Running head: SHORTENED TITLE IN ALL CAPS
Full Title of Paper: Sometimes has a Subtitle
Arizona State University
TEL XXX: Course Title
Month, day, year
SHORTENED TITLE IN CAPS
Full Title of Paper: Sometimes has a Subtitle
The purpose of this document is to provide a template or example of the format that is
used for dissertations at Arizona State University using the APA style guide. If you use this
template regularly, the style will become habitual. Dissertation styles are surprisingly
demanding. Subsequent sections discuss margins, headings, quotations, and references.
Margins, Indents, and Font: This is a Level I Header
Margins should be 1 inch on all four sides. Paragraphs should be indented .5 inch. The
font should be Times New Roman, 12 point. Paragraphs should be at least two sentences long.
There is one space after a period.
Heading Level 2 Here in Bold
There are five levels of headings in APA format although for shorter papers only two, or
sometimes three, are typically used. The first level for headings looks like the one above. Note
the capitalization, left alignment, and bold. Note a double space before and after the heading to
improve the look of the page.
Heading Level 2 for More than One
Only use level 3 headings if you have two or more categories to discuss under a level 2
heading. For example, this is the second category.
Heading Level 3 Here Followed by a Period. Please note that the third level headings
are typed in bold, with the same capitalization as in Level 1. However, they are a part of the
paragraph and are followed by a period.
Heading Level 3 for More than One. Only use level 3 headings if you have two or more
categories to discuss under a level 2 heading. For example, this is the second category. It is very
likely that you will not have level 3 headers.
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In-Text Citations and Quotes
Sometimes, within the body of your work, you will want to cite an author’s work. There
are several of ways to do this and it is good to use a variety of methods within the same paper.
There are three requirements for a reference: the author’s name, the date of the publication, and
the page. The page number is only used for direct quotations. There are three types of quotation
styles normally used.
Reference only with No Quote
When referring to an author without a direct quotation (Dunn, 2002), include the
author(s) last name and the date of the publication in parentheses within the text. No page
number is required.
Reference with a Quotation in the Text
Short quotations (less than 40 words) are included within the text surrounded by
quotation marks. Kinser (2001) suggests “all quotations should fit smoothly into the paper” (p.
3). The previous quote used the author’s name as a part of the sentence. Another way to do this,
for variety, is “to include all information for the citation within the parentheses” (Kinser, 1999,
p. 27). Notice where the end-quote and period are in each of the two examples.
Block quotes usually those contain 40 words or more and stand out in your writing
because of the formatting. Foulger suggests the following:
Display a quotation of 40 or more words in a freestanding block of typewritten
lines, omitting the quotation marks. Start each block quotation on a new line, and indent
the block about 1/2 in. from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). If
there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an
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additional 1/2 in. The entire quotation should be double-spaced. (2002, p. 14)
In this example, note several items. First, it is single-spaced, not double-spaced as it
would be for a manuscript being submitted for publication. Second, the margin on left has been
reduced a half-inch to set off the quotation; finally, the period comes before the parentheses at
Reference List is on a Separate Page
Your reference list should be compiled in APA format, single-spaced with hanging
indents, with double-space between each references. The Owl at Purdue web site offers an easy
solution to formatting references.
Essays, like dissertations, are final manuscripts, not documents submitted for
publishers for editing. Therefore, it is important to adapt the APA style to reflect the difference
between the two. This guide or template is meant to do just that.
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Dunn, C. A. (2014, May 13). Writing for the professional. The Washington Post, pp. A10, A14.
Foulger, T., Mentz, L. M., & Kinser, A. (2011). Which way should we do it? Journal of
Confused Students on Writing, 87(10), 112-128. Retrieved from
Kinser, A. (2005). Writing for the profession: The new century text. Riverside: Kinser Kreations,
Mentz, L. (Ed.). (2014). Edited works of smart ASU students. Glendale, AZ: ASU Publications.
Reese, R. (2009). My students are the best: Blogging for fun. Retrieved from
Due in Lesson 2
Find an empirical Research Article on PsychInfo and/or ERIC using http://lib.asu.edu , related to
middle and adolescent development (ages 8-18) with the focus on any area Cognitive Development.
