EDP313 Arizona State University Article Critique

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Running head: SHORTENED TITLE IN ALL CAPS Full Title of Paper: Sometimes has a Subtitle FirstName LastName Arizona State University TEL XXX: Course Title Instructor’s Name Assignment Title Month, day, year 1 SHORTENED TITLE IN CAPS 2 Full Title of Paper: Sometimes has a Subtitle The purpose of this document is to provide a template or example of the format that is used for dissertations at Arizona State University using the APA style guide. If you use this template regularly, the style will become habitual. Dissertation styles are surprisingly demanding. Subsequent sections discuss margins, headings, quotations, and references. Margins, Indents, and Font: This is a Level I Header Margins should be 1 inch on all four sides. Paragraphs should be indented .5 inch. The font should be Times New Roman, 12 point. Paragraphs should be at least two sentences long. There is one space after a period. Heading Level 2 Here in Bold There are five levels of headings in APA format although for shorter papers only two, or sometimes three, are typically used. The first level for headings looks like the one above. Note the capitalization, left alignment, and bold. Note a double space before and after the heading to improve the look of the page. Heading Level 2 for More than One Only use level 3 headings if you have two or more categories to discuss under a level 2 heading. For example, this is the second category. Heading Level 3 Here Followed by a Period. Please note that the third level headings are typed in bold, with the same capitalization as in Level 1. However, they are a part of the paragraph and are followed by a period. Heading Level 3 for More than One. Only use level 3 headings if you have two or more categories to discuss under a level 2 heading. For example, this is the second category. It is very likely that you will not have level 3 headers. SHORTENED TITLE IN CAPS 3 In-Text Citations and Quotes Sometimes, within the body of your work, you will want to cite an author’s work. There are several of ways to do this and it is good to use a variety of methods within the same paper. There are three requirements for a reference: the author’s name, the date of the publication, and the page. The page number is only used for direct quotations. There are three types of quotation styles normally used. Reference only with No Quote When referring to an author without a direct quotation (Dunn, 2002), include the author(s) last name and the date of the publication in parentheses within the text. No page number is required. Reference with a Quotation in the Text Short quotations (less than 40 words) are included within the text surrounded by quotation marks. Kinser (2001) suggests “all quotations should fit smoothly into the paper” (p. 3). The previous quote used the author’s name as a part of the sentence. Another way to do this, for variety, is “to include all information for the citation within the parentheses” (Kinser, 1999, p. 27). Notice where the end-quote and period are in each of the two examples. Block Quote Block quotes usually those contain 40 words or more and stand out in your writing because of the formatting. Foulger suggests the following: Display a quotation of 40 or more words in a freestanding block of typewritten lines, omitting the quotation marks. Start each block quotation on a new line, and indent the block about 1/2 in. from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each an SHORTENED TITLE IN CAPS 4 additional 1/2 in. The entire quotation should be double-spaced. (2002, p. 14) In this example, note several items. First, it is single-spaced, not double-spaced as it would be for a manuscript being submitted for publication. Second, the margin on left has been reduced a half-inch to set off the quotation; finally, the period comes before the parentheses at the end. Reference List is on a Separate Page Your reference list should be compiled in APA format, single-spaced with hanging indents, with double-space between each references. The Owl at Purdue web site offers an easy solution to formatting references. Conclusion Essays, like dissertations, are final manuscripts, not documents submitted for publishers for editing. Therefore, it is important to adapt the APA style to reflect the difference between the two. This guide or template is meant to do just that. SHORTENED TITLE IN CAPS 5 References Dunn, C. A. (2014, May 13). Writing for the professional. The Washington Post, pp. A10, A14. Foulger, T., Mentz, L. M., & Kinser, A. (2011). Which way should we do it? Journal of Confused Students on Writing, 87(10), 112-128. Retrieved from http://writeringcanbefun.org/apaformatting.pdf Kinser, A. (2005). Writing for the profession: The new century text. Riverside: Kinser Kreations, Inc. Mentz, L. (Ed.). (2014). Edited works of smart ASU students. Glendale, AZ: ASU Publications. Reese, R. (2009). My students are the best: Blogging for fun. Retrieved from http://ruthreese.org/publications/studentsuccess/success.html Research Critique Due in Lesson 2 75 points Directions: Find an empirical Research Article on PsychInfo and/or ERIC using http://lib.asu.edu , related to middle and adolescent development (ages 8-18) with the focus on any area Cognitive Development. (Cognitive Domain: thought processes and intellectual abilities including attention, memory, problem solving, imagination, creativity, academic and everyday knowledge, metacognition, and language. Risk-taking, decision making, critical thinking, collaboration, intelligence) You may want to go back to the ASU Library tutorials from week 1 if you need assistance searching for an appropriate article Read your chosen article in it’s entirety. Answer the following questions using complete sentences summarizing each section of the research article: Use the template below for exact formatting (see example attached in the Lesson for review): Include the citation in APA format. Copy the first page of the article or provide a working link with the paper. Example: Mellers, B.A. & Palmer, S. