housing older adults

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500 words- in text citation inside text and in references-use text provided

  • Describe and critique two housing trends of aging adults that surprised you and analyze why they surprised you.
  • What senior housing option would you recommend to a loved one based on what you learned from the readings and your analysis?
  • What would you describe to them as a benefit in considering your recommended option? What possible objections might they give you?


500 words- in text citation inside text and in references-use text provided

You have been reading about how social capital trends affect society, but how will they affect you and your clients? In this discussion, you will look at the changes in the generation between your parents and yourself.

In your initial post, create a table with three columns and three rows (plus a header row) in a Word document.

  • In the first column, list the three most important sources of social capital you’ve learned about.
  • In the second column, describe how these sources, such as card games or book clubs, have provided social capital to one or both of your parents or close relatives.
  • In the third column, chart how that has changed in one generation by describing what it will be like for you at the age of your parents or relatives. For example, the way in which increasing numbers of people are texting instead of communicating verbally or staying home to watch streaming video instead of joining clubs.


  • 500 words- in text citation inside text and in references-use text provided
  • Discuss two factors you found interesting in the video about purposeful designed memory care senior living.
  • Think about a senior with cognitive decline living in his or her home. What do you see as often lacking in a person's home compared to the community featured in the video that is specifically designed for those with cognitive decline?


500 words- in text citation inside text and in references-use text provided

When considering your aging self, discuss or describe the senior living options you would consider for yourself. Provide rationales or reasoning for those options. At what age do you envision wanting to make the transition (or transitions) from the living arrangements you have now? What factors might influence your decision to transition to other living arrangements?


