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FEMA Training and Functions of VA Task Force

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Describe the training and function of a federal Urban Search and Rescue team

(pick one fedral Urban Search Team ( and describe the training and function

Use at least ((8 references))

- Length: 5 pages (not including title page, abstract and references).

Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.

should be approximately 1500 words,

content is more important than volume

Again, content matters more than word count. (find attached Rubric, And find Attached ideal Exemplar case study)

Look through the literature and cite credible resources.Remember that we use APA formatting for all citation

Avoid generalities.

Remember, you are to write as if you are teaching an audience that is invested, but has no prior knowledge of your topic. Give an introduction to the reason the subject is important to our study. Then develop several paragraphs of content: perhaps one for each of three to seven points you think are especially crucial to understanding. (Those three to seven points were probably listed in your introduction!) Develop each paragraph to explain in rich detail the situation and locale/population as appropriate to which the point applies. Recall: Who, What, When, Where, Why, How. Finally, a conclusion that clearly states (reviews) the key aspects of the three to seven points you want the reader /audience to act upon.

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The Role of the Military in Disaster Response The Role of the Military in Disaster Response: A Case Study of Hurricane Sandy John Smith September 12, 2016 [1] The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [2] The rise in large scale disasters has begun to increase the role of the military in response activities. To some, this is not a trend they want to see continued. It has been argued that military forces have too much to worry about already, and that if allowed, states will begin asking for federal military assistance for disaster events which could easily be taken care of using state supplies (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). However, this controversy is not the focus of this paper. This paper discusses the types of military able to be called upon for disaster response operations and the capabilities and resources they bring with them. Using Hurricane Sandy, it discusses the role of the military in modern disaster response. Definition of Types of Military There are two different military types that can be called into action in responding to a disaster—Active and Reserve forces and the National Guard. The active and reserve forces cover the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corp, and Coast Guard (Cieply, 2008). These soldiers can only be called into action by the President, and fall under the category of Title 10 forces (Burke & McNeil, 2015). The National Guard, also referred to as Title 32 forces, are the state’s militia (Cieply, 2008). The National Guard can be called in by either the state governor or the President. Their status changes depending on who called them into action (Cieply, 2008). Capabilities and Resources Supplied by Military When local resources have become overwhelmed, a community can look to the state and federal government to support the disaster relief operations. Often times, help comes in the form of the military (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). The military is able to provide significant capabilities to communities in need. There are four main types of military response available to states in need (IS 75, 2011). These are: Mutual Aid Assistance Agreements, Immediate Response Authority, deployment of The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [3] state military resources and federal military forces. Mutual Aid Assistance Agreements are established between states, prior to a disaster striking, that arrange for supplies and personnel to be given in times of need (IS 75, 2011). One example of a Mutual Aid Assistance Agreement is an Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC). EMACs are “nonbinding collaborative arrangements that create a legal framework for states to assist one another in managing a disaster or emergency declared by a governor” (IS 75, 2011). Through EMACs a governor from one state can send his/her National Guard to aid in response activities. Food, water, transportation, fuel, and medical teams can also be acquired through an EMAC. The second way to receive aid is through an Immediate Response Authority (IRA) (IS 75, 2011). IRAs are a way to get Department of Defense help at a municipal, county or tribal level (IS, 2011). These are especially helpful when time does not permit prior approval from higher headquarters (IS 75, 2011). IRAs are helpful since the community in need is able to receive support during imminently serious conditions and not have to worry about the red tape slowing down their response activities. One fallback to requesting support via an IRA is that DoD responses are limited based on the availability of their resources and the circumstances of the event (IS, 2011). Thirdly, the governor may choose to activate the state military resources. National Guard forces can serve in three different duty statuses, each having their own benefits and pitfalls (Burke & McNeil, 2015). If activated by the governor, the National Guard units may act as law enforcement, supply heavy duty equipment and participate in search and rescue, triage operations, evacuations, and damage assessment (IS 75, 2011). The final way to receive military assistance is through Presidential activation of military forces. This usually follows the The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [4] declaration of a major disaster or emergency by the President under the Stafford Act (IS 75, 2011). Military help is requested through Mission Assignments by FEMA (IS 75, 2011). The military brings a unique set of capabilities and supplies that are extremely valuable during emergency situations. They can contribute situational awareness capabilities, set up joint logistic bases, and deploy chemical-biological weapons of mass destructions (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). Additionally, they can assist in medical and public health endeavors. With the use of transport helicopters, navy hospitals and trained medical personnel, the military can respond to any size disaster with skilled efficacy and aid in saving hundreds of lives (Committee on Homeland Security, 2005). If needed, the military can also bring in large pieces of equipment such as D7F Bulldozers, M1977 Common Bridge Transporters (IS 75, 2011), power restoration vehicles, large water pumps, and transport vehicles (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). However, for as many skills the military brings, they also bring problems. Problems with Military/National Guards Responding Coordination and law restriction are the two biggest issues. With National