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We are constantly told that specialization increases efficiency. But over specialization increases dependence. If you look at the economy as an ECONOMIC POWER GAME then dependence makes one vulnerable.
Economists don't call economics a power game very much. How many economics courses do you have to take before they get into game theory?
If EVERYBODY knew accounting how would that change how they played the game? Most worker consumers are supposed to be suckers that do not know what is going on. The economists don't talk about how we go into debt for crap designed to become obsolete. They just call it economic growth when we buy the trash.
Americans have lost FOUR TRILLION DOLLARS on the depreciation of automobiles since 1995. What have economists said about it? We are supposed to be specialized at being stupid consumers. That is the specialty of dumb Americans.
Ricardo was opposed to tariffs and other restrictions on international trade. Ricardo devised an idea that is well known as the theory of comparative advantage. According to the Washington Council on International Trade, comparative advantage is the ability to produce a good at a lower cost, relative to other goods, compared to another country. In the Principles of Economics, it states comparative advantage is a specialization technique used to create more efficient production and describes opportunity cost between producers. With perfect competition  and undistorted markets, countries tend to export goods in which they have a comparative advantage ("Comparative Advantage").
For example, we should think of two countries that both make cards and pencils and use the same amount of time to make one unit of items. Country one can make 4 pencils if they specialize just in pencils at the expense of one card, but this country can also make ¼ of a card at the expense of one pencil. The same logic goes for country two: if country two makes only pencils, it will make 2 pencils at the expense of 1 card. If country two specializes only in cards, it will make ½ of a card at the expense of a pencil. For this example, country one has a comparative advantage in pencils over country two (4 pencils to 2 pencils), whereas, country two has a comparative advantage in cards over country one (½ of a card to ¼ of a card). In Ricardo's idea of comparative advantage, these two countries should specialize in what they do best. According to The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics, Ricardo's idea of comparative advantage is "the main basis for most economists' belief in free trade today"
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