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GE NERATIONS – Journal of the American Society on Aging By Joanne Handy What Role Can Senior Housing Play in Care Transitions? Three models of senior housing with services show that innovative collaborations can lower costs, provide person-centered care, and avoid transitions by preventing hospital admissions. T he unprecedented growth of the older Gawande’s January 2011 article in The New adult population and the unsustainable Yorker, it makes sense to focus interventions, rate of healthcare spending have driven states such as care transitions, on these senior living and the federal government to consider more “dual-eligible hotspots”(Gawande, 2011). Senior systemic interventions in the care of elders. As housing providers have a unique ability to facithis issue of Generations points out, the focus litate interventions within their communities of these interventions is often to reduce acute that promote independence and healthy outcare hospitalizations, emergency room use, and costly It is common sense to focus interventions like care nursing home stays. Affordable senior housing with transitions on senior living ‘dual-eligible hotspots.’ services is an underutilized resource in this effort, and can serve as a comes, and reduce high-cost hospital recomplementary platform for addressing major admissions and emergency room visits. healthcare issues affecting older adult health Housing providers provide both a setting for and healthcare costs. efficient delivery of on-site interventions in large congregate settings, and a community-embedded Focusing on Hot Spots of Need hub for surrounding residents. These providers Why affordable senior housing? There are more are an underused asset, bringing a network of than 670,000 units of Housing and Urban informed professionals, information, and Development (HUD)–supported senior housing resources to support aging at home. nationally, and an even higher number of below market senior housing units. The majority of Existing Models Bring Down Costs residents in such affordable housing are dually The opportunity for the role of senior housing eligible individuals—the highest cost subgroup to support aging in community and help effect within the Medicare population. Based on the good transitions of care is stimulating the emerconcept of “hot-spotting,” as popularized in Atul gence of models (including the three men- 102 | Winter 2012–13 • Vol. 36 . No. 4 Copyright © 2013 American Society on Aging; all rights reserved. This article may not be duplicated, reprinted or distributed in any form without written permission from the publisher: American Society on Aging, 71 Stevenson St., Suite 1450, San Francisco, CA 94105-2938; e-mail: info@asaging.org. For information about ASA’s publications visit www.asaging.org/publications. For information about ASA membership visit www.asaging.org/join. Pages 102–104 Care Transitions in an Aging America adults, many of whom are at risk of homelessness or have HIV/AIDS. In the year prior to moving into the facility, San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and Laguna Honda Hospital The SASH model (LHH), the city’s public skilled nursing facility, Vermont is implementing the Support and received an estimated $1.7 million in Medicaid or Services at Home (SASH) model as part of its Medicare reimbursement for services provided healthcare reform plan, with funding from the to the original fifty tenants of Mission Creek. In Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services the year after moving in, this cohort generated (CMS). Through its partnerships, SASH connects 112 subsidized housing communities across $253,000 in Medicare and Medicaid reimbursethe state with the health and long-termcare systems. The SASH team, based at Mission Creek’s program saved approximately the housing sites, includes the Visiting Nurse Association, Area Agencies on $29,000 per person annually. Aging, mental health providers, housing ment to SFGH and LHH. This is an average providers, and other community agencies. The annual reduction of approximately $29,000 per team is anchored by a housing-based care person (San Francisco Department of Public coordinator and a wellness nurse who provide Health, 2009). care coordination, transitions planning, and self-care management education to residents and surrounding communities. SASH’s statewide The WellElder program WellElder is a program of Northern California expansion was based on a pilot that showed a Presbyterian Homes and Services in collabora19 percent decrease in hospitalizations, a 22 tion with the Institute on Aging. Operating in percent reduction in falls, and reduced skilled four affordable senior housing properties in the nursing facility admissions (LTQA, 2011). San Francisco area, the program teams a parttime health education coordinator (an R.N. or The Mission Creek community L.V.N.) with a service coordinator; these profesIn San Francisco, there is the Mission Creek Senior Community, the result of Mercy Housing sionals have the comprehensive expertise to support and meet residents’ needs so that they California’s collaboration with the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency, the San Francisco can remain living in their own homes and communities. Together these coordinators Department of Public Health, and the San monitor residents’ vital signs (as requested), Francisco Public Library. In partnership with provide individual and group health and wellthese organizations, Mercy developed 139 units of affordable senior housing, an adult day ness education, help residents communicate health center, operated by SteppingStone Adult with their healthcare providers, assist with understanding medical and insurance programs, Day Health, ground-floor retail space, and the monitor residents after hospital and rehab stays, newest branch of the San Francisco Public and provide referrals for any health needs. Library. A quarter of the residents were living A study of the WellElder program by the in long-term skilled nursing facilities before LeadingAge Center for Applied Research found moving to Mission Creek. Mission Creek sits along a tidal creek and has the program had the “potential to be a costeffective approach to integrating the complex walking trails and plentiful green space, yet is near public transit and neighborhood amenities. fragmented service system for medically complex, disabled individuals through the presences The community serves very low-income older tioned below) of housing with services across the country. Copyright © 2013 American Society on Aging; all rights reserved. This article may not be duplicated, reprinted or distributed in any form without written permission from the publisher: American Society on Aging, 71 Stevenson St., Suite 1450, San Francisco, CA 94105-2938; e-mail: info@asaging.org. For information about ASA’s publications visit www.asaging.org/publications. For information about ASA membership visit www.asaging.org/join. Winter 2012–13 • Vol. 36 . No. 4 | 103 GE NER ATIO NS – Journal of the American Society on Aging Pages 102–104 of the nurse and service coordinator in the build- new study conducted by Dr. Robyn Stone and ing” (Sanders and Stone, 2011). The study went colleagues at the LeadingAge Center for Applied on to note that the program could be replicated Research. Funded by the MacArthur Foundation, this grant will use CMS and HUD databases to assess whether affordable housing settings can WellElder is a replicable, low-cost serve as effective platforms for meeting the health and long-term-care needs of low-income older program that builds on existing residents, while helping to reduce care costs. infrastructure and fits within While the study progresses, affordable regulatory environments. housing providers nationwide are forging new relationships, or expanding existing ones, because it builds on existing infrastructure, is to keep residents healthy at home—and out relatively low in cost, and fits within existing of hospitals. regulatory environments. Joanne Handy, R.N., M.S., is the president and The Work Continues CEO of Aging Services of California in Sacramento, The basis for embedding certain interventions in California, and a member of the Generations affordable housing sites will be advanced by a Editorial Advisory Board. References Gawande, A. 2011. “The Hot Spotters.” The New Yorker, January 24. www.newyorker. com/reporting/2011/01/24/110124 fa_fact_gawande. Retrieved September 14, 2012. Long-Term Quality Alliance (LTQA). 2011. Innovative Communities: Breaking Down Barriers for the Good of Consumers and Their Family Caregivers. Washington, 104 | Winter 2012–13 • Vol. 36 . No. 4 DC: Report Summary of the Innovative Communities Conference, December 10, 2010. www. carf.org/LTQA/. Retrieved September 14, 2012. Sanders, A., and Stone, R. 2011. Supporting Aging in Place in Subsidized Housing: An Evaluation of the WellElder Program. Washington, DC: LeadingAge Center for Applied Research. San Francisco Department of Public Health, Housing and Urban Health. 