Guard forces and reserve forces working alongside each other, there is a potential for confusion in the chain of command (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). Because each set of forces have their own chain of command, and incident commander, differing orders may arise. This can also lead to a misuse of resources, as well as an overlap or gap in resources. The second issue deals with restrictions put in place by the Constitution. Active Duty military resources have limitations on how they may be used during an emergency (IS 75, 2011). The biggest restriction is their inability to act as law enforcement (IS 75, 2011). When called in by a governor, the National Guard may act as law enforcement (Burke & McNeil, 2015). However, this is not the case when the National Guard is deployed by the President. Under Presidential declaration, the Guard can no longer act as law The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [5] enforcement, and instead can only assist in response efforts. While important, these law restrictions are not of major concern to the US government. The lack of coordination during response efforts is what has led to changes in military assistance. 2012 National Defense Authorization Act Because of the many mismanaged response efforts, Congress created the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act. This act worked to remedy the potential confusion in the chain of command during military response activities (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). It enabled individual states and the DoD to coordinate their response efforts through one single commander (Jacob & Grass, 2013). This commander, who is given control of all military forces, is usually a National Guard officer, since he/she has the ability to be deployed as either National Guard or Active Military. The position is called the Dual-Status Commander (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). Even though the Dual-Status Commander leads all military forces and directs response efforts, the state and federal forces maintain separate chains of commands (Jacoby & Grass, 2013). This allows for coordination between response forces without the creation and disruption of a new, integrated chain of command. While this position had been deployed for many small disaster responses, Hurricane Sandy was the first large-scale, no notice/limited notice event that tested the Dual-Status Commander role. Dual Status during Hurricane Sandy In October 2012, a category one hurricane hit the eastern shore of the United States (Burke & McNeil, 2015). The storm touched down less than 100 miles south of New York City, laying waste on homes, transportation systems and infrastructure. Days before landfall, President Obama declared state of emergencies for many of the eastern states (Burke & McNeil, 2015). This allowed for military resources to begin preparation for their response efforts. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [6] Two days after the hit, command structure had been established, and bordering states were sending their troops and supplies (Burke, 2015). New York had around 5,000 military men and women responding (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). Help, in the form of EMAC forces, came from Delaware, Kansas, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Ohio (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). They brought with them medical assessment teams, air national guard fueling teams, a liaison officer team, a power assessment team and the 1049 truck company (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). The dual status commander of the storm response was Brigadier General Michael Swezey (Burke, 2015). Under BG Swezey, the National Guard and EMAC forces were given ten mission sets. Examples of these included: aerial and ground transportation support, HAZMAT identification and response, communications and support, law enforcement and search and rescue (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). In the 110 days that the National Guard and US Military forces were responding they accomplished all ten mission sets and carried out 224 missions, completed 538 flight hours to support operations, rescued 738 civilians and moved more than 92,000 tons of commodities (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). Additionally, troops were deployed to do door to door wellness checks, and distributed over 3,000 turkeys to families in need for Thanksgiving (Funkino & Miklos, 2013). Due to political pressure, the President ordered responders to worry less about paperwork and focus on executing missions (Burke, 2015). This helped by unburdening the military forces, and allowing them to do the greatest good in a timely manner. Hurricane Sandy showed the nation that implementing a Dual Action Commander to direct both Title 10 and Title 32 troops is the next step in a fully coordinated disaster response. Additionally, the use of Emergency Planning Liaison Officers throughout the joint military operations also proved beneficial during response activities (Burke, 2015). These officers aided The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [7] in coordinating communications, operational decision making and increased important staff elements in the joint field office (Burke, 2015). Without these liaison officers, the dual action commander’s position and coordination of the military forces would have been near impossible (Burke, 2015). However, while there were many successes seen during the response to Hurricane Sandy, there is much room for improvement. The largest shortfall was the differing of preparation level between military forces and civil authorities (Burke, 2015). If the military are going to be involved in more disaster response efforts, an increase in joint training and exercises is needed to bridge the gap between military and civilian response preparation. Additionally, the call to ignore mission paperwork came from impatient political heads. This, while not a major problem, should not become standard practice for future events. Conclusion Over the past few decades, disaster response efforts have been increasingly supported by military actions. This has caused a large amount of controversy as well as glaring problems in response coordination. Small steps toward total coordination occur after every large event the United States faces. The most current disaster, Hurricane Sandy, was no different. This disaster allowed the government to test the position of a Dual Status Commander on a no notice/limited notice event, and ended with positive results. While there are some kinks that still need to be worked out, the position has proven to be a powerful tool for improving coordination between military types in disaster response efforts, and will surely be used in response activities to come. The Role of the Military in Disaster Response [8] References Burke, R. (2015). The Dual Status Commander and Hurricane Sandy: Maturing Military Response with Process Improvement. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Delaware) Retrieved from: Proquest. Number: 3718321 Burke, R & McNeil, S. (April, 2015). Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander. Strategic Studies Institute. Retrieved from: Cieply, K. (2008). Charting a New Role for Title 10 Reserve Forces: A Total Force Response to Natural Disasters. Military Law Review. Volume 196. Pages 2-46. DoD. (1 November, 2012). Coast Guard Responds to Superstorm Sandy Damage. Retrieved from: Funkino, S., & Miklos, M. (2013). The Role of the Military in Disaster Response and Superstorm Sandy. Lecture presented in Maxwell School of Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. Retrieved from: IS 75. (May 2011). Military Resources in Emergency Management. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved from: Jacoby, C & Grass, F. (11 March, 2013). Dual-Status, Single Purpose: A Unified Military Response to Hurricane Sandy. Retrieved from: Purpura, P. (8 January, 2013). New Federal Law, First Used in Superstorm Sandy, Streamlines Federal Military Response. The Times-Picayune. Retrieved from: Roulo, C. (27 August, 2014). DoD Plays Key Role in Disaster Response, Official Says. US Department of Defense. Retrieved from: U.S. Congress, Committee on Homeland Security (9 November, 2005). Responding to Catastrophic Events: The Role of the Military and National Guard in Disaster Response. Joint Hearing the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Science, and Technology of the Committee on Homeland Security with the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities of the Committee of the Armed Services. Retrieved from: Nat Hazards (2015) 75:57–69 DOI 10.1007/s11069-014-1304-3 ORIGINAL PAPER Factors that affect rescue time in urban search and rescue (USAR) operations M. Statheropoulos • A. Agapiou • G. C. Pallis • K. Mikedi • S. Karma • J. Vamvakari • M. Dandoulaki • F. Andritsos • C. L. Paul Thomas Received: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 June 2014 / Published online: 29 June 2014  Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014 Abstract Recent structural collapses were studied in order to identify gaps in technology and to propose priorities in enhancing urban search and rescue (USAR) tools. The timelines of the events were examined with the scope of extracting critical factors that affect rescue time and can be used to define priorities in tools and technologies development, so that efficient and fast location, recovery and treatment of victims can be achieved. In this context, seven factors were identified: (1) best practices and lessons learned, (2) rescue technology, (3) community involvement, (4) information systems, (5) technology integration, (6) crisis management and (7) available budget. Each of these factors is reviewed, analyzed and discussed with the scope of providing future developments in tools and technology for USAR operations. Keywords Prompt rescue  Tools and technology  Technology integration  Community involvement  Information systems  Crisis management  Best practices and lessons learned M. Statheropoulos  A. Agapiou (&)  G. C. Pallis  K. Mikedi  S. Karma  J. Vamvakari Field Analytical Chemistry and Technology Unit, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 73 Athens, Greece e-mail: M. Dandoulaki National School for Public Administration and Local Government, 211 Pireos Str., 177 78 Athens, Greece F. Andritsos IPSC, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra, VA, Italy C. L. P. Thomas Department of Chemistry, Centre for Analytical Science, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK 123 58 Nat Hazards (2015) 75:57–69 1 Introduction Reports on structural collapses, reveal a persistent vulnerability and emphasize the importance of better integration of collective response to such emergencies (Alexander 2002). Besides earthquakes, which is considered a high catastrophic and unpredictable natural catastrophe (Alexander 2010a), other phenomena that give rise to entrapments are the blast effects due to terrorist attacks (Comfort and Kapucu 2006), industrial accidents and/or domestic gas escapes (Stewart et al. 2006), snow and ice avalanches (Barbolini et al. 2006), ground failure including mass movements and subsidence (Petrucci and Gullı̀ 2009), volcano eruptions (Zuccaro and Ianniello 2004) and tornados (McDonald 1993). The above structural collapses were highlighted in the interim and experts report review of FP7 integrated project ‘‘Second Generator for Urban Search and Rescue Operations’’ (‘‘SGL for USAR’’,; Alexander 2010b). Disaster impacts are especially high in urban areas as they affect large, densely populated regions, often involving high, extended building blocks with complicated street patterns, socially diverse populations with ethnic, religious and linguistic issues (Mäyrä et al. 2011). Therefore, USAR operations are considered time-consuming and technically demanding compared to sea, mountain or rural operations; this is better shown in Fig. 1. Nevertheless, despite sustained, often heroic efforts, the relative number of rescued survivors from extended structural collapses remains small (Bartels and VanRooyen 2012). On the other hand, the number of structural collapses due to natural (e.g., Iran, 2003; Indonesia, 2004; Italy, 2009; Haiti, 2010; Japan, 2011), man-made disasters (e.g., Indonesia, 2002) or technological accidents (e.g., Holland, 2000; Russia, 2009; Canada, 2013) is increasing worldwide, raising the death toll of entrapped victims (EM-DAT The OFDA/ CRED International Disaster Database 2014; EEA 2010; EERI 2011). To alleviate this, Fig. 1 The different environments of SAR operations and the main characteristics of USAR operations 123 Nat Hazards (2015) 75:57–69 59 there is a need to standardize all phases of USAR operations (deployment, search, locate, extrication, on-site medical support) and increase the speed of rescue efforts. All phases of the operations have unforeseen time frames as shown in Fig. 2. As disasters respect no borders, USAR operations standardization will contribute to the efficiency of both management and field operations, especially in the frame of international missions. As an example, 37 USAR teams from 21 nations were deployed in Taiwan after the Ji Ji earthquake on September 1999 (Chiu et al. 2002). Searching under the ruins of collapsed buildings is actually a fight against time, as time is strongly associated with the chances of survival of the entrapped victims (Macintyre et al. 2006; Coburn and Spence 2002). Note that no single tactic is sufficiently effective on its own to ensure that a complete search has been conducted. Therefore, any technological or organisational advancement is more than welcome. In most cases, the local community response is characterized by spontaneous rescue attempts by survivors armed with simple tools or bare hands. Nevertheless, the most popular operational methods for locating entrapped victims are physical void searching, audible call-out, search cameras and fiber ...
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Final Answer



