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Measurement Instruments

Mass, Volume, and Density

Experiment 3, on Measurements of Length, Volume and Density.

Volume Equations are given on page 37.

We will discuss the least counts and estimated fractions for the meter stick, Vernier caliper, Micrometer, Balance and Graduated Cylinder. Table 1, page 39.

You will be responsible to turn in:

Density Determination, Data Table 3, Page 41.

You must include:

The linear dimensions of the Rod, Sphere and Rectangular Block specifying the the type of element each object is made of and a minimum of two readings for each step as well as the average. All readings must be taken in centimeters.

Data Table 4, Page 42

The mass in grams for the same rod, Sphere and Rectangular Block, you used in table 3.

Their volume by using the mathematical equations found in page 37, all expressed in cm3

The mass in grams and the volume in cm3 of the irregular shape indicating the type of material of the irregular object.

The density in g/cm3 all of the above showing the mathematical calculations and percent error, using equation 1.2, page 7. Accepted Densities of Materials are found in Appendix A, Page 523, Table A1.

Units must be written next to each physical measurement in each step, not just the final answer.

Questions 3, 4 and 5, Pages 43 & 44. Your answers should always be brief and on target. Support your answers with formulas whenever possible, or a simple diagram, or even a short experiment if needed.

Tutornicabel
School: Duke University

Attached.

1

Physics lab report
Name of student
Name of professor
Name of course
Name of institution

Physics lab report
2
Introduction
The laboratory experiment was mainly involving the measurement of length and mass to
determine the density of different materials. Several types of equipment were used in the
measurement of length which includes use of Vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and meter
stick. Laboratory balance was used in measuring the mass. The main aim of this laboratory
experiment was to determine the density of different material, compare the experimental and
accepted densities of material, calculate the densities percentage error and to determine the least
count and estimated fraction of least counts of the instruments used.
Procedure
Using Vernier caliper, diameter and length of a rod were taken three times, and the values were
recorded in table three below.
A diameter of a sphere was also measured three times using Vernier caliper and recorded in table
three.
Measurements of length, width, and thickness of the rectangular sheet were taken using Vernier
caliper then recorded in table three.
The average measurement values of the above-recorded values of a rod, sphere and rectangular
sheet were calculated and recorded in table three below.
Using laboratory balance, the mass of rod, sphere, rectangular sheet, an irregular shaped object
was measured, and their values were recorded in table four below.
A volume of a rod, sphere, rectangular sheet, and irregularly shaped object were calculated using
the average values recorded in table three.

Physics lab report
3
The volume of an irregular object was obtained by immersing an object into a transparent
container containing tap water. The object was submerged into a container with water leaving
space between the top of a container and the surface of the water. The level of water in a
container was marked before immersing an object and after dipping an object. The volume of
water after and before immersing irregular object was obtained using a graduated cylinder. The
difference between the two volumes was calculated. This difference in volumes represents the
volume of an irregular object. The volume was then recorded in table four below.
An experimental density of the objects above was calculated using their respective masses and
volumes measured.
Accepted density values of the above objects obtain from table A1 was recorded in table four.
Percentage error for each object above was calculated using the experimental density and
accepted density for each object. Percentage error equal to allowed density less experimental
density divided by the accepted density.
Results
Table three
Instruments

Rod

Sphere

Rectangular sheet

used

1

Diameter

Length

Diameter

Length

(cm)

(cm)

(cm)

(cm)