(Cognitive Domain: thought processes and intellectual abilities
including attention, memory, problem solving, imagination,
creativity, academic and everyday knowledge, metacognition, and
language. Risk-taking, decision making, critical thinking,
You may want to go back to the ASU Library tutorials from week 1 if you need assistance searching for an appropriate article
Read your chosen article in it’s entirety. Answer the following questions using complete sentences summarizing each section of the
Use the template below for exact formatting (see example attached in the Lesson for review):
Include the citation in APA format. Copy the first page of the article or provide a working link with the paper.
Mellers, B.A. & Palmer, S. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences.
Educational Research, 126, 910-924.
What issue were the researchers investigating?
a) What is the research question?
b) What were the independent and dependent variables (if applicable)?
This segment should describe in your own words why the researchers report they were doing the study. Usually, some particular question has come
up or the researchers want to look at several studies to determine if there are patterns. The question(s), even in a meta-analysis, should be readily
apparent in the abstract and the beginning of the article.
Who were the participants? Age? Ethnicity? Where are they from?
a) Methodology: What is a general description of the methods used to study the
Variables should be readily apparent. What did the researcher(s) study. Remember that the independent variable is the variable which the
researcher controls for, such as “type of diet” and the dependent variable changes (or does not change) with the independent variable. In the case
of changes brought about by weight and exercise programs (independent variables), researchers look to changes in weight , level of stress,
wellness, etc. (dependent variables) to determine the effectiveness of the aforementioned programs. So, the shorthand here is what does the
researcher manipulate (IV) to see a result in something else (DV).
a) What were the major results of the study? Graphs may be included but will not serve as a substitute for a description of major findings.
Focus here on the results. What do the researchers report? You may have to examine the text and the graphs to determine what is actually being
shown. In a meta-analysis, you look to the range of results reported. If the researchers chose six studies or fifty studies, they should summarize
what the results were in each case.
a) What did the researcher(s) conclude about their study? Did they confirm their
b) Do the researcher(s) make suggestions for future research? Is so, what do they suggest?
a) What implications does the article have for educators? How are the results useful to know for teachers? What does this article mean for you as
It may be that the researchers give you some information regarding what they think the limitations of their own study are. They may suggest sample
size, attrition of subjects, a small or less than significant result. More often, you need to read carefully to determine what might have been left out or
glossed over in an article. Consider each segment closely, and decide whether the researchers have a solid study that passes the standard for
good research and common sense. If so, there will be few concerns. If not, you may have quite a bit to discuss in this section.
What does the article mean for you as an educator? Recently, I saw a great summary on movement, attention span, and achievement. By
examining recess and its effects on attention and testing, the researchers found that students with multiple recess periods did better on
achievement tests. If I were a teacher of young children, I would use that information to give students time to move throughout the day, whether the
school had formal recess or not.
NOTE: If you are a non-Education major, address the same implications for classroom use, as you envision it or you may use a parenting
Grading Rubric 75 points
Description of each section
Name. Headings. All assignment
components included – all
Full and accurate description and
necessary detail of subjects,
methods, including the rationale in
a concise narrative.
Name. Headings. Most
assignment components included
– most questions answered.
Accurate description and some
detail of methods sections,
including the rationale in a
lacks detail and
may be too long
and rambling or too
Implications for the
(non-majors may discuss
implications for parenting)
Study’s findings/limitations are
connected meaningfully to the
learning environment of schools.
Implications are addressed fully
for teachers and students.
Detailed. Original thinking.
Study’s findings and limitations
are connected to the learning
environment of schools.
Implications are addressed for
teachers and students.
Few connections to
Little discussion. No details
and little analysis.
Article and writing
Topic chosen is identified as,
cognitive development. Research
is based on middle or adolescent
Topic is of desired domain but is
not middle/adolescent population
Writing is clear,
some errors of
Topic does not fit criteria of
Writing is clear, concise, and has
an organized flow of ideas.
Descriptive. Proper terminology.
Free of errors of spelling and
grammar. APA Style. Non-sexist
language. Proper use of quotes (if
necessary). Creative. Logical.