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Educational Research, 126, 910-924. Introduction What issue were the researchers investigating? a) What is the research question? b) What were the independent and dependent variables (if applicable)? This segment should describe in your own words why the researchers report they were doing the study. Usually, some particular question has come up or the researchers want to look at several studies to determine if there are patterns. The question(s), even in a meta-analysis, should be readily apparent in the abstract and the beginning of the article. Method Section Who were the participants? Age? Ethnicity? Where are they from? a) Methodology: What is a general description of the methods used to study the research question? Variables should be readily apparent. What did the researcher(s) study. Remember that the independent variable is the variable which the researcher controls for, such as “type of diet” and the dependent variable changes (or does not change) with the independent variable. In the case of changes brought about by weight and exercise programs (independent variables), researchers look to changes in weight , level of stress, wellness, etc. (dependent variables) to determine the effectiveness of the aforementioned programs. So, the shorthand here is what does the researcher manipulate (IV) to see a result in something else (DV). Results Section a) What were the major results of the study? Graphs may be included but will not serve as a substitute for a description of major findings. Focus here on the results. What do the researchers report? You may have to examine the text and the graphs to determine what is actually being shown. In a meta-analysis, you look to the range of results reported. If the researchers chose six studies or fifty studies, they should summarize what the results were in each case. Conclusions a) What did the researcher(s) conclude about their study? Did they confirm their research question? b) Do the researcher(s) make suggestions for future research? Is so, what do they suggest? Implications a) What implications does the article have for educators? How are the results useful to know for teachers? What does this article mean for you as an educator/parent? It may be that the researchers give you some information regarding what they think the limitations of their own study are. They may suggest sample size, attrition of subjects, a small or less than significant result. More often, you need to read carefully to determine what might have been left out or glossed over in an article. Consider each segment closely, and decide whether the researchers have a solid study that passes the standard for good research and common sense. If so, there will be few concerns. If not, you may have quite a bit to discuss in this section. What does the article mean for you as an educator? Recently, I saw a great summary on movement, attention span, and achievement. By examining recess and its effects on attention and testing, the researchers found that students with multiple recess periods did better on achievement tests. If I were a teacher of young children, I would use that information to give students time to move throughout the day, whether the school had formal recess or not. NOTE: If you are a non-Education major, address the same implications for classroom use, as you envision it or you may use a parenting perspective. Grading Rubric 75 points 25-21 points 20-16 points 15-11 point 10-0 points Format and Description of each section of study Name. Headings. All assignment components included – all questions answered. Full and accurate description and necessary detail of subjects, methods, including the rationale in a concise narrative. Name. Headings. Most assignment components included – most questions answered. Accurate description and some detail of methods sections, including the rationale in a concise narrative. Assignment missing many components. Description is understandable but lacks detail and may be too long and rambling or too short. Missing information. Comments understandable. Implications for the classroom (non-majors may discuss implications for parenting) Study’s findings/limitations are connected meaningfully to the learning environment of schools. Implications are addressed fully for teachers and students. Detailed. Original thinking. Insightful. Study’s findings and limitations are connected to the learning environment of schools. Implications are addressed for teachers and students. Detailed. Few connections to school environment. Few details. Little discussion. No details and little analysis. Article and writing Topic chosen is identified as, cognitive development. Research is based on middle or adolescent age subjects Topic is of desired domain but is not middle/adolescent population Writing is clear, some errors of spelling and grammar (<5). Topic does not fit criteria of developmental domain Writing is clear, concise, and has an organized flow of ideas. Descriptive. Proper terminology. Free of errors of spelling and grammar. APA Style. Non-sexist language. Proper use of quotes (if necessary). Creative. Logical. Writing is clear, concise, well organized flow of ideas, few errors of spelling and grammar (<3). Proper use of quotes (if necessary). Logical. Writing is not clear, numerous errors of spelling and grammar (8+). 1 Research Critique Research Critique Name here Date EDP 313 2 Research Critique Article: Vriend, J. (2011-09-01). MANIPULATING SLEEP DURATION ALTERS COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN. Sleep medicine, 12, S14-S15.doi:10.1016/S1389-9457(11)70050-8 Introduction: A. In this study researchers were focusing on school age children and the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and intellectual performance. Many studies related to children, sleep habits, and academic success are focused on children with learning/emotional/behavioral abnormalities, or the way in which sleep patterns were being determined was not as accurate as it could be. B. The independent variable is the amount of time student spends getting productive sleep and the dependent variable is overall IQ (WISC-IV) and report on academic performance. 