2009. Cost and Housing Stability at Mission Creek Senior Supportive Housing. www.sahfnet. org/resources/enriched/Mis sion%20Creek%20Public%20 Health%20Assessment.pdf. Retrieved September 14, 2012. Copyright © 2013 American Society on Aging; all rights reserved. This article may not be duplicated, reprinted or distributed in any form without written permission from the publisher: American Society on Aging, 71 Stevenson St., Suite 1450, San Francisco, CA 94105-2938; e-mail: info@asaging.org. For information about ASA’s publications visit www.asaging.org/publications. For information about ASA membership visit www.asaging.org/join. Copyright of Generations is the property of American Society on Aging and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. SUPPLEMENT Social Capital and Successful Aging: The Role of Senior Housing Carolyn Cannuscio, ScD; Jason Block, MD, MPH; and ichiro Kawachi, MD, PhD Social capital is defined as the resources available to individuals and groups through social connections and social relations with others. Access to social capital enables older citizens to maintain productive, independent, and fulfilling lives. As the U.S. population ages, accompanied by a rise in the prevalence of seniors living alone, the availability of social capital within communities wiil become an important ingredient of successful aging. Recent evidence suggests that many traditional fomis of social capital in communities—as represented by civic engagement in local associations and by the extent of voluntarism and social trust—are on the decline. If this observation in correct, there is no simple solution to rebuilding this lost social capital. Novel forms of senior housing, such as planned care developments and assisted-living facilities, may offer promising modes of delivery of social capital to the aging population. However, assisted living remains financially inaccessible for a large segment of the U.S. population, so investment in communities "aging in place" may be the key to delivering the health dividends of social capital. S capital in the community, specifically through examples of options for senior housing. First, we turn to a case study that illustrates the relevance of social capital for the wellbeing of the elderly. ocial capital can be defined broadly as the resources available to individuals and groups through their social connections to their communities (1). Although the precise definition of social capita] is contested and continues to evolve, most definitions emphasize its characteristic as a collective good (1). Social capital can be considered a kind of public good that is provided by a group or community, and, consequently, the benefits of social capital tend to be more widely shared by members of the community. It is the collective dimension of social capital that most sharply distinguished it from other existing concepts, such as social networks and social support. A classic example of this distinction, which we develop further in the following case study, is the individual who may lack social ties and social support on a personal level but nevertheless benefits from residing within a community that is rich in social connections. In turn, communities with high stocks of social capital may be more effective in responding to external health threats, such as natural disasters, or the threatened closure of local health services. Such communities are also better equipped to protect the health of its citizens, even those who are socially isolated. The social connections that exist within a community therefore represent a form of capital that can be leveraged for health gain (1). Empirical work has usually measured social capital by proxy indicators, such as the extent of civic engagement within a community (for example, the density of membership of civic organizations), the extent of citizens' participation in voluntary activities, and the levels of trust and norms of mutual aid between members of a community (1). Social capital is relevant to successful aging in two ways: 1) Older individuals are at greater risk for losing critical parts of their social ties as they age, which makes them more dependent on social capital available within their communities; 2) the levels of social capital within U.S. communities appear to be on the decline, even as our population continues to age (2). In this paper, we discuss the implications of the longterm trends in social capital for successful aging in U.S. society, as well as potential solutions for "building" social Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:395-399. For author affiliations, see end of text. www.aiinals.arg A CASE STUDY The July 1995 Chicago heat wave dramatically illustrates the relevance of social capital for the well-being of the elderly. This heat wave resulted in more than 700 deaths. As the sociologist Eric Kiinenberg has pointed out, the pattern of deaths was not random (3). Three quarters of the heat-related deaths occurred among residents older than 65 years of age. The highest risk for death was concentrated among socially isolated elderly persons. From a case-control study of heat-related deaths, Semenza and colleagues (4) estimated that the odds ratio of dying during the heat wave was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.5) among those living alone, whereas those who participated in community groups (such as clubs, churches, and support groups) experienced a 30% lower risk for death (odds ratio, 0.7 [CI, 0.5 to 0.9]). The underlying social conditions that led to the tragedy in Chicago in fact mirror broader trends in U.S. society. In Chicago, as well as in the rest of the United States, the proportion of persons who live alone has increased dramatically in the past four decades. According to the Census Bureau, the total number of Americans living alone rose from 10.9 million in 1970 to 24.9 million by 1996 (3). Approximately 1 of every 3 noninstitutionalized seniors now lives alone (5). For these 10 million older Americans, living alone increases vulnerability to a variety of threats to succe.ssful aging, including social isolation, financial insecurity, lack of stimulating interactions, and loss of mobility and transportation. Access to social capital within the broader community, derived through norms of mutual assistance between neighbors and the involvement of local groups, becomes important for this large group of elderly persons who have limited opportunity for social engagement within their homes. © 2003 Ameritan College of Pliysidaiis 3 9 5 SUPPLEMENT Social Capital and Successful Aging In the 1995 Chicago heat wave, the risk for dying was increased not just among personally isolated elderly persons. Death rates were especially high among those who resided in communities characterized by low levels of social interaction in public places and high crime rates (3). The absence of an active community life, combined with a fear of crime, kept many elderly persons locked inside their homes and prevented them from reaching community cooling centers during the hear wave crisis (3). As a result, the geographic pattern of heat wave deaths across Chicago neighborhoods was not random. Communities with an active street life, where neighbors saw each other and interacted on a daily basis, were more successful at protecting their residents against the risk of death. During the heat wave, these neighborhoods drew out even those individuals who were isolated and reclusive. This example illustrates the importance of the collective (or community) dimension of social capital, above and beyond the private benefits from interactions that individuals secure through their intimate relationships or social networks. According to some, the community stocks of social capital appear to be declining in U.S. society. THE DECLINE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN THE UNITED STATES In his 1995 essay "Bowling Alone" (6) and a subsequent book with the same title (2), the political scientist Robert Putnam argued that social capital in U.S. society has eroded. Whether measured in terms of formal membership and participation in civic organizations, informal socializing between neighbors, levels of trust between citizens, or indicators of voluntarism and charitable giving, social capital has declined sharply in this country since the mid-1960s. According to- Putnam, che long-term decline in civic engagement represents a generational (or birth cohort) effect, not an age effect. The so-called long civic generation—the cohort of citizens who attended school during the Great Depression and lived through World War II— have maintained high levels of civic participation, community involvement, and social trust throughout their lives (2). As this generation has become an increasingly smaller part of the U.S. population, social capital has declined because subsequent generations have not maintained the same level of civic engagement. Americans born in the 1920s are much more likely than those born in the 1960s to belong to an organization, to trust other people, to vote, to attend church, or to volunteer on a community project, all examples of activities that are critical to the maintenance of community social capital. Even as the "long civic generation" declines in size, they make up a progressively higher proportion of community members who hold together the social fabric. For example, while those 60 years of age or older made up 20% of community volunteers and 24% of club attendees in 1970, these proportions increased to 35% and 38% in the 1990s (2). 3 9 6 2 September 2003 Annalsof'lnceriial Medicine Voliimc 139 • Number 5 (Pan 2] Some critics have contested Putnam's diagnosis, arguing that old forms of social capital have been replaced by new forms, such as the Internet (7, 8). In addition, the contention that cohorts born after I960 differ from those born in the 1920s and 1930s cannot be fully evaluated until the later-born cohort reaches the same age and stage of the lifecourse. For cohorts born after the 1960s, civic engagement, volunteering, and other forms of "vital involvement" in the community' may still catch up over time, as this group reaches late adulthood, retirement, and beyond. Nonetheless, the long-term trends in U.S. society are of potential concern because the elderly today are not only the primary producers of the social glue that holds together communities, but they (and future generations of elders) are also significant beneficiaries of social capital. The role of communities in supporting the elderly is changing. Through reductions in Medicare and Medicaid funding for the institutional care for the elderly, the federal government has bee ...
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Housing of Ageing Adults




Question 1: Housing trends of aging adults
In the current population, aging adults seem to increase over the years. The aging adults
also known as baby boomers have the highest percentage as homeowners, but this has decreased
over the years because the younger generation is not much of homeowners. The number of
homeowners would have further reduced if not for the baby boomers. The baby boomers have
housing trends that will be discussed in this essay. These trends are affected by the growing
population of the baby boomers till retirement age. The baby boomers are increasing in number,
and they cannot be able to live independently hence they affect the housing market. The below
essay will also be tackling and having insights on the housing market sector and some of the
challenges that will also be changing the baby boomers and their housing trends. In this essay,
we will be discussing two significant trends, and they are described below. (Roberts, & Adams,
K. B 2018)
In today’s housing market, houses are becoming more expensive hence the rents get
higher and also land rates get higher. This affects the baby boomers as a majority of the people
pay the houses with mortgages. This will make many of the baby boomers to stay in their singlefamily homes. This will force them to renovate the apartments. They will spend more money and
time on renovating these houses because they were existing and probably of the old design and
some need repairs. The baby boomers stay in their homes because buying a new home will have
to tie them to a mortgage and they will be aging hence reduced income it becomes hard for them
to pay up the lease. This is old becomes new.



The second trend is that by them inheriting their parents’ home, they inherit with all the
debts and expenses that come with the house. In this, the baby boomers will be able to see a
decrease in the debt they might pay as compared to them taking the debt themselves. These
housing trends surprised me because by inheriting the deficit it increases the time duration that
the debt will be paid and by renovating the houses is that one rehabilitates in the home and they
are already aged hence they will need people to live with them. (Wood, & Horner 2019)
From the two trends, the most logical recommendation loved one the first one in that they
stay in the single-family home and renovate the house to their liking and make it modern. The
benefit to this option is that the expenses that come with staying in the single-family home are
less as compared to the one of inheriting all the costs of mortgages and other debts that come
with the house. Objectives of my option of staying in a single family home are that one does not
have privacy and the house will keep on being renovated hence unnecessary expenses that could
be avoided.
With the two trends highlighted above, the baby boomers seem to avoid expenses like
mortgages, land rate debt...

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