014). DoD Plays Key Role in Disaster Response, Official Says. US Department of Defense. Retrieved from: http://www.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/603137/dod-plays-key-role-in-disaster-responseofficial-says U.S. Congress, Committee on Homeland Security (9 November, 2005). Responding to Catastrophic Events: The Role of the Military and National Guard in Disaster Response. Joint Hearing the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science, and Technology of the Committee on Homeland Security with the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities of the Committee of the Armed Services. Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-109hhrg33474/html/CHRG-109hhrg33474.htm Running Head: FIRESCOPE, Incident Command System, and the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings FIRESCOPE, Incident Command System, and the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings Carlyn M. Christensen-Szalanski Philadelphia University FIRESCOPE, Incident Command System, and the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings 2 ABSTRACT: The author describes the historical context for FIRESCOPE (FIrefighting REsources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies) and the resulting Incident Command System (ICS) for managing disasters and planned events with emergencies. FIRESCOPE was a congressionally funded project to strengthen fire command and control during a fire-fighting event in response to a devastating series of wildland fires in California in 1970. It produced an incident command system for managing events by effective coordination and training of multiple agencies by using shared standard terminology, common organizational structure and communication systems. More than forty years later, an expanded ICS is central to the U.S. National Incident Management System (NIMS). FEMA training about ICS emphasizes 14 essential features: common terminology; modular organization; management by objectives; reliance on an incident action plan; chain of command and unity of command; unified command; manageable span of control; predesigned incident location and facilities; resource management; information and intelligence management; integrated communications; transfer of command; accountability; and deployment. The author uses the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing as an example of how the planners of the Boston Marathon effectively used ICS to save lives and restore order after the bombing. FIRESCOPE, Incident Command System, and the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings 3 FIREFIGHTING Before the 1960s firefighting was mostly a ground operation. One fire management veteran stated, "everything had to do with hiking and trucks." (National Interagency Fire Center Staff, 2013). In the 1960s the Bureau of Land Management and US Forest Service combined efforts and next involved the National Weather Service to develop their ability to forecast weather at risk for fires. By the 1970s, their fire-fighting consortium further expanded to include the National Park Service, the Department of the Interior's new Office of Aircraft Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The Fire consortium was renamed the National Interagency Fire Center (National Interagency Fire Center Staff, 2013), and the Bureau of Land Management still serves as the host agency and main employer. These federal agencies also coordinated efforts with state and local firefighters. In the 1970s leaders recognized that the success of interagency fire response required consistent and universal training. They standardized courses in fire safety for their firefighters on all levels. In September - October of 1970 the worst-ever fire disaster in California lasted 13 days, consisting of 773 individual wildfires that destroyed 722 homes, burned almost 600,000 acres of land across the state of California, killed 16 people, and injured many others. During initial debriefings of the disaster, analysts discerned that the problems with the response were not related to insufficient resources or failed tactics. Rather leaders had difficulty controlling and coordinating the thousands of firefighters and other emergency responders, many from neighboring mutual aid compacts. Some resources were not effectively used and others were exhausted. Air and ground forces were active but not coordinated. Analysts noted a lack of common organization; poor on-scene and interagency communication (with the various agencies using different radio frequencies, different terminology, and different organizational structures); FIRESCOPE, Incident Command System, and the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings 4 inadequate joint planning; a lack of valid and timely intelligence; inadequate resource management; and limited prediction capability (Rowley, 2007, p. 7). FIRESCOPE The United States 92nd Congress appropriated $900,000 to strengthen fire command and control systems by funding a project called FIrefighting REsources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies (FIRESCOPE). The FIRESCOPE partner agencies identified five individual ...
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Outline

Case Study: Training and function of a federal Urban Search and Rescue team
1.Introduction
a) Overview
2.Body
a) Training of a federal US&R team
b) General Training Requirements
c) Function and Specific Training Required for Various Positions in the Taskforce
d) Federal Urban Search and Rescue team in Action at Hurricane Michael
3.Conclusion


Running head: CASE STUDY

1

Case Study
Training and function of a federal Urban Search and Rescue team
A Case Study of Hurricane Michael
Name
Institution of Affiliation
Professor
Course
Date

CASE STUDY

2

The National Urban Search and Rescue Team was formed under FEMA’s authority back
in 1989. Federal US&R task forces are usually trained in restricted space rescue in times of
national disasters involving the collapse of reinforced concrete, wood, and steel framed
structures. The FEMA/US&R comprises of twenty-eight advanced task forces that are located
strategically in various parts of the country, that is, different states (Annex, 2017). Members of
the US&R are the most well and highly trained first responders throughout the nation with
special skills, techniques and, equipment that enable them to work effectively in conditions that
are extremely dangerous, such as natural disasters like hurricanes, earthquakes and domestic
terrorist attacks. This paper is a case study of Hurricane Michael, describing the training and
function of the federal US&R team.
Overview
In case a disaster event occurs, and it warrants support from the national US&R, such as
Hurricane Michael, FEMA deploys three task forces that are close to the location within a 6hours
notification, and any additional tams if necessary. Since US&R is considered a force that
provides rapid reaction, FEMA requires each of the team to be prepared within six hours’ notice,
following the commence of an incident, for dispatch to any location in the country and that they
be self-contained in the initial seventy-two hours of any emergency response (Bortolin &
Ciottone, 2016). The primary function of this team is supporting the efforts of the state and local
emergency responders in the processes of locating incident victims and managing operations
undertaken during recovery. Each of the task forces comprises of two squads of 31persons each,
4 canines, and an all-inclusive equipment cache.
Members of the US&R team work in 4 specialization fields. These are: searching to
locate victims who may be confined following a tragedy, rescue which entails securely
excavating victims from tons of collapsed metal and concrete; technical, consisting of structural
experts who help in making rescue operations safe for all rescuers; and lastly the medical, who
help communities to be better prepared for the operations of the US&R. In the Case of Hurricane
Michael, the Federal US& R performed these four areas effectively (FEMA, 2018). The bottom
line in US&R is that someday the lives of people may be saved through the skills and expertise
that the rescuers gain through training and experiences in the various events they attend to. These
team of first responders constantly go through front lines whenever America need their
assistance most. It is thus important for the nation to be proud of having them as part of their
community. These first responders are not only a resource for the nation that is deployed to a
main structural collapse or disaster anyplace within the country but also local firefighters as well
as p...

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