Bureau Labor of Statistics Discussion

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This is a Discussion Board Questions:

Discussion Board Question 1:Bureau of Labor Statistics

The United States Department of Labor compiles massive amounts of data and specifically, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) makes this data available to the public. The ability to review quantitative data or policies and describe them to coworkers is an essential trait to develop. Here, you will delve into the BLS and research an aspect of occupational data and relate it in your own words to your classmates; specifically emphasize an important aspect of the data you found.

For those of you with last names beginning with a letter from A to L, research data on the BLS website on machine, pressure, or fall hazards (material from the previous Unit). You can look into death statistics from an entire year, focus on a specific area in the country, choose just one of these and provide an in-depth description, or something else you find interesting around these topics. In your post, discuss whether these statistics are surprising to you, are these values increasing from previous years? or provide other thoughts you have while reviewing the information.

For those of you with last names beginning with a letter from M to Z, research data on the BLS website on electrical hazards or temperature extremes. Again, you can look into death statistics from an entire year, focus on a specific area in the country, choose just one of these and provide an in-depth description, or something else you find interesting around these topics . In your post, discuss whether these statistics are surprising to you, are these values increasing from previous years? or provide other thoughts you have while reviewing the information.

In at least one of your replies, make sure to read and ask questions on posts on the topic you did not cover.

Bureau of Labor Statistics main website http://www.bls.gov/home.htm.

Discussion Board Question 2: OSHA and Extreme Temperature Hazards

As written, the wording of OSHA laws can be tough to decipher. If interpreted incorrectly, it can cost you money in fines and more importantly, loss of life or injuries to workers. OSHA is there to help you interpret the law and will respond to requests for clarification. In this DB, go to the OSHA Standard Interpretations web page and search for a heat or cold related interpretation note. Your search words could be 'heat stress', 'cold', or search for another word or phrase.

Choose one interpretation letter applicable to extreme temperature hazards and describe the question and answer in your own words. Then, compare the interpretation with the standard as written and discuss how easy it is to understand. Would you have had a similar question or do you have new questions after reading the standard? (Do not choose a letter reviewed by a classmate, but extend the discussion and add new information.) Provide the link to your interpretation letter.

  • The Standard Number will be presented near the top of the page on the interpretation letter. Click on the standard number (for example 1904.7) and then click the document type 'Regulations (Standards-29CFR) to view the standard as written. Alternatively, you can search for the standard in the search box at the top right of the page.OSHA Standard Interpretations web page

https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owasrch.search_form?p_doc_type=INTERPRETATIONS&p_toc_level=1&p_keyvalue=Standard_Number&p_status=CURRENT

