Describe the labor that enslaved Africans performed in British North America.

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  1. Describe the labor that enslaved Africans performed in British North America. Be certain to delineate by region, developing economy, gender and generation. Describe various working conditions, work place relations and the results of this labor for masters and for the captives.

Please use these books as reference (maybe writing a few sentences on one of them)

1. Brenda Stevenson, What Is Slavery?

2. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links

3. Black British Former Slaves: Olaudah Equiano, Mary Prince, Ottobah Cugoano. These narratives are found at:

4. William Still, Underground Railroad

5. Jessica Millward, Finding Charity’s Folk: Enslaved and Free Black Women in Maryland

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Slavery and Race Definitions  Slavery is a form of forced labor in which people are considered to be, or treated as, the property of others  the state of being under the control of another person  an “other” in the society where the “free” did not regard him or her as a “person,” and certainly not as an equal. Slavery Has Existed Across the Globe and Across Time Slavery in Ancient Egypt 2700 BCE forward Slavery in Mesopotamia Iraq, Kuwait, Turkey, Syria, Iran Greek Slavery, 1500-330BCE • Slaves played a diversity of roles in Ancient Greece and were large portions of the population. • They worked in homes, shops, mines, the military, and on farms and ships. Roman Slavery, 330 BCE • 25-40% of population of Rome in the first century B.C.E. were enslaved • There were approximately 1.5 million slaves across the entire empire • Roman slaves arrived from across its empire that included Germany, Italy, South Eastern Europe, Britain, Syria, Spain, Greece, Turkey, Somalia, North Africa, Jewish territories, and even India. Ancient Slave Labor: • Mining (Copper and Gold) • Agriculture • Physicians • Domestic Labor • Entertainment • Sexual labor • Artisans • Scribes • Secretaries • Accountants Slavery in China Slavery in Ancient India • Slavery was known to exist in ancient India, but not in the large numbers found in the Egyptian, Roman, Mesopotamian or Greek Empires. They were derived from: • a. Military captives • b. Criminals • c. Debtors • They worked as: agriculturalists; weavers; domestic workers; soldiers; body guards; etc. Slavery in Slavic Territories Slavery not only existed in the Slavic areas of Europe (central, eastern and southeastern), but also supplied large numbers of slaves to other parts of the world. These slaves were sold, but also many were enslaved after being captured by enemy groups. Slavery in Ottoman Empire  Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society, and many of their slaves were Slavic in origin. In Constantinople, about one-fifth of the population consisted of slaves. Slavery in Pre-European Contact Americas European Enslavement of Native Americans Slavery in Western/Western Central Africa Slavery in Indonesia, Dutch Colonial Era Nazi Enslavement of Jews and Slavs Japanese Enslavement of Chinese and Koreans, World War Two Modern Slavery  CHATTEL SLAVERY is closest to the slavery that prevailed in early American history. Chattel slaves are considered their masters’ property  DEBT BONDAGE, or bonded labor, is the most widely practiced form of slavery around the world..  SEX SLAVERY finds women and children forced into prostitution. An estimated two million women and children are sold into sex slavery around the world every year.  FORCED LABOR often results when individuals are lured by the promise of a good job but instead find themselves subjected to slaving conditions — working without payment and enduring physical abuse, often in harsh and hazardous conditions. Boko Haram (Northern Nigeria) • Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau released a video on 13 May 2013, saying Boko Haram had taken women and children - including teenage girls hostage in response to the arrest of its members' wives and children. • Mr Shekau said the hostages would be treated as "slaves.” Yazidi Women Captured for Enslavement • The significant characteristic of all forms of modern slavery is that it involves one person depriving another people of their freedom: • their freedom to leave one job for another, • their freedom to leave one workplace for another, • their freedom to control their own body, for their own personal or commercial benefit. Modern Slavery in the U.S?  Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 13th amendment Indigenous Inferiority Black Irish Same as Blacks Italian Criminality Jewish Peril Jewish Women in New York • “If a women called out to you as you walked down Allen Street,” Judge Jonah J. Goldstein declared, referring to one of the Lower East Side’s major thoroughfares, “you knew she wasn’t calling you to a minyan.” Chinese Women in California • In the 1870 census manuscripts, 61 percent of the 3536 Chinese women in California had their occupations listed as prostitution. Popularized Black Jezebel Political Differences and Military Threat Led to Racialization African Slave Trade Slaves Go to the West, North and East Slaves Left Africa and Went North, West and East  Approximately 28 million people taken from Africa from 15th through the 19th centuries  17 million Africans sold into slavery on the coast of the Indian Ocean, the Middle East, and North Africa  12 million Africans taken to the Americas  5 million Africans taken across the Sahara and East Africa into slavery in other parts of the world African Slaves Killed Before Reaching Destination  In Africa, unknown numbers of people - according to some estimates at least four million - died in wars and forced marches before ever being shipped to another continent. African Slaves, 1500-1900  African and Middle Eastern traders also exported as many as 17 million slaves to the coast of the Indian Ocean, the Middle East, and North Africa. Trading Places on West Coast Triangular Slave Trade Atlantic Slave Trade Statistics Per Century     16th: 241,400 17th: 1,341,100 18th: 6,051,700 19th: 1,898,400 Slave Trade Map Trade Routes and Trade Items Trans-Atlantic exports by region, 1650-1900 Senegambia 479,900 4.7 Upper Guinea 411,200 4.0 Windward Coast 183,200 1.8 Gold Coast 1,035,600 10.1 Bight of Benin 2,016,200 19.7 Bight of Biafra 1,463,700 14.3 West Central 4,179,500 40.8 South East 470,900 4.6 Total 10,240,200 100.0 (Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery) Elmina  Elmina was the first point of contact with Europeans and the Portuguese arrived in 1471, to trade in gold, spices, ivory and other African artifacts.  The castle was taken over by the Dutch in 1637, who kept control for 274 years.  The castle was used to ‘store’ slaves, along with ivory and gold, while they waited for slave ships to arrive and collect them. Cape Coast Castle, Ghana        was originally built by the Swedes in 1650. 1660, it was taken over by the British who rebuilt and enlarged it in 1662. 1663, it was captured by the Dutch , 1664, English recaptured it and again improved and enlarged 1673. 1681, it was attacked by the people of the town ,1703, was bombarded by the French fleet in 1703 and also in 1757. 1757, building undertaken by the Royal African Company, one of the three principal English trading companies formed to trade in the Gold Coast among others. ITEMS TRADED FOR SLAVES  COTTON TEXTILES  UTENSILS OF BRASS  IRON  PEWTER  IVORY  BEADS  LIQUOR-WHISKEY,BRANDY, RUM  FIREARMS ITEMS TRADED WITH SLAVES  GOLD (GHANA/GOLD COAST)  IVORY (IVORY COAST)  GRAINS (SIERRA LEONE, LIBERIA)  LOCAL FOOD STUFFS 20%Mortality Rates Shipboard Slave Revolts Sugar, Tobacco and Slavery Spread to Caribbean Barbadian Slave Code, 1661 • The Barbados slave code of 1661 marked the beginning of the legal codification of slavery. The Barbados Assembly reenacted the slave code, with minor modifications, in 1676, 1682, and 1688. • It established the property element of black slaves owned by the British. • The Barbados slave code also served as the basis for the slave codes adopted in several other British colonies, including Jamaica in 1664; South Carolina in 1692; and Antigua in 1702. Barbados Slave Code, 1661 • • • • "If any Negro or slave whatsoever shall offer any violence to any Christian by striking or the like, such Negro or slave shall for his or her first offence be severely whipped by the Constable. For his second offence of that nature he shall be severely whipped, his nose slit, and be burned in some part of his face with a hot iron. And being brutish slaves, [they] deserve not, for the baseness of their condition, to be tried by the legal trial of twelve men of their peers, as the subjects of England are. And it is further enacted and ordained that if any Negro or other slave under punishment by his master unfortunately shall suffer in life or member, which seldom happens, no person whatsoever shall be liable to any fine therefore" laborers, including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions. British Colonization • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1607: 1612: 1617: 1624: 1625: 1620: 1623: 1634: 1635: 1636: 1638: 1653: 1663: 1664: 1682: 1732: Jamestown Bermuda slaves in Bermuda St. Kitts Barbados Massachusetts New Hampshire Maryland Connecticut Rhode Island Delaware North Carolina South Carolina New Jersey and New York Pennsylvania Georgia Colonial Slavery: The Chesapeake • The English did not immediately enslave the Native Americans when they arrived at Jamestown, nor did they bring slaves from Africa in the first years. • For years a Dutch ship was credited with bringing the first slaves to Virginia in 1619. Latest scholarship indicates that two English pirate ships intercepted a Portuguese ship in the Gulf of Mexico, then transported slaves to Jamestown. • The Portuguese ship had acquired a cargo of slaves in Angola, and was planning to sell them to Spanish in Mexico. Tobacco: Maryland, Va., N.C. • Tobacco was a laborintensive crop. Each slave or indentured servant working on a tobacco plantation may have processed 10,000 crops annually. • That would require bending over 10,000 times to plant seeds, 10,000 times to dig seedlings from the