UNIT II STUDY GUIDE
Rooms Division and Food and
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Identify the impact of using current technology in the hospitality industry.
1.1 Discuss the various technology applications used in hotel operations and how they contribute to
guest satisfaction and revenues.
1.2 Summarize the effects technology has on the concept of yield management.
3. Discuss current industry issues in hospitality and tourism, such as domestic and international travel,
government regulations, cost, security, and budget airlines.
3.1 Outline various steps that have been taken to fight underage drinking in restaurants, bars, and
3.2 Describe the factors involved in the sustainable lodging trend.
7. Recommend factors effecting consumer behavior and positive and poor service quality.
7.1 Explain how each division within a hotel should be managed in order to ensure guest
satisfaction and increased hotel revenue.
7.2 Illustrate how to set up a bar or beverage operation to ensure maximum revenue.
7.3 Explain how a successful food and beverage division can be used to increase a hotel’s
revenue and guest satisfaction.
Chapter 3: Room Division Operations
Chapter 4: Food and Beverage Operations
Chapter 5: Beverages
Chapter 3 discusses the effective operation of the hotel rooms division. Hotels can be ranked according to
their level and quality of services provided. Economy, mid-scale, luxury, and resort units derive their pricing
structure based upon the popularity of the services they provide, their perceived quality, and their location. A
visit to a hotel should be perceived as an operation characterized by a bright, clean, and relaxing
environment. The rooms division includes all of those tasks that occur behind the scenes in order to maintain
positive perceptions for the guests. These tasks include the following: keeping the rooms clean and
maintained properly, maintaining reservations and access for guest rooms and services, keeping clean and
fresh laundry available, and ensuring proper operation and maintenance of the room facilities and HVAC. The
guest comfort level is a large part of a quality stay.
The general manager (GM) of a hotel receives several direct reports from managers regarding their specific
areas of the hotel. For example, the rooms division director reports to the GM. The rooms division includes
the front office, reservations, housekeeping, concierge, guest services, security, and communications. As
mentioned previously, the extent of services offered and the perceived level of luxury the hotel provides
require a highly-trained staff and the effective/efficient operations of all the areas within the rooms division in
order to generate the revenues to cover the expenses of operation. The more amenities provided (e.g., fitness
center, swimming pool, tennis court, recreational activities), the higher the cost to the guest, and the higher
level of revenue for the hotel.
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
The front office area provides accommodations information and services to theUNIT
manager (FOM) heads the responsibilities of the office staff, including occupancy
Titlelevels, room availability, and
guest satisfaction. The front office can be described as the “hub or nerve center” of the hotel, since it
generates the initial impression on the guests, and the guests rely upon it throughout their stay. Remember
the effect a sour or grouchy cashier had on you at a store? Did you return?
Housekeeping is a perceived purveyor of cleanliness and courtesy. The training and labor involved
establishes this department as the most demanding and the most increasingly important. The housekeeping
department is an extension of basic home cleaning tasks but multiplied to extreme commercial proportions.
To be truly involved in the management of housekeeping, you must be aware of the main functions, including
cleaning and maintenance; personnel training; requisition of supplies; and paperwork, schedules, and reports.
Additionally, the following eight areas are the responsibility of housekeeping: guest rooms, halls and corridors,
lobby, public rooms/restaurants, offices, stairways, stores/retail areas, and windows. Yes, they do windows!
The reservations department has the ultimate challenge of conveying a virtual “smile” over the phone.
Matching the wants and needs of the guest to the services of the hotel requires strong listening skills, an
awareness of the hotel revenue goals, and a total command of technologies involved in making that happen.
These technology systems include the call accounting system (CAS) and the central reservation system
(CRS). The concept of yield management rules the operations of this sector. Technological advances
continue forward, providing real-time information that facilitates efficiency and delivers a seamless guest
Other sectors of the rooms division are the concierge and/or guest services. Both of these can be referred to
as uniformed services. In some hotels, these uniformed services personnel are managed by a head
concierge. Providing knowledge of the vast network of the area hospitality community along with establishing
first and lasting impressions for the guests’ stay, are tantamount to positive memories and the disarming of
any guest trepidation. Think of these associates as potential Band-Aids—making everything the best or
Food and beverage operations are the focus of Chapter 4. The experiences and perceptions of the food
provided and/or served at a hotel can also make or break the guest’s stay. Consider if you were making and
serving food to your relatives. Would you want it to be the best-ever made? A hotel should provide excellent
quality in the following areas: food and beverages from the kitchen, catering, banquets, restaurants, room
service, minibars, lounges, and bars. The maximization of guest expectations and hotel revenue goals fall
upon the management of the food and beverage director.
The size and volume of the hotel will dictate the extent of food and beverage services. Economy hotels may
provide a free continental breakfast, while a luxury hotel will provide 24-hour room service and several
different restaurant styles from casual to upscale. Think of the offerings as being in a range from IHOP to
Ruth’s Chris Steak House, and relate the cost respectively.
The profitability of the services provided may or may not be related to the size of the unit; however, there are
numerous revenue tracking and percentage formulas that mandate strict guidelines for profits to be realized.
These include food/cost percentage, labor/cost percentage, and food/sales percentage. The creation of an
effective menu planning system; efficient operation of the purchasing, receiving, storage, and requisition
process; and the practical functions of food production and pricing are all players in the profit picture.
Chapter 5 has a hearty relationship to the operations of the food and beverage department. The ultimate
objective of beverage service remains profitability. The planning and organization of the staff and their
adherence to established standards must be emphasized on a daily basis.
A major task of beverage management is identifying market trends. Overall, there has been a gradual decline
in alcohol consumption since 1990, indicative of an increase in drinks that are either non-alcoholic or lighter.
The successful beverage operation in a hotel must meet the needs and desires of its clientele while striving to
be different in order to stand out from its competition. Each operation will serve guests with special
circumstances, desires, and budgets, whether it is a lobby bar, cocktail lounge, nightclub, room service, or
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
The management of beverage services has the challenge of being knowledgeable
alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, including wines, spirits, beers, carbonated
Titlebeverages, coffees, and
teas. Additionally, there are specific trainings required for the sale and service of alcohol to tell when people
are drinking too much and how to manage it.
Beverages can make up 20-30% of total sales in restaurants, making the selling of beverages a profit center
for the hotel if it is done efficiently and is following set standards. Several factors are involved in a profitable
operation, including the pricing structure of each drink, the demand for each drink (according to price), the
contribution margin for each drink to total sales, and the marketing sales mix.
A successful operation will depend largely on the service staff (bartenders) to know their customers and
create a positive service encounter. The ambiance or image of the beverage service area should be
based on something unique or memorable. This could be the most influential part of the guest’s
experience. The use of décor is simply packaging the product for establishing maximum sales volume.
Click here to view the Chapter 3 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Click here to view the Chapter 4 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Click here to view the Chapter 5 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
The following ebook can be found in the CSU Online Library in the ebrary database:
Dev, C. S. (2012). Hospitality branding. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
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