# Please help with the physics lab report thank you

*label*Science

*timer*Asked: Feb 3rd, 2019

*account_balance_wallet*$15

**Question Description**

**Measurement Instruments**

**Mass, Volume, and Density**

**Experiment 3, on Measurements of Length, Volume and Density.**

**Volume Equations are given on page 37**.

We will discuss the least counts and estimated fractions for the meter stick, Vernier caliper, Micrometer, Balance and Graduated Cylinder. Table 1, page 39.

You will be responsible to turn in:

__Density Determination, Data Table 3, Page 41.__

You must include:

The linear dimensions of the Rod, Sphere and Rectangular Block specifying the the type of element each object is made of and a minimum of two readings for each step as well as the average. All readings must be taken in centimeters.

__Data Table 4, Page 42__

The mass in grams for the same rod, Sphere and Rectangular Block, you used in table 3.

Their volume by using the mathematical equations found in page 37, all expressed in cm^{3 }

The mass in grams and the volume in cm^{3 }of the irregular shape indicating the type of material of the irregular object.

The density in g/cm^{3 }all of the above showing the mathematical calculations and percent error, using equation 1.2, page 7. Accepted Densities of Materials are found in Appendix A, Page 523, Table A1.

Units must be written next to each physical measurement in each step, not just the final answer.

__Questions__ 3, 4 and 5, Pages 43 & 44. Your answers should always be brief and on target. Support your answers with formulas whenever possible, or a simple diagram, or even a short experiment if needed.

## Tutor Answer

Attached.

Running head: Physics lab report

1

Physics lab report

Name of student

Name of professor

Name of course

Name of institution

Physics lab report

2

Introduction

The laboratory experiment was mainly involving the measurement of length and mass to

determine the density of different materials. Several types of equipment were used in the

measurement of length which includes use of Vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and meter

stick. Laboratory balance was used in measuring the mass. The main aim of this laboratory

experiment was to determine the density of different material, compare the experimental and

accepted densities of material, calculate the densities percentage error and to determine the least

count and estimated fraction of least counts of the instruments used.

Procedure

Using Vernier caliper, diameter and length of a rod were taken three times, and the values were

recorded in table three below.

A diameter of a sphere was also measured three times using Vernier caliper and recorded in table

three.

Measurements of length, width, and thickness of the rectangular sheet were taken using Vernier

caliper then recorded in table three.

The average measurement values of the above-recorded values of a rod, sphere and rectangular

sheet were calculated and recorded in table three below.

Using laboratory balance, the mass of rod, sphere, rectangular sheet, an irregular shaped object

was measured, and their values were recorded in table four below.

A volume of a rod, sphere, rectangular sheet, and irregularly shaped object were calculated using

the average values recorded in table three.

Physics lab report

3

The volume of an irregular object was obtained by immersing an object into a transparent

container containing tap water. The object was submerged into a container with water leaving

space between the top of a container and the surface of the water. The level of water in a

container was marked before immersing an object and after dipping an object. The volume of

water after and before immersing irregular object was obtained using a graduated cylinder. The

difference between the two volumes was calculated. This difference in volumes represents the

volume of an irregular object. The volume was then recorded in table four below.

An experimental density of the objects above was calculated using their respective masses and

volumes measured.

Accepted density values of the above objects obtain from table A1 was recorded in table four.

Percentage error for each object above was calculated using the experimental density and

accepted density for each object. Percentage error equal to allowed density less experimental

density divided by the accepted density.

Results

Table three

Instruments

Rod

Sphere

Rectangular sheet

used

Reading

1

Diameter

Length

Diameter

Length

(cm)

(cm)

(cm)

(cm)

1.96

3.46

2.65

2.67

Width (cm) Thickness

(cm)

0.63

7.66

Physics lab report

4

2

1.95

3.45

2.67

2.64

0.64

7.65

3

1.97

3.44

2.64

2.65

0.62

7.67

Average

1.96

3.45

2.65

2.65

0.63

7.65

Average diameter of the rod = (1.96 cm + 1.97cm +1.95 cm)/3 = 5.88 cm/ 3 = 1.96 cm.