early planting bed, 10,000 times to plant seedlings in a field. Colonial Slavery: The Low Country • • Slaves from the region of Senegambia and present-day Ghana were preferred. At the other end of the scale were the "Calabar" or Ibo or "Bite" slaves from the Niger Delta, who Carolina planters would purchase only if no others were available. In the middle were those from the Windward Coast and Angola. Preferred tall, healthy, male, between the ages of 14 and 18, "free of blemishes," and as dark as possible. For these ideal slaves Carolina planters in the eighteenth century paid, on average, between 100 and 200 sterling – in today's money that is between $11,630 and $23,200! • In 1664, Cape Coast Castle became the headquarters in Africa of the entire English/British involvement in the transatlantic trafficking of Africans. • The castle itself was like a small city. It had its own postal service, connected to other forts along the coast. Its guns protected ships from armed attack by Britain's enemies as nations involved in the slave trade were constantly playing out commercial and political rivalries along that coast – and from privateers. There was even a garden where oranges, mangoes, cherries and bananas were grown. The fruit was made into a drink that was sold to slaveship captains to give to the enslaved Africans and the crew during the Atlantic crossing to reduce the risk of scurvy. Cape Coast Castle • The governor's quarters was at the very top of the castle, where he was able both to look out to sea and to survey the goings-on of the whole building. These quarters were expensively furnished and included a library. The ground level was taken up with warehouses containing vast quantities of imported goods such as brandy, tobacco, muskets, knives and gunpowder. There was also a hospital, cook-house and barracks. Also on this level were the dungeons, with a single entrance. Kept in constant near-darkness, they were known as 'slave holes'. Anthony How, a botanist who came to this part of the coast in 1785/6 to examine the local plants, was later asked if he had observed how the enslaved were treated. He replied, 'They were chained day and night, and drove down to the sea twice a day to be washed.' • More than 2,000 miles away were other British forts – in Gambia, in Sierra Leone and, for a time, on Goree Island in Senegal. With Cape Coast Castle, they were all integrated into a network of ships and shore settlements that formed the African end of the British slave trade. Sugar introduced to Barbados in 1630 • The production of sugar, tobacco and cotton was heavily reliant on the labor of white indentured servants. • African slaves began arriving shortly thereafter. They came from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Cameroon. • By 1720, they had been surpassed by the Leeward Islands and Jamaica in sugar production. Trans-Atlantic Imports By Region          Brazil 4,000,000 35.4 Sp. Emp. 2,500,000 22.1 BWI 2,000,000 17.7 FWI 1,600,000 14.1 BNA ,US 500,000 4.4 DWI 500,000 4.4 Dan.WI 28,000 0.2 Europe 200,000 1.8 Total 11,328,000 100.0 (Thomas Hughes,The Slave Trade) Olaudah Equiano • The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment, which was soon converted into terror when I was carried on board. I was immediately handled and tossed up to see if I were sound by some of the crew; and I was now persuaded that I had gotten into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me. Their complexions too differing so much from ours, their long hair, and the language they spoke, (which was very different from any I had ever heard) united to confirm me in this belief. Indeed such were the horrors of my views and fears at the moment, that, if ten thousand worlds had been my own, I would have freely parted with them all to have exchanged my condition with that of the meanest slave in my own country. When I looked round the ship too and saw a large furnace or copper boiling, and a multitude of black people of every description chained together, every one of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted. When I recovered a little I found some black people about me, who I believed were some of those who brought me on board, and had been receiving their pay; they talked to me in order to cheer me, but all in vain. I asked them if we were not to be eaten by those white men with horrible looks, red faces, and loose hair. They told me I was not; and one of the crew brought me a small portion of spirituous liquor in a wine glass; but, being afraid of him, I would not take it out of his hand. One of the blacks therefore took it from him and gave it to me, and I took a little down my palate, which, instead of reviving me, as they thought it would, threw me into the greatest consternation at the strange feeling it produced, having never tasted any such liquor before. Soon after this the blacks who brought me on board went off, and left me abandoned to despair. I now saw myself deprived of all chance of returning to my native country, or even the least glimpse of hope of gaining the shore, which I now considered as friendly; and I even wished for my