3 Research Critique Method: A. The study included 39 participants, ages 7 to 11 years old. Race was classified as 7% African American, 10% Asian, 18% “other or mixed”, and 65% white. Average IQ was 104.49, they were recruited from regular elementary schools in Montreal where the socioeconomic status was middle class. Participants were excluded from the study if they had an IQ lower than 80, history of a psychiatric or developmental disorder, or had any past reports of significant sleep disturbances (for example restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea, etc.). Researchers had children wear miniature actigraphs at night for four consecutive nights during the week. These devices monitor movement in the wearer, which in turn monitors and records participants sleep patterns. The actigraph devices used allow the child to sleep comfortably in their home environment with little to no interference as opposed to monitoring sleep patterns in a sleep lab type setting or with more intrusive monitoring devices. Concurrent to the child’s sleep patterns being monitored by the device, parents were also instructed to record a sleep log and sleepiness measure for the child. Cognitive performance was analyzed by measuring the child’s IQ with the WISC-IV. Sleepiness was assessed by using the MSLT and sleepiness scale. Both cognitive performance and sleepiness assessments were conducted in the laboratory. A Child Behavioral Checklist was used by parents as well to report on overall behavior and cognitive functioning of the child. Results: 4 Research Critique A. The actigraph reported a discrepancy in the mean waking, sleeping, and total duration as reported by parents. Parents reported their child sleeping on average about 10 hours, the actigraph reported about 9.5 hours, and the actigraph also determined that out of 9.5 hours only 8 hours were spent “actually” sleeping. Researchers in this study determined that there was not significant associations observed between sleep duration and studied behavioral measures. “The analyses revealed that actual sleep time contributed above and beyond demographic factors in predicting perceptual reasoning WISC-IV sub-scale, overall WISC-IV scores, and marginally predicted score on the Verbal Comprehension WISC-IV sub-scale. Gender was found to be a significant covariate in the models predicting scores on the perceptual reasoning WISC-IV sub-scale and on the full composite WISC-IV scale; males received higher scores on both scales. SES was found to be a significant covariate in the model predicting scores on the Verbal Comprehension WISC-IV sub-scale, whereby individuals with higher SES received higher scores on this scale (Vriend, 2001).” Conclusions: A. The researchers’ goals were to eliminate some variables that commonly influence sleeps studies and children. They wanted to eliminate children that may have outside causes for sleep disturbance or may have a cause for abnormal cognitive test 5 Research Critique results. Another goal was to have sleep patterns be recorded in a more natural setting to avoid discrepancies as well as avoid discrepancies in assessment by having that portion done in the more professional setting of the laboratory. Also parents and teachers used other forms of recording observation so that there would be as whole of a picture of the child as possible. The study confirmed that the quality of sleep has a significant association with measures of perceptual reasoning, overall IQ, and competence and academic performance. B. In the future researchers mention that a larger population should be studied for more accurate results and recording sleep patterns with more than one device could also be beneficial. Implications: The results of this study are important to teachers because cognitive and behavioral actions are directly related to being in school. The more an educator can know about helping a student the better. With scientific proof supporting a student’s need for quality sleep it makes it easier to understand certain behaviors and academic performance, and harder to write a student off that they are doing something on purpose. Understanding this area of development gives educators the best possible opportunity to teach and care for their students. ...
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TabbyK
School: Boston College

here is the paper

Running Head: ARTICLE CRITIQUE

1

Article Critique
Student
Institution Affiliation

ARTICLE CRITIQUE

2

Barry, T. C., Sidoti, L. C., Briggs, M. S., Reiter, R. S., & Lindsey, A. R. ( 2017). Adolescent
social media use and mental health from adolescent and parent perspectives. Journal of
Adolescence, 1-11.

Introduction
A. The researchers investigated adolescent, as well as parent reports regarding the use of
social media, as well as how it relates to psychological adjustment in adolescents. Most
research on the same issue lingers on young adults rather than adolescents who have no
idea of the world without social media in addition to their frequent use of social media.
Developing evidence is varied, an indication that the use of social media among
adolescents is related to negative indicators like anxiety, sleep issues, and lower selfesteem. According to Barry, Sidoti, Briggs, Reiter, & Lindsey, (2017), the study is
important considering the huge number of adoles...

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Anonymous
Tutor went the extra mile to help me with this essay. Citations were a bit shaky but I appreciated how well he handled APA styles and how ok he was to change them even though I didnt specify. Got a B+ which is believable and acceptable.

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