Average length of the rod = (3.46 cm + 3.45 cm +3.44 cm) = 10.35 cm/3 = 3.45 cm.

Average diameter of the sphere = (2.65 cm + 2.67 cm + 2.64 cm) = 7.96 cm/3 = 2.65 cm.

Average length of the rectangular sheet = (2.67 cm + 2.64 cm +2.65 cm)/3 = 7.96 cm/3 = 2.65

cm.

Average width of the rectangular sheet = (0.63 cm + 0.64 cm +0.62 cm)/3 = 1.89 cm/3 = 0.63

cm.

Average thickness of the rectangular sheet = (7.66 cm + 7.65 cm +7.67 cm)/3 = 7.66 cm.

Table four

Object

Mass

Volume

Experimental

Accepted

(g)

(cm^3)

density(g/cm^3) density

Percentage

error (%)

from table

A1

Rod (Type of material)

Tin

69.00 10.30

6.70

7.28

7.97

Physics lab report

5

Sphere (Type of material)

66.00 9.74

6.78

7.88

14.00

33.70 12.77

2.64

2.70

2.20

34.50 4.00

6.9

7.88

12.40

Steel

Rectangular sheet

Type of material

Aluminum

Irregular sheet object

Type of material

Steel

Volume of Rod = 𝜋𝑟 2 𝑙= 𝜋0.975 2 ∗ 3.45𝑐𝑚 = 10.30 cm3.

Volume of Rectangular sheet = Length* Width* Thickness = 2.65 cm * 0.63 cm *7.65 cm3

4

Volume of Sphere = 3 𝜋𝑟 3= 4/3 *π (1.325cm) 3 = 9.74 cm3

Volume of irregular object = V2 -V1 where V2= The volume of water after immersing irregular

object into the container and V2 = The volume of water before immersing an irregular object

Where, V2 = 12000ml and V1 = 8000ml, hence V2-V1 = 12000ml – 8000ml = 4000ml

Since, 1cm3 = 1000ml. hence we volume of irregular object cm3 to be (4000ml *1cm3)/1000ml

= 4 cm3

Experimental density of a Rod = mass/volume = 69 g /10.3 cm3 = 6.7 g/cm3

Experimental density of a sphere = mass/volume = 66 g/9.74 cm3 = 6.78 g/cm3

Physics lab report

6

Experimental density of Rectangular sheet = mass/volume = 33.7g/7.65cm3 = 2.64 g/cm3

Experimental density of irregular object = mass/volume = 34.5g/4cm3 = 6.9cm3

Accepted Densities of Materials were given in Appendix A, Page 523, Table Al.

Percentage error = [(Accepted density – Experimental density)/Accepted density] *100 %

Percentage error of the Rod = [(7.28 g/cm3 - 6 .70g/ cm3) /7.28 g/cm3] *100% = 0.58g/ cm3 /7.28

g/cm3] *100%= 7.97 %

Percentage error of Rectangular sheet = [(2.7 g/cm3-2.64 g/cm3)/2.7 g/cm3] = 0.06g/cm3 /2.7

g/cm3 *100% = 2.20%

Percentage error of Irregular object = [(7.88 g/cm3-6.9 g/cm3)/7.88 g/cm3] = 0.98g/cm3 /7.88

g/cm3 *100% = 12.40%

Percentage error of sphere= [(7.88g/cm3-6.78g/cm3)/7.88g/cm3] = 1.1g/cm3 /7.88 g/cm3 *100% =

14.00%

Table of least counts and estimated fractions of the instruments used

Instrument

Least count

Estimated fraction

Meterstick

1mm

0.1mm

Vernier caliper

0.01cm

0.001cm

Micrometer caliper

0.01mm

0.001mm

Balance

0.1g

0.01g

Graduated cylinder

1ml

0.01ml

Least count is the smallest value an instrument can measure accurately.

Physics lab report

7

Estimated fraction is the smallest unit an instrument can measure per calibration of an

instrument.

Estimated fraction is given by; least count/the number of calibrations per count

Meterstick, Vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and balance have 10 calibration per co...

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