Writing is clear, concise, well
organized flow of ideas, few
errors of spelling and grammar
(<3). Proper use of quotes (if
Writing is not clear,
numerous errors of spelling
and grammar (8+).
Vriend, J. (2011-09-01). MANIPULATING SLEEP DURATION ALTERS COGNITIVE
AND EMOTIONAL FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN. Sleep medicine, 12,
A. In this study researchers were focusing on school age children and the
relationship between habitual sleep patterns and intellectual performance. Many
studies related to children, sleep habits, and academic success are focused on
children with learning/emotional/behavioral abnormalities, or the way in which
sleep patterns were being determined was not as accurate as it could be.
B. The independent variable is the amount of time student spends getting
productive sleep and the dependent variable is overall IQ (WISC-IV) and report on
A. The study included 39 participants, ages 7 to 11 years old. Race was classified as
7% African American, 10% Asian, 18% “other or mixed”, and 65% white. Average IQ
was 104.49, they were recruited from regular elementary schools in Montreal
where the socioeconomic status was middle class. Participants were excluded from
the study if they had an IQ lower than 80, history of a psychiatric or developmental
disorder, or had any past reports of significant sleep disturbances (for example
restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea, etc.). Researchers had children wear miniature
actigraphs at night for four consecutive nights during the week. These devices
monitor movement in the wearer, which in turn monitors and records participants
sleep patterns. The actigraph devices used allow the child to sleep comfortably in
their home environment with little to no interference as opposed to monitoring
sleep patterns in a sleep lab type setting or with more intrusive monitoring devices.
Concurrent to the child’s sleep patterns being monitored by the device, parents
were also instructed to record a sleep log and sleepiness measure for the child.
Cognitive performance was analyzed by measuring the child’s IQ with the WISC-IV.
Sleepiness was assessed by using the MSLT and sleepiness scale. Both cognitive
performance and sleepiness assessments were conducted in the laboratory. A Child
Behavioral Checklist was used by parents as well to report on overall behavior and
cognitive functioning of the child.
A. The actigraph reported a discrepancy in the mean waking, sleeping, and total
duration as reported by parents. Parents reported their child sleeping on average
about 10 hours, the actigraph reported about 9.5 hours, and the actigraph also
determined that out of 9.5 hours only 8 hours were spent “actually” sleeping.
Researchers in this study determined that there was not significant associations
observed between sleep duration and studied behavioral measures.
“The analyses revealed that actual sleep time contributed above and beyond
demographic factors in predicting perceptual reasoning WISC-IV sub-scale,
overall WISC-IV scores, and marginally predicted score on the Verbal
Comprehension WISC-IV sub-scale. Gender was found to be a significant
covariate in the models predicting scores on the perceptual reasoning
WISC-IV sub-scale and on the full composite WISC-IV scale; males received
higher scores on both scales. SES was found to be a significant covariate in
the model predicting scores on the Verbal Comprehension WISC-IV sub-scale,
whereby individuals with higher SES received higher scores on this scale
A. The researchers’ goals were to eliminate some variables that commonly influence
sleeps studies and children. They wanted to eliminate children that may have
outside causes for sleep disturbance or may have a cause for abnormal cognitive test
results. Another goal was to have sleep patterns be recorded in a more natural
setting to avoid discrepancies as well as avoid discrepancies in assessment by
having that portion done in the more professional setting of the laboratory. Also
parents and teachers used other forms of recording observation so that there would
be as whole of a picture of the child as possible. The study confirmed that the quality
of sleep has a significant association with measures of perceptual reasoning, overall
IQ, and competence and academic performance.
B. In the future researchers mention that a larger population should be studied for
more accurate results and recording sleep patterns with more than one device could
also be beneficial.
The results of this study are important to teachers because cognitive and behavioral
actions are directly related to being in school. The more an educator can know about
helping a student the better. With scientific proof supporting a student’s need for
quality sleep it makes it easier to understand certain behaviors and academic
performance, and harder to write a student off that they are doing something on
purpose. Understanding this area of development gives educators the best possible
opportunity to teach and care for their students.
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