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ENV315 – GENERAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH UNIT 5 LECTURE NOTES HAZARDS OF TEMPERATURE EXTREMES Hazards of Temperature Prevention Important thermal-related terms include: PPE for Cold Environments When working in a cold environment, provide the right PPE for the • Conduction • Environmental heat conditions that exist. • Convection • Radiant heat PPE For Cold Environments Could Include: • Face protection • Head protection • Ear protection • Wind vests Heat Stress Defined • Wind-blocking jackets • Over-suits Heat stress is the net load to which a worker may be exposed from the combined contributions of: • Warming vests • Hand warmers • Cold-insulated footwear • Gloves • Slip-resistant footwear • Ice cleats • Wind-and-water-insulated clothing • Glare protection • Metabolic heat • Metabolic cost of work • Environmental factors • Clothing requirements • Foot warmers In selecting PPE for cold environments, it is advisable to ask employees to participate. This can provide two benefits: 1. Employees are more likely to wear PPE they picked out (employees are less likely to wear PPE they do not like). 2. The PPE is more likely to fit properly if employees participate in its selection (poor fit is a main reason employees do not wear PPE when they should). OSHA Criteria for Determining the Allowable Work Periods for Employees who are not Acclimatized Key Heat Stress Concepts Key heat stress concepts are: • Heat exhaustion • Heat syncope • Heat cramps • Heat rash The Goal in Cold Stress The goal in protecting employees from cold stress is to prevent the deep body temperature from falling below 37°C (98.6°F). Windchill Factor Wind or air movement causes the body to lose heat more rapidly and therefore to sense “coldness” beyond what the thermometer registers. This phenomenon is known as the windchill factor. This should be considered when planning work schedules. • Proper work practices • Engineering and administrative controls Preventing Cold Stress Cold stress can be prevented by applying the following strategies: • Medical screening and supervision • Orientation and training page 1/2 Effect of Wind on the Effective Temperature Hypothermia The most common form of cold stress is hypothermia. page 2/2 Severity of Chemical Burns The severity of chemical burns depends on: • The corrosive capability of the chemical • Concentration and temperature of the chemical • Duration of contact The Body’s Response to Reducing its Core Temperature Chemical “Burns” from Selected Common Chemicals Classifying Burns The most widely used method of classifying burns is by degree: first-, second-, and third-degree burns. The amount of surface area covered by burns is expressed as a percentage of Body Surface Area (BSA). Burns are also classified as: • Minor • Moderate • Critical Hazards of Chemical Burns The primary hazards associated with chemical burns beyond the damage to the body tissue are: • Infection • Fluid loss • Shock The most important first aid for chemical burns is immediate and continual flushing with water. page 3/2 ENV315 – GENERAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH UNIT 5 LECTURE NOTES Sources of Electrical Hazards The major causes of electrical shock are: • Contact with a bare wire carrying current • Electrical equipment that has not been properly grounded • Working with electrical equipment on damp floors or other sources of water • Static electricity discharge • Using metal ladders to work on electrical equipment • Working on electrical equipment without ensuring that the power has been shut off • Lightning strikes Types of Electrical Hazards • Electrostatic hazards • Arcs and sparks hazards • Combustible and explosive materials • Lightning hazards • Improper wiring • Insulation failure • Equipment failure • Hazardous locations for electrical equipment Sources of Electrostatic Hazards Electric Shocks can be Fatal • Briskly rubbing a nonconductive material over a stationary surface • Moving large sheets of plastic which may discharge sparks Detection of Electrical Hazards • The explosion of organic and metallic dusts, which have occurred from static build-up in farm grain silos and mine shafts Several items of test equipment can be used to verify electrical equipment safety: • Conveyor belts • A circuit tester • Vehicle tires rolling across a road surface • A receptacle wiring tester • Friction between a flowing liquid and a solid surface • Infrared thermal imaging Grounding Grounding of electrical equipment is the primary method of reducing electrical hazards. This is achieved when one conductor of the circuit is connected to the earth. The purposes of grounding are: • To safeguard people from electrical shocks • To reduce the probability of a fire • To protect equipment from damage page 1/4 Typical Three-wire Circuit Equipment RequiringGrounding or Double Insulation • Portable electric tools such as drills and saws • Communication receivers and transmitters • Electrical equipment in damp locations • Television antenna towers • Electrical equipment inside flammable liquid storage areas • Electric equipment operated with over 150 volts Primary Causes of Electrocution on the Job The primary cause of electrocution on the job is accidental contact with internal wiring, buried electrical cable, or overhead power lines by any of the following: • Cranes • Scaffolds • Booms • Ladders • Hoists • Trucks • Riggings • Vehicles Current Effects on the Human Body (60-cycle AC current) Hazardous Electrical Equipment Location Categories Bonding Defined Bonding is the process used to connect two pieces of equipment by a conductor in order to reduce potential voltage differences between the equipment, reducing the possibility of sparking. page 2/4 Handling Equipment Exposed to Water The following factors often cause electrical hazards when equipment is exposed to water: • Floods • Firefighting • Tropical storms • Hurricanes • Other natural calamities Strategies for Establishing an Effective Electrical Safety Program Ensure compliance with existing OSHA regulations. Provide all workers with adequate training in the identification and control of hazards associated with electrical energy in the workplace. Provide additional specialized training for those working with or around exposed components of electric circuits. Develop and implement procedures to control hazardous electrical energy that include lockout and tagout procedures, and ensure compliance with these procedures. Methods of Reducing Electrical Hazards Provide testing or detection equipment. Methods of reducing electrical hazards include the following: Conduct safety meetings. • Electrical system grounding • Bonding • Humidification Conduct scheduled and unscheduled inspections. Train workers to conduct job site inspections. • Iconizers Ensure that proper personal protective equipment is available and worn. • Fuses Conduct job hazard analyses. • Double insulation Identify potential hazards and establish appropriate safety interventions. • Interlocks OSHA Standards Relating to Design of Electrical Systems • 1910.302 Electrical utilization systems • 1910.303 General requirements • 1910.304 Wiring design and protection • 1910.305 Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use • 1910.306 Specific-purpose equipment and installations • 1910.307 Hazardous (classified) locations Rules for Extension Cords Never use an extension cord for long periods of time (more than a few weeks) even if it appears to be in good condition. Never cover extension cords by rugs or carpet in an attempt to prevent tripping; this can hide shorts or bare spots in the cord that can set the rug on fire. Never just unplug an extension cord that feels hot in order to let it cool down; get rid of it. (Extension cords that get hot have reached the end of their period of safe usage.) • 1910.308 Special systems Avoid using extruded-type cords that have only one layer of insulation. OSHA StandardsRelating to Work Practices Avoiding Arc Flash Injuries • 1910.331 Scope The best and most obvious way to prevent arc flash injuries is to deenergize the electrical equipment in question and lock or tag it out before beginning maintenance or service work on it. • 1910.332 Training • 1910.333 Selection and use of work practices • 1910.334 Use of equipment • 1910.335 Safeguards for personal protection When this is not possible: Perform a flash hazard analysis in accordance with NFPA 70E, Article 130.3 or use Table 130.7©(9){a} {Hazard/Risk Category Classifications} to identify the hazard/risk category. Establish a flash protection boundary around the equipment in question in accordance with NFPA 70E. Select the PPE that will be worn by the worker(s) who will perform the tasks in question on the energized equipment from Table 130.7. Equipment Requiring Grounding or Double Insulation page 3/4 Personal Protective Equipment When Performing Tasks on Energized Equipment Cotton Underwear Fire-resistant pants and shirt Fire-resistant coverall Lightning Hazard Control Summary of Safety Precautions for Electrical Hazards page 4/4 ...
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