Training and Function of VA-TF2
Institutional Affiliation


Training and Function of VA-TF2
A. Introduction
B. Virginia Beach Fire Department Overview
C. Virginia Beach Fire Department Training
D. Virginia Beach Fire Department Function
E. Conclusion
F. References



Training and Function of VA-TF2
Institutional Affiliation




Training and Function of VA-TF2
The urban search and rescue (USAR) represents a general term for the group of
specialized rescue personnel and skills, which are often integrated into a team with resources that
comprise search, medical, as well as structural evaluation capacity (Public Safety Canada, 2019).
As specialized task forces, the USAR locates trapped individuals in collapsed buildings and other
entrapments using electronic search tool and trained dogs. These task forces also breach, shore,
lift, as well as eliminate physical elements, employ heavy construction gears to get rid of debris,
and medically treat and transfer affected persons (Public Safety Canada, 2019). As such, USAR
allows the organization and efficient utilization of the available resources for urban search and
rescue undertakings in efforts to assist persons in possible or actual distress in tragedy, flood,
wilderness, as well as urban settings (Hew & Sunshine, 2002). However, in efforts to enhance
and guarantee the survivability of victims, initial or emergency responders and task force
personnel require high levels of expertise and specialized training. As such, their effectiveness
largely depends on the skills and preparation they receive. Therefore, this paper describes the
training and function of Virginia Beach Fire Department (Virginia Task Force 2) in modern
disaster response.
Virginia Beach Fire Department Overview
The Virginia Beach Fire Department has been called upon by the Governor and the
people of Virginia to respond many times, since its establishment. It was particularly developed
to assist the people of Virginia Beach and the United States during the times of need. The task
force has over the period, since its inception, proved to be a great experience for several reasons.
Moreover, in response to the domestic terrorism, criminal activities, fires, and other disasters,
Virginia Task Force 2 has become a fully deployable resource for the Federal Emergency



Management Administration (FEMA) Urban Search and Rescue program (Virginia Beach Fire
Department, 2013). It particularly falls under the umbrella of the United States’ Department of
Homeland Security. Vi...

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