former slavery in preference to my present situation, which was filled with horrors of every kind, still heightened by my ignorance of what I was to undergo. Olaudah Equiano • I was not long suffered to indulge my grief; I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste any thing. I now wished for the last friend, death, to relieve me; but soon, to my grief, two of the white men offered me eatables; and, on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands, and laid me across I think the windlass, and tied my feet, while the other flogged me severely. I had never experienced any thing of this kind before; and although, not being used to the water, I naturally feared that element the first time I saw it, yet nevertheless, could I have got over the nettings, I would have jumped over the side, but I could not; and, besides, the crew used to watch us very closely who were not chained down to the decks, lest we should leap into the water: and I have seen some of these poor African prisoners most severely cut for attempting to do so, and hourly whipped for not eating. This indeed was often the case with myself. In a little time after, amongst the poor chained men, I found some of my own nation, which in a small degree gave ease to my mind. I inquired of these what was to be done with us; they gave me to understand we were to be carried to these white people's country to work for them. I then was a little revived, and thought, if it were no worse than working, my situation was not so desperate: but still I feared I should be put to death, the white people looked and acted, as I thought, in so savage a manner; for I had never seen among any people such instances of brutal cruelty; and this not only shewn towards us blacks, but also to some of the whites themselves. One white man in particular I saw, when we were permitted to be on deck, flogged so unmercifully with a large rope near the foremast, that he died in consequence of it; and they tossed him over the side as they would have done a brute. This made me fear these people the more; and I expected nothing less than to be treated in the same manner. I could not help expressing my fears and apprehensions to some of my countrymen: I asked them if these people had no country, but lived in this hollow place (the ship): they told me they did not, but came from a distant one. 'Then,' said I, 'how comes it in all our country we never heard of them?' They told me because they lived so very far off. Falconbridge Account Slave Trading Companies  1621: DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY  1672: ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY  1692: PORTUGUESE COMPANY OF CACHEO  18TH CENTURY: England dominated the African Slave Trade, mostly through private trading and shipping companies Creolization West African and West European cultural patterns acting on each other to produce a Barbadian variant of a wider West Indian culture. Travellers to the island in the eighteenth century noted these changes, especially on the white population, who were accused of 'lisping the language of the Negroes,' or of 'adopting the Negro style.' • Despite the pervasive nature of creolization on Barbados, it is a mistake to conclude that West African cultural patterns were stripped from the black population. • Planters argued that African cultural retentions, particularly those that permitted socialization, for example the Saturday night dances and Sunday activities commonly referred to in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as 'plays' made the slave population more content with their lot and willing to work harder and create greater profits for their owners. • Slave Revolts • By 1685, there were four times as many Africans as Europeans on the island of Barbados, and the white masters understood the power-in-numbers of their enslaved Africans. • Fear of slave rebellion took hold of the masters, who stayed vigilant for rumors of rebellion and who rewarded slaves who revealed conspiracies or refused to join the uprisings • Three slave rebellions were planned in the 1600s; one in 1649 was quickly suppressed and a second in 1675 was discovered before its implementation. Slave Resistance • Slave resistance in Barbados, as elsewhere in the New World, assumed a variety of forms from work stoppages and feigning illness t ...
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Enslaved Africans



During the British colonial era, there was an increasing demand for cash crops such as
sugar, rice, cotton, and tobacco. The fast growing plantations increased demand for labor to
cultivate in the farms. This led to slavery becoming one of the key institutions of the 17th and
18th century. Africans were trafficked across the Atlantic in the 17th century, through British
ships which carried millions of slaves to North America. At least five million African slaves
arrived in British North America during the 17th century. These slaves were traded with
European goods.
British colonials preferred enslavement of Africans because they were perceived to be
more suited ...

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