1.96

3.46

2.65

2.67

Width (cm) Thickness
(cm)
0.63

7.66

Physics lab report
4
2

1.95

3.45

2.67

2.64

0.64

7.65

3

1.97

3.44

2.64

2.65

0.62

7.67

Average

1.96

3.45

2.65

2.65

0.63

7.65

Average diameter of the rod = (1.96 cm + 1.97cm +1.95 cm)/3 = 5.88 cm/ 3 = 1.96 cm.
Average length of the rod = (3.46 cm + 3.45 cm +3.44 cm) = 10.35 cm/3 = 3.45 cm.
Average diameter of the sphere = (2.65 cm + 2.67 cm + 2.64 cm) = 7.96 cm/3 = 2.65 cm.
Average length of the rectangular sheet = (2.67 cm + 2.64 cm +2.65 cm)/3 = 7.96 cm/3 = 2.65
cm.
Average width of the rectangular sheet = (0.63 cm + 0.64 cm +0.62 cm)/3 = 1.89 cm/3 = 0.63
cm.
Average thickness of the rectangular sheet = (7.66 cm + 7.65 cm +7.67 cm)/3 = 7.66 cm.
Table four
Object

Mass

Volume

Experimental

Accepted

(g)

(cm^3)

density(g/cm^3) density

Percentage
error (%)

from table
A1
Rod (Type of material)
Tin

69.00 10.30

6.70

7.28

7.97

Physics lab report
5
Sphere (Type of material)

66.00 9.74

6.78

7.88

14.00

33.70 12.77

2.64

2.70

2.20

34.50 4.00

6.9

7.88

12.40

Steel
Rectangular sheet
Type of material
Aluminum
Irregular sheet object
Type of material
Steel

Volume of Rod = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑙= 𝜋0.975 2 ∗ 3.45𝑐𝑚 = 10.30 cm3.
Volume of Rectangular sheet = Length* Width* Thickness = 2.65 cm * 0.63 cm *7.65 cm3
4

Volume of Sphere = 3 𝜋𝑟 3= 4/3 *π (1.325cm) 3 = 9.74 cm3
Volume of irregular object = V2 -V1 where V2= The volume of water after immersing irregular
object into the container and V2 = The volume of water before immersing an irregular object
Where, V2 = 12000ml and V1 = 8000ml, hence V2-V1 = 12000ml – 8000ml = 4000ml
Since, 1cm3 = 1000ml. hence we volume of irregular object cm3 to be (4000ml *1cm3)/1000ml
= 4 cm3
Experimental density of a Rod = mass/volume = 69 g /10.3 cm3 = 6.7 g/cm3
Experimental density of a sphere = mass/volume = 66 g/9.74 cm3 = 6.78 g/cm3

Physics lab report
6
Experimental density of Rectangular sheet = mass/volume = 33.7g/7.65cm3 = 2.64 g/cm3
Experimental density of irregular object = mass/volume = 34.5g/4cm3 = 6.9cm3
Accepted Densities of Materials were given in Appendix A, Page 523, Table Al.
Percentage error = [(Accepted density – Experimental density)/Accepted density] *100 %
Percentage error of the Rod = [(7.28 g/cm3 - 6 .70g/ cm3) /7.28 g/cm3] *100% = 0.58g/ cm3 /7.28
g/cm3] *100%= 7.97 %
Percentage error of Rectangular sheet = [(2.7 g/cm3-2.64 g/cm3)/2.7 g/cm3] = 0.06g/cm3 /2.7
g/cm3 *100% = 2.20%
Percentage error of Irregular object = [(7.88 g/cm3-6.9 g/cm3)/7.88 g/cm3] = 0.98g/cm3 /7.88
g/cm3 *100% = 12.40%
Percentage error of sphere= [(7.88g/cm3-6.78g/cm3)/7.88g/cm3] = 1.1g/cm3 /7.88 g/cm3 *100% =
14.00%
Table of least counts and estimated fractions of the instruments used
Instrument

Least count

Estimated fraction

Meterstick

1mm

0.1mm

Vernier caliper

0.01cm

0.001cm

Micrometer caliper

0.01mm

0.001mm

Balance

0.1g

0.01g

1ml

0.01ml

Least count is the smallest value an instrument can measure accurately.

Physics lab report
7
Estimated fraction is the smallest unit an instrument can measure per calibration of an
instrument.
Estimated fraction is given by; least count/the number of calibrations per count
Meterstick, Vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and balance have 